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Moabite, Hebrew, Phoenician, Aramaic 
Nabataean, Palmyrene, Jewish 




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G. A. C. 

'AAA* ofwos 6 cos 810, rr)v rutv Tr\avrjOevT<av crwn/piav ^vf(r\TO 8ia 
6cpaTrev@fjvai, 81' <av ol e(aOcv Sat/xovas fOepdvevov, 

avra* iva aurous Kara /UK/OOV T^S (runy^cias aTrooTracras 
TT)V v\j/v)\.r]v a-ydyrj <^i\ocro0tav. 

S. CHRYSOSTOM I'M Matth. 3. 








THE present work took shape some years ago 
as an attempt to provide a text-book for students 
who offer the subject of Semitic Epigraphy in the 
Honour School of Oriental Studies at Oxford. The 
difficulty of obtaining access to inscriptions published 
in foreign journals, the costliness of the Corpus 
Inscriptionum Semiticarum and other works, made 
it desirable to prepare a collection which might bring 
the inscriptions conveniently within the reach of 
students ; the texts set for the Schools were chosen 
to start with, and a good many more were added. 
The claims of other work, however, compelled me 
to lay aside my task for several years. Meanwhile, 
there appeared in 1898 Lidzbarski's Handbuch der 
nordsemitischen Epigraphik, which for the first time 
has dealt with the whole subject in a systematic 
manner. I wish to acknowledge here, with emphasis 
and gratitude, my obligations to the Handbuch ; the 
extent of them will appear in the following pages. 
Lidzbarski's work has done much to supply the want 
which first induced me to prepare this volume ; it has 
not, however, led me to alter my original design. 
I have published the texts with translations and notes ; 
Lidzbarski, along with much valuable introductory 
matter, gives the texts, a glossary, and an atlas of 
facsimiles. This last it has not been possible to attach 
to my collection; within the limits laid down by the 

viii Preface 

Delegates of the Press, I have only been able to give 
a set of representative facsimiles and tables of alphabets, 
which, while not attempting to meet all requirements, 
will at least be sufficient to familiarize the student with 
the characteristic features of the different scripts. 

Though English scholars have not neglected the 
study of Semitic Epigraphy either in their academic 
teaching or in their published writings the names of 
the late Professors William Wright and Robertson 
Smith will occur to the reader in this connexion, while 
to many students of the younger generation Dr. Driver's 
pages in Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Books of 
Samuel served as their first and stimulating introduction 
to the subject yet the bulk of scientific work within 
recent years has been done by the scholars of France 
and Germany. The enterprise of the Academic des 
Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, and the enlightened 
policy of the French Government, have secured the 
majority of the inscriptions for the Louvre ; hence it is 
that from Paris, in a manner possible nowhere else, 
the great Corpus is being issued, a work with which 
the eminent names of Renan, de Vogii, Derenbourg, 
Halevy, Berger, Clermont-Ganneau, will always be 
associated. To Paris belongs the unique distinction 
of having recognized the study of oriental archaeology 
and epigraphy by the foundation of a professorship in 
the College de France, now held by M. Clermont- 
Ganneau, to whose original and keen researches the 
present work is indebted from beginning to end. For 
years past French scholars have been excavating and 
classifying the remains of Punic antiquity in the French 
colonies of N. Africa ; in the Holy Land much excellent 

Preface ix 

work is being done by the Dominican convent of 
St. 6tienne at Jerusalem, an ' ecole pratique d'e"tudes 
bibliques,' under the accomplished direction of Pere 

In Germany the efforts of scholars have been devoted 
rather to the critical and grammatical examination of 
the documents than to the discovery of fresh material. 
For the Phoenician language the treatises of Schroder 
and Stade, though somewhat out of date, contain 
much that is of permanent value ; on the Nabataean, 
Palrn^mie,_and_other Aramaic dialects Noldeke_has 
written with unimpeachable authority ; on points of 
grammar and exegesis the names of G. Hoffmann, 
Landau, D. H. Mtiller, Sachau, the two Mordtmanns, 
Reckendorf, Winckler (always interesting, if seldom 
convincing) will be of frequent occurrence in the follow- 
ing pages. But German scholars have also been 
engaged in the discovery of new material, especially in 
N. Arabia and N. Syria. Thanks to the courage and 
skill of the veteran epigraphist Julius Euting, we now 
possess satisfactory copies of the Nabataean inscriptions 
in the Hejaz and the Sinaitic peninsula; the Orient- 
Comit of Berlin has unearthed the Old Aramaic 
inscriptions of Zenjirli, the most important discovery 
since the finding of the Moabite Stone ; quite recently 
Littmann has published the results of his exploration 
of the Safa inscriptions, NE. of Jebel ed-Druz 1 . 

In the present work many of the inscriptions are, of 
necessity, the classical and familiar ones ; many also 
are new ; most of them now appear in English for the 

1 These inscriptions have also been investigated lately by Dussand and Maeler, 
and published in their volume Voyage arch&l. au Safd etc., 

x Preface 

first time. I have tried to bring the collection up to 
date as far as possible, and in one way or another 
to print the most important inscriptions which have 
been discovered in the last five or ten years. 

My aim throughout has been not to propose novel 
interpretations or reconstructions of my own, but rather 
to give, after careful study of the various authorities 
on the subject, what seemed to be the most probable 
verdict on the issues raised, and also to bring together 
the chief matters of importance bearing on the texts. 
The frequency with which the words 'probably' and 
'possibly' appear may, perhaps, be somewhat of a 
disappointment to the reader, as indicating an attitude 
of caution rather than of courage ; but it is well to be 
reminded how seldom we can speak with positiveness 
on questions of grammar and interpretation where the 
material is so limited and where there is no con- 
temporary literature to shed light upon the monuments. 
At the same time our study ought to result in doing 
something to reduce the limits of the possible, and 
discover, as precisely as we can, the extent of the 

To those who have helped me in the production of 
my book I have some special acknowledgements to 
make. From the Delegates of the Press I have 
received most generous treatment in the matter of 
printing. To the courtesy of the Marquis de Vogue, 
President of the Commission of the C. I. S., I owe 
permission to reproduce Plates i and iii from the 
Corpus, and Plate viii from his own La Syrie Centrale. 
I am indebted to Dr. Euting for Plates iv and vii, the 
latter from his Nabataische Inschriften ; to M. Heuzey 

Preface xi 

of the Louvre, for squeezes of the Nrab inscriptions, 
Plates v and vi ; to Dr. Budge of the British Museum, 
for facilities of access to the stones and seals under his 
charge ; to Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co. 
for the use of the blocks from Madden's Coins of the 
Jews. Mr. G. F. Hill of the British Museum has 
taken much trouble to help me with the coins, and 
has procured for me, by the courtesy of M. Babelon, 
casts of specimens in the Bibliotheque Nationale. 
M. Clermont-Ganneau, to whose published writings 
my book owes so much, has more than once given me 
the benefit of his opinion and advice. My former 
colleague, Mr. P. V. M. Benecke, Fellow and Tutor of 
Magdalen College, has verified and enriched several 
of my references to Greek and Latin authors. Above 
all, my grateful thanks are due to Dr. Driver for his 
constant encouragement. He is always ready to place 
his stores of knowledge at the service of his friends ; 
and in this case he has made time, in the midst of his 
own work, to read my book in proof, and to offer 
criticisms and suggestions which have done much to 
improve it. 


Eastertide, 1903. 



PREFACE ....... vii 

INTRODUCTION ...... xvii 




1. The Moabite Stone ...... I 


2. Siloam I ...... *5 


3. Byblus ........ 18 

Additional note i. The fern. sing, ending in 

Phoenician ...... 25 

Additional note ii. The forms of the de- 

monstr. pron ....... 26 

4. Sidon: Tabnith ...... 26 

5. Sidon : Eshmun-'azar ..... 30 

Additional note. The suffix of 3 plur. in 

Phoenician ...... 39 

6. Sidon ........ 40 

7. Sidon ........ 4 2 

8. Tyre ........ 43 

9. Umm-el-'Awamid ...... 44 

10. Ma'sub ........ 48 


11. Ba'al Lebanon ...... 5 2 

12-22. Kition . ....... 55 

23-27. Idalion ........ 73 

28. Lamax Lapethos . . . . . .80 

29. Larnax Lapethos 2 or Narnaka . . . 82 

30. Tamassos . . ..... 88 


31. Abydos ........ 9 


32-35. Athens, Piraeus ...... 93 

xiv Contents 



36, 37. Malta . 102 

38. Malta (Gaulus) 105 


39. Caralis (Cagliari) 108 

40. Pauli Gerrei (Santuiaci) 109 

41. Nora (Pula) no 


42. Marseilles 112 

North Africa 

43-50. Carthage 123 

51. Cirta (Constantine) . . . . . . 137 

52. Thugga 138 


53, 54. Tunis .141 


55. Altiburus (Meddina) 144 

56. Jol (Shershel i) 147 

57. Jol (Shershel 2) 148 

58. Gelma 150 

69. Maktar 150 


60. Sulci 158 

North Syria 

61. Zenjirli: Hadad 159 

62. Zenjirli: Panammu 171 

63. Zenjirli: Bar-rekub 180 

Additional note on the dialect of the Zenjirli 

inscriptions 184 

64. Nerab I 186 

65. Nerab 2 189 


66. Nineveh 192 

Contents xv 

Asia Minor 


67. Abydos 193 

68. Cilicia 194 


60, 70. T&na 195 


71, 72. Memphis 200 

73. 74. Elephantina 202 

75. The Carpentras Stele 205 

76. Saqqara : Papyri Blacassiani . 206 

77. Papyrus Luparensis 210 


North Arabia 

78. El-'Ola 214 

79-93. El-Hejra 217 

94. Petra I "241 

95. Petra 2. El-Mer 244 


96. Medeba 247 


97. Dume'r 249 


98. Hebran 252 

99. Salhad 252 

100. Bostra 253 

101. Imtan 254 


102. Puteoli 256 


103-109 "259 


110-132. Honorary Inscriptions 265 

133-14O. Votive Inscriptions . . . . .295 

141-146. Sepulchral Inscriptions 306 

147. Tariff 313 




148 A. Bene" Hezir 
B. Kefr Bir'im 



149 A. Aramaic .... 

B. Phoenician 

C. Jewish .... 


INDEX I : North-Semitic 

INDEX II: Arabic .... 

INDEX III: Syriac .... 

INDEX IV : Greek .... 

INDEX V : Biblical References 

INDEX VI : General 











I Phoenician ; no. 5 
II Phoenician ; no. 21 

III Phoenician: Punic; no. 43 

IV Phoenician : Neo-Punic ; no. 56 
V Aramaic ; no. 64 

VI Aramaic ; no. 65 
VII Nabataean; no. 86 
VIII Palmyrene; no. 121 

IX Cilician and Phoenician Coins ; no. 149 A, B 
X Jewish Coins ; no. 149 C 
XI Seals and Gems ; no. 150 
XII-XIV Tables of Alphabets 

V At end 


THE inscriptions which make up the present collection 
are grouped under the common title of North-Semitic to 
distinguish them from the South-Semitic, or Sabaean and 
Himyaritic, on the one hand, and from the Babylonian 
and Assyrian on the other. Geographically the area of this 
North-Semitic group extends from N. Syria to N. Arabia ; 
on the East it is bounded by the Syrian desert ; on the West 
it reaches into Asia Minor, Egypt, N. Africa, and the chief 
cities on the shores and islands of the Mediterranean. The 
languages in which the inscriptions are written belong to what 
may be called for convenience the Central, as distinguished 
from the Northern and Southern, division of the Semitic 
tongues 1 . This Central division is sub-divided into two 
main classes: i the Canaanite, which includes the Moabite, 
Hebrew, and Phoenician inscriptions, 9th cent. B.C.-3rd cent. 
A.D. and later; ii the Aramaic, represented by (a) the Old 
Aramaic inscriptions from Assyria, Babylonia, Asia Minor, 
and N. Syria, 8th~4th cent. B.C., (b) the Egyptian Aramaic, 
5th~3rd cent. B.C., (c] the Nabataean and Palmyrene Aramaic, 
ist cent. B. c.~3rd cent. A.D., a section to which we may 
assign the inscriptions from Te'ma as the earliest specimens 
(5th cent. B.C.) and the Sinaitic as the latest (ist~5th cent. A.D.). 
Some of these dialects are marked by peculiarities which, 
owing to local conditions, indicate a certain amount of over- 
lapping from one class or division into another : thus the Old 
Aramaic spoken in the N. Syrian kingdoms of Ya'di and 

1 The Semitic languages are grouped in various ways ; thus Wright, Cogip. Gr. 
12 ff., divides them into Northern i.e. Assyrian, Central i.e. Aramaic, Western 
i. e. Canaanite, Southern i. e. Arabic and Ethiopic. Zimmern, Vergl. Gr. 4 f., 
proposes a broader scheme, East-Semitic, i. e. Babylonian, Assyrian, and West- 
Semitic, i.e. Aramaic, Canaanite, Arabic, Ethiopic. The latter is preferred by 
Konig, Hebraisch . Semitisch 123 f., on historical grounds, as suggesting the 
advance and separation of the Semitic tribes frbm their original home in E. 
Babylonia. The divisions given above are clearer for the present purpose. 

xviii Introduction 

Sam'al betrays several points of affinity to the Canaanite 
class ; the Nabataean dialect, again, used for purposes of 
writing and commerce by the inhabitants of N. Arabia who 
were Arabs by race and spoke Arabic, was naturally much 
influenced by the language used in common speech, as appears 
especially in the forms of proper names ; to a less degree the 
dialect of Palmyra, where the population was largely Arab, 
came under the same influence. 

The chief interest of these inscriptions lies, of course, in the 
fact that they have preserved specimens of the North-Semitic 
dialects which we should otherwise know only from scattered 
allusions or by a process of inference very imperfect at the 
best. With the exception of the Hebrew and Aramaic 
writings of the Old Testament, there is no contemporary 
literature written in any of these languages. No fragments 
of the mythologies and histories said to have been composed 
in Phoenician by native writers have come down to us in the 
original ; a few third- or fourth-hand extracts are preserved 
in Greek ; but for the most part these Phoenician authors are 
names and nothing more 1 . The inscriptions, therefore, possess 

1 A cosmogony of Sidonian origin is preserved by Damascius de Primis Principiis 
125, who borrowed it from the Greek of Eudemus, a pupil of Aristotle, and gave it 
a neo-Platonic interpretation. This was probably the work (ri irtpl TUIV drofjicav 
$67(10) which is ascribed bj^Strabo>(p. 645 ed. Mull.) to a Sidonian philosopher 
Mochus, who lived irp& rwv Tpcoutwv -xpovcuv; his works, together with those of 
Theodotus and Hypsicrates, are said to have been translated into Greek by 
a certain Laetus (Fr. Hist. Gr. iv 437). Mochus, along with Hestaeus and the 
Egyptian Hieronymus, ot ra ^OLTIKLXO. ffwra^a^voi^is mentioned by Jos. Ant. i 
3 9. Another cosmogony is described^ by ^hilo of gyfcTBs (temp. Hadrian), who 
claims to have derived his traditions from an ancient sage Sanchuniathon (see 
pp. 100. 104 n. 2 ref.). Philo probably drew his material from various sources, 
and dignified it with an ancient name ; see Baudissin Stud. z. semit. Religionsgesch. 
i 1-46. Native histories written by Phoenicians are cited by(JosephuT? (a) the 
chronicles of Tyre transl. by Menander of Ephesus (Fr. Hist. Gr. iv 445 ff.) 
b fj.(Ta<l>paaas airb rijs Qoivixoiv 5ia\iKTov (Is rr)v 'E\\t]ViKr)v <ponrrjv Ant. viii 5 3. 
ix 14 2, c. Ap. i 1 8 ; () a list of kings from NebuchadnezzaLlO-Cyrus, for which 
he quotes rds raiv Qoiviitcav dvaypa<(>as c. Ap. i 21 ; (f) for the siege of Tyre by 
Nebnch. he gives as his authority Philostratos tv roTs 'Ivdixats avrov nal QOIVIKIKCUS 
Iffropiais Ant. x 11 I, c. Ap. i 20 ; (d) for the history of Hiram i he refers to the 
Phoen. narrative of Dios (Fr. Hist. Gr. iv 397 ff.) iv rats irtpl &otviican> Icrroplais 
c. Ap. i 17, Ant. viii 5 3. The sources (i>) and (</) are doubtless dependent upon 
Menander ; it is probable that Jos. derived all these extracts from the work of 
Alexander Polyhistor (Fr. Hist. Gr. iii 206 ff.). See further Meyer Ency. Bibl. 
3751 ff- 

Introduction xix 

all the greater value ; and when they are brought into relation 
with the languages of the Old Testament their interest is 
increased. Thus comparing Phoenician with Hebrew we 
notice at once that the resemblance is exceedingly close, both 
in grammatical forms and in vocabulary; in some respects 
Phoenician has preserved older features (e.g. the fem. in n, 
the absence of vowcHetters), others are later (e.g. fJV = fro, 
PN God], others again are peculiar to this dialect (e.g. the 
3 mas, suff. in \ K, ttJ, the accus. sign ITK, the rel.jPK, the Hif. 
in '), many words poetic or rare in Hebrew are common in 
Phoenician (see p. 23) ; these phenomena point to the con- 
clusion that Phoenician and Hebrew are independent offshoots 
of a common ancestor, which can be none other than the 
ancient Canaanite, of which a few words have survived in the 
Canaanite glosses (i5th cent. B.C.) to the Tell-el-Amarna 
letters 1 . It must be remembered, however, that the material 
is insufficient for a complete comparison 2 ; and further, with 
the exception of 11, almost all the Phoenician inscriptions are 
subsequent to the 6th cent. B.C.. the majority belong to the 
4th cent, and later, by which time the language had probably 
undergone a certain amount of decay. The evidence of the 
Aramaic inscriptions is specially valuable because it proves 
the wide extent to which Aramaic was used in the Assyrian, 
Babylonian, and Persian empires (cf. Is. 36 u), and because 
it exhibits the language at an earlier stage than the literary 
dialects. In the Nabataean and Palmyrene inscriptions we 
find a dialect which is nearly related to the Western or 
Palestinian Aramaic of the Old Testament and of the Targums 
of Onkelos and Jonathan. The dates of the Old Testament 
Aramaic cannot in all cases be determined ; parts of Ezra are 
probably as early as the 4th cent. B. c., Daniel was written in 
the 2nd cent. B.C. ; the inscriptions prove that this particular 
type of Aramaic was used in the countries bordering upon 
Palestine down to the 3rd cent. A.D. 3 

1 The words are given in the vocabulary of Winckler's edition ; see also KA T 3 
652 f. 

8 The fullest comparison is still that of Stade, Erneute Priifung des zwischen 
dem Phonicischen u. Hebraischen bestehenden Verwandtschaftsgrades in Morg. 
Forsck. (1875) 169-232. 

3 Driver Introduction* 502 ff. 


xx Introduction 

All the inscriptions here collected are written in varieties 
of the same alphabet, commonly called the Phoenician, the 
archetype of Greek and ultimately of all Western writing 1 . 
At the earliest stage known to us the characters are very 
much alike, both in the Canaanite and in the Aramaic groups ; 
in the subsequent stages each followed a process of modifica- 
tion on diverging lines. Thus Phoenician, after leaving the 
mother-country, is seen to be acquiring a more cursive and 
flowing style on the stones from Cyprus and Attica; the 
tendency becomes more strongly marked at the Punic stage ; 
until in Neo-Punic the writing, and the language too, reached 
their most degenerate form and went no further, as though 
the possibilities of both were exhausted. The modifications 
of the old Hebrew writing down to the 5th or 4th cents. B.C. 
cannot, for lack of material, be traced in much detail ; so far 
as we know there seems to have been little change of any 
marked kind. The only Hebrew inscription of considerable 
length earlier than the Exile is the one found at Siloam (2) ; 
besides this, specimens of the old Hebrew writing are furnished 
only by the few words engraved upon seals (150 6-8) and 
stamped upon fragments of pottery 2 . Generations after the 
old Hebrew writing had fallen out of use it was revived, for 
political reasons, in characters which closely resemble those 
of the Siloam inscription and the legends on seals and pottery, 
upon the Jewish coins (149 C). The ancient writing was 
retained by the Samaritans when the Jews in general had 
taken to the Aramaic letters, and in an elaborated form the 
Samaritans use it still. The process by which the archaic 
Hebrew arrived at the modern square 

1 The various speculations on the origin of the Phoen. alphabet are summarized 
by Thatcher, art. Phoenicia DB iii. 

2 The recent excavations at Tell ZakariyS and Tell es-Safi, SW. of Jerusalem, 
conducted by Messrs. Bliss and Macalister, have produced some interesting jar- 
handles stamped with pan l^o 1 ?, roiw "|W>, nu.'[?-ia] "pvh; between the words is 
the figure of a winged scarab. These were factory-marks ; ~p^ belonging to the 
king probably signifies that the vessel came from the royal potteries, or perhaps 
that it came up to the official standard of capacity ; pan &c. that it was made at 
Hebron, Sokoh &c. The other potsherds are marked with what are probably 
private seals, e.g. Mn my 1 ?, ypo . . ':ES ; a seal is engraved toirp TiDi 1 ?; the names 
are all written in two lines. See PEFQS 1899 and 1900; Cl.-Gan. Rec. iv i ; 
Lidzb. Eph. i 54 ff. 178 ff. 

Introduction xxi 

traced in the development, not of the Hebrew t frut of the 
Aramaicalphabet ; and the reason is that the latter was 
adoptecTby the Jews after the Exile along with the use of the 
Aramaic language. The stages in this development may be 
followed in the Tables of the Aramaic Alphabets, Plates xiii 
and xiv ; the most significant will be found in the Egyptian 
Aramaic and the Palmyrene. From this last it is but a few 
steps further to the square characters which appear in the 
Jewish inscriptions (e. g. 148 A and B), and in which the MSS. 
of the Old Testament are written l . 

Besides their value as ^specimens of language, aqd writinc^ 
the North-Semitic inscriptions possess considerable importance 
for the historian. With the exception of the Moabite Stone, 
the Zenjirli inscriptions, and two or three others, their im- 
portance is rather incidental than primary ; a few of them are 
dedicated to or by historical personages, a great many are 
dated by the reigns of kings or the eras of cities, and thus 
enable us to piece history together. The inscriptions cover 
a long period, more than a thousand years, from the 9th 
cent. B.C. to the 3rd cent A.D. ; and in the course of it the 
history which they record is not, as a rule, the history of 
great events or of striking figures in the drama, but the 
history of every-day life, its business, its honours, its religion, 
its commemoration of the dead. These monuments of ancient 
civilization have a very human interest which gives to the 
study of them an unexpected and refreshing zest. But when 
we turn to them for information on such subjects as the 
institutions or organizations of public life we are apt to be 
disappointed. For example, the little that can be gathered 
from the inscriptions as to the constitution of Carthage is put 
together on pp. 115 f., but it adds practically nothing to what 
we learn from Greek and Latin writers. The North-Semitic 
races possessed none of that genius for civic order, or for 
administration on a large scale, which made the Athenians so 
careful to inscribe their public documents ' on a pillar of stone,' 
and the Romans to plant the memorials of their government 
in every part of the empire. It is only when these races 

1 For details see Index vi under Letters, Driver Samuel ix-xxix, Lidzbarski 
Eph. i 109 ff. and Jewish Encycl., art. Alphabet. 

xxii Introduction 

come under the influence of Greek and Roman institutions 
that we are able to glean a little about their public life. The 
inscriptions reveal the fact that Palmyra was organized on 
the model of a Greek municipality; the great Tariff was 
dictated by Roman common-sense and love of order; to 
some extent Hellenic ideas of administration had penetrated 
into the Nabataean kingdom, for we hear of strategoi, eparchs, 
and chiliarchs ; the Neo-Punic colonies in N. Africa had 
borrowed, as it seems, some institutions of municipal life from 
their Roman over-lords. 

Lastly, the inscriptions have much to tell us about the 
religious customs and ideas of the people who wrote them. 
Some of these ideas are the common property of Semitic 
religion ; a good many of them, especially those connected 
with the relation of the god to his worshippers, and with 
burial and the condition of the dead, illustrate in an interesting 
way the ideas of the Old Testament. But again it must not 
be forgotten that most of the monuments belong to a period 
not of religious freshness and simplicity but of religious 
decline. The less attractive features of North-Semitic religion 
may be gathered from Greek and Latin authors; the in- 
scriptions tell us little of them ; but a broad comparison 
between this and the religion of the Old Testament shows 
clearly enough the depths and heights which it was possible 
for different peoples to reach who were bound closely together 
by race, by neighbourhood, and by a considerable stock of 
common ideas. It is the difference which polytheism and 
monotheism work out in their results. Neverthejess^in the 
later periods we can trace, however faintly, something like 
a reaction from the prevailing polytheism in the worship of 
Balal of Heaven among the Phoenicians, and of the unnamed 
god ' whose name is .blessed for ever ' among the Aramaeans 
of Palmyra (pp. 45, 296 ff.) ; and out of the common stock of 
religious ideas there were some which did not altogether lie 
outside of the scheme of Divine revelation, and were capable 
of being adopted into the higher faith. 


A lior. Forsch. 






Cl.-Gan. Et. 

Cl.-Gan. Rec. 


Dalman Gr. 


Del. Assyr, HWB 

Ency. Bill 


Eut. Carth. 

Eut. Sin. 

Fr. Hist. Gr. 

Gesenius, or ~| 

Ges.-Kautzsch J 




Konig Lehrgeb. 
Konig Syntax 
Lidzb. ; 

1 = 

M. or Michel : 

Morg. Forsch. 



PA. orPers.Ach. 


Winckler Altorientalische Forschungen. 

Biblical Aramaic. 

Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum. 

Corpus Inscriptionum. Graecarum. 

Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. 

Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum. 

Clermont-Ganneau Etudes cTarchtologie orientale. 

Clermont-Ganneau Recueil d 1 arche'ologie orientale. 

Schrader Cuneiform Inscriptions and the O.T. 

Dalman Gram, des Jiidisch-Paldstinischen Ara- 


Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible. 
Delitzsch Assyrisches Handworterbuch. 
Encyclopaedia Biblica. 
Euting Nabatdische Inschriften. 
Euting Sammlung der carthagischen Inschriften. 
Euting Sinaiiische Inschriften. 
Miiller Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum. 
Gesenius-Kautzsch Hebrew Grammar, transl. by 

A. E. Cowley. 
Journal Asiatique. 

.Die Keilinschriflen und das Alte Testament*. 
Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek. 
Konig Lehrgebdude der Hebr. Sprache. 
Konig Syntax der Hebr. Sprache. 
Lidzbarski Handbuch der Nordsemitischen Epi- 


Lidzbarski Ephemerisfur Semitische Epigraphik i. 
Michel Recueil d' Inscriptions Grecques. 
Morgenldndische Forschungen. 
Levy Neuhebrdisches u. Chalddisches Wb'rterbuch. 

Babelon Les Perses Ache'me'nides. 
Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement. 

xxiv List of Principal Abbreviations 

RB Revue Biblique. 

Re'p^ = Repertoire d" Epigraphie S/mitique. 

RS =Babelon Rots de Syrie. 

SBBA = Sitzungsberichle der Berliner Akademie. 

Schroder = Schroder Die Phonizische Sprache. 

Spic. Syr. =Cureton Spicilegium Syriacum. 

Vog. =de Vogue" La Syrie Centrale. 

Wadd. = Waddington Inscriptions Grecques et Latines de la 


ZA =-Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie. 

ZA TW Zeitschriftfur die alt-test. Wissenschaft. 

ZDMG =Zeitschrifl der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Ge- 


ZDP V =Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palastina- Vereins. 

On the analogy of the familiar abbreviations ' and 'un, the 
stroke ' is used to mark shortened forms; thus 'n denotes a word 
beginning with H; n' a word ending in n. 

A-C */ey. '****! *ic Ost> . ^ . 


^ C ---^-*~^ep- Z--7.i. 4j2.. eft / 3 

1. The Moabite^ Stone. Circ. 8503.0. Louvre 7 . M^ 





jrrp-riK 10 

12 J}< 

i 3 Jte* 3n 


. . vrraai i j . . vpp]a . s^-ny^- . fe-iriw-nj i 

nannvn 17 

p] *3fiD-W3-nnan ra-nannTO-na-aBn-p 19 

B f , \ 


. . aw 


I am Mesha 1 , son of Kemosh- . . king of Moab, the Daibonite. 
My father was king over Moab thirty years, and I became 


king after my father. And I made this high-place for 
Kemosh in QRHH, with . . . [saljvation, because he saved 
me from all the ..... and because he made me see my 
desire upon all them that hated me. 
'Omri, king of Israel, he afflicted Moab many days, because 


Kemosh was angry with his land. And his son succeeded 
him ; and he too said, I will afflict Moab. In my days 
he said . . . . 7 and I saw my desire upon him and upon 
his house, and Israel perished utterly for ever. 


And 'Omri took possession of the [lan]d of Mehedeba ; and he 
dwelt in it, his days and half his sons' days, forty years ; 


but Kemosh restored it in my days. 

l] The Moabite Stone 3 

And I built Ba!al=ine c on, and I made therein the reservoir (?) ; 
and I buil[t] 10 Qiryathan. 

And the men of Gad had dwelt in the land of 'Ataroth from 
of old ; and the king of Israel built 'Ataroth for himself. 
And I fought against the city and took it. And I slew 
all the people . 12 the city, a gazingstock unto Kemosh 
and unto Moab. And I brought thence the altar-hearth 


of Daudoh (?), and I dr[ag]ged it before Kemosh in 
Qeriyyoth. And I caused the men of SRN to dwell 
therein, and the m[en] u of MHRTH. 

And Kemosh said to me, Go take Nebo against Israel. And 
1 15 went by night and fought against it from the break of 
dawn till the noontide, and 1 16 took it and slew all . seven 
thousand m[en] and. . and women and . . 17 . and damsels, 
for I had devoted it to 'Ashtar-kemosh. And I took thence 
the v 18 , of Yahweh, and I dragged them before Kemosh. 

And the king of Israel had built 19 Yahas, and dwelt therein 
while he fought against me. But Kemosh drove him out 
before me. 20 1 took of Moab two hundred men, all the 
chiefs thereof ; and I led them against Yahas, and took 
it, 21 to add it to Daibon. 

I built QRHH, the wall of Ye'arim, and the wall 22 of the 
Mound ; and I built the gates thereof, and I built the 
towers thereof ; and I 23 built the king's house ; and I 
made the sluices (?) of the reserv[oir (?) for wa]ter in the 
mid[st] 24 of -the city. And there was no cistern in the 
midst of the city, in QRHH ; and I said to all the people, 
Make you 25 each a cistern in his house. And I cut the 


cutting for QRHH with the help of prisoners of Israel. 
Inbuilt _'Arp^er, and I made the highway by the Arnon. 
27 1 built Beth-bamoth, for it was overthrown. I built 
Beser, for it was in ruins of Daibon were fifty, for 


all Daibon was obedient. And I became king .... 
a hundred, in the cities which I added to the land. And 
I built 30 . . [Mehede]ba and Beth-diblathan. And as 

B a 

4 Moabite [1 


for (?) Beth-ba'al-me'on, I led there the 

sheep of the land. 


And as for Hauronan, there dwelt therein . . . and 

Kemosh said to me, Go down, fight against 


Hauronan ; and I went down 


Kemosh in my days, and from there 

and I . . 

The stone was discovered at Diban (11. i f. and O.T. pn) in 1868. 
While the negotiations for its removal were going on, it was broken 
up by the Bedouin of the place, but not before a squeeze of the 
inscription had been secured while it was still intact. Two large 
fragments and eighteen small ones were recovered ; the missing 
portions have been reconstructed from the original squeeze ; so that 
the inscription can now be read in a tolerably complete text 1 . 

It commemorates the successful efforts made by Mesha', king of 
Moab, to throw off the yoke of Israel. The Moabites had been 
reduced to subjection by David (2 S. 8 2), but how long they remained 
in that state is not told. Probably in the time of Jeroboam i, or soon 
after, they began to revolt ; for the inscription implies that some 
measure of independence had been gained when it states that ' 'Omri 
oppressed Moab many days' (1. 5), which no doubt means that he 
found it necessary to put down a rebellion. He succeeded in 
capturing Medeba and its vicinity (1. 7 f.) ; ' the king of Israel ' also 
fortified 'Ataroth, the ancient dwelling-place of the families of Gad 
(1. 10 f.); Nebo and Yahas became Israelite strongholds (11. 14. 1 8 f.). 
It is interesting to find that there was a sanctuary of Yahweh at Nebo 
(1. 17 f), where the Israelites must have established themselves in some 
numbers. 'Omri's powerful arm, however, did not reach so far as 
the Arnon, for the more southern cities, Dibon, 'Aro'er, Qeriyyoth, 
remained in the possession of Moab ; but how effectually the land was 
subdued may be judged from the heavy tribute which 'Omri's suc- 
cessor, Ahab, exacted from king Mesha' (2 K. 3 4). Then, in the 
latter years of Ahab's reign, perhaps at the moment when he was 
engaged in the war against Syria (i K. 22), Mesha' revolted. According 
to 2 K. 1 i. 85 the revolt occurred after the death of Ahab ; but the 
inscription, with the authority of a contemporary document, corrects 

1 A recent attempt to trace the missing fragments is vividly described by Gautier, 
Autour de la Mer Morte, Geneve (1901) 93-98. The text given above is based 
upon that of Lidzbarski Nordsem. Epigr. 415 f., corrected by his later investigations 
in Ephemeris Sem. Epigr. i (i oo) i-io. 

1] The Moabite Stone 5 

this detail of the history. The king of Moab recovered the cities 
occupied by Israel, and strengthened various weak spots in his territory. 
The towns mentioned in the inscription were situated, with the excep- 
tion of IJauronan, in the debatable land N. of the Arnon, which was 
nominally assigned to Reuben and Gad (Num. 32 34-38. Josh. 13 
15-28) ; but Mesha"s revolt seems to have produced a durable 
settlement, and for the future these towns belonged to the kingdom of 
Moab (Am. 22. Is. 15 2 ff. Jer. 48 i ff. Eze. 25 9). The inscription 
appears to be silent about the invasion of the allied kings recorded in 
2 K. 3, unless there is an allusion to it in 1. 4. Taking the inscription 
to be a comprehensive summary of Mesha' 's reign, as it was probably 
intended, we must suppose that the king of Moab ignores his reverses 
(2 K. 3 24-27), just as the Hebrew history omits to mention the losses 
of Israel (Bennett DB iii 411, art. Moab). 

The language of Moab, as the inscription proves, was only a dialect 
of Hebrew (cf. Dt. 2 n). Such characteristic idioms as the^ imof. 
withjvaw conv., the inf. abs. with the fin, verb (used similarly, how- 
ever, in Arabic and Syriac) 13X T3N 1. 7, the use of ng>K for the 

relative, X 3 nKljjhe words yw\n_save, B>*V take in possession, BHJ drive 
out, nn slay, Dnnn ban, vyw (apoc. form), >J&, 3Tp3, show that 
Moabite was more closely akin to Hebrew than to any other Semitic 
tongue. The forms of the proper names point in the same direction. 
The following differences may be noted : riNT np3n (Hebr. UNTil), the 
fern. sing, ending n and the duajjmd plural endingj^(sometimes in 
the O.T.), riff for ruff, the conj.jnn^nlArab. conj. viii), *vp city, TTTK 
D^) take a city, the use in prose of P)i>n succeed 1. 6, ypl break 

of dawn 1. 15, p!3 and niaj 1. 16 for tiffin and Qiffi, norn damsels 
1. 17. These differences are merely dialectical; some of them are 
related to Phoenician or Canaanite on the one side, and to Arabic 1 , 
the language of Moab's neighbours in Edom, on the other. The 
words mtPKj^o, TV1 1. 12, rTDO 1. 25. do not occur in the CUT. The 
inscription is the classical example of the archaic form of Hebr. 
writing (cf. 2). The scriptio defectiva is the rule, e. g. KTUS used for 
the 3rd sing. mas. pronoun7though consonants are employed for final 

vowels, e.g. >3N, 3D, '3, m, and in J3 <I 1, y3H ; the suffix of the 3rd 
sing. mas. is n' for Y ; the words are divided and separated by dots 
as in the ancieritlnscriptions 2. 61-63 (old Aram.), but also 13 and 16 
(Phoen.). In general style the inscription is a real piece of literature,. 
and indicates that Moab in the ninth cent. B. c. was not behind Israel 

1 See notes on onrftx 11. u. 19; jnD 1. 20; NJITTO 1. 8 tf); np, m 1. n ; 
r^n 1. 6. 

6 Moabite [1 

in civilization. Finally, we have here clear evidence that not merely 
the language, but also the ideas, of the two nations had much in 
common. The religion of Kemosh was evidently very like the popular 
religion of Yahweh ; and the manner in which the national god of 
Moab was regarded and spoken of finds remarkable parallels in 
expressions used of Yahweh in the O.T. 

Among recent commentaries on the Moabite Stone the following 
are the most important : Bennett, art. Moab, Hastings' Diet, of the 
Bible (1900); Lidzbarski Ephemeris i (1900); Hale*vy Rev. Se'm. 
(1900), see Lidzb. Eph. i 145; Lagrange Rev. Bibl. x (1901); Driver, 
art. Mesha, Ency. Bibl. (1902). 

Line i. *pN Not pronounced 33N as in Hebr., for elsewhere in the 
inscr. * is written where the final vowel was sounded. In Phoen. the 
ist pers. pron. is "pK 3 i n., in Canaanite anuki (Teil-el-Am. 180 
66. 69), in Assyr. andku, in old Aram. *]3N 61 i and "OJK 62 19. 
In later Aram., Arab., Eth. the form is N3K, 'ana. ytJ>D i.e. 

deliverance, from y&J*, in 2 K. 3 4 X^D, LXX Mwcra ; the latter 
form implies a derivative from the Hif. stem like JJB^n, niytriD 
Ps. 68 21. The pronunciation, therefore, may have been either 
Mesha' or Moshd. There is room for only two letters after 't?D3, 
so "]i>B>B3 is not correct. Clermont-Ganneau reads i:it$>03; Lidzbarski, 
after a fresh examination of the stone, suggests pBTM, cf. ^"^3, ^T^O 
Eph. i 3 f. See 1. 3 . "Oann The name pH 11. 21. 28 was 

probably pronounced Daibon rather than Dibon (O.T. fa^, LXX 
A<u/?ti>v), for the latter would not be written with the vowel letter; 
cf. plin 1. 31 f. prob. Hauronan, mil 1. 12 prob. Daudoh. Noldeke, 
however, thinks that the vowel was /, Inschr. Kon. Mesa (1870) 33; 
cf. nrva I. 25, which, as nfQ 1. 7 shows, could not have sounded 
baiiho. But in pH the * is invariably written, and this is rather in 
favour of the former view. Dibon, Is. 15 2. Jer. 48 18. 22 &c., now 
Dtbdn d-jUw) 1 , lay a little to the N. of the Arnon; Buhl Geogr. alt. 
Palast, 268. 

L. 2. ne> ]vbv Hebr. njfc? d^G? ; nt? is therefore sing., see 6 i n., 
and cf. 1. 8. The plur. ending J in the O.T. (twenty-five or twenty- 
six times, fifteen times in Job) is mostly dialectical or late ; in Aram, 
it is normal, e.g. 63 9. 13 p-QI p^D. 

L. 3. TINT noan Cf. Phoen. Nn DINH 3 15. 46 &c., and see add. 
note ii p. 26. The fern. sing, ends in alh, as in Phoen. and occasionally 
in the O.T. ; see add. note i p. 25. With the expression ncan 

1 Modern forms from Kampffmeyer ZZ'/'Fxv-xvi (1892-3). 

1] The Moabite Stone 

cf. 2 Ch. 21 n niD2 ntyy; a sanctuary or altar is prob. intended, 
rather than a literal 'high-place.' Illustrate from i K. 11 7. Is. 15 2. 
16 12. Jer. 48 35. Wtfb Kemosh was the national god of the 

Moabites (Num. 21 29. i K. 11 7. 33. Jer. 48 46 &c.), occupying 
among them much the same position as Yahweh among the Israelites. 
The name is found in compounds, e. g. 1. i [. .]B>O3 ; Kemosh-nadab, 
king of Moab, KB ii 90 ( = Schrader COT 288); TW1M, P1XB>D3 on 
Moab. seals, Lidzb. Eph. i 136 ff. The identification of Kemosh 
with Ares is based upon an error of Eusebius, Onom. 228 66 ff. ed. 
Lagarde. Other deities worshipped by the Moabites were 

troa 1. 17; jypjap 1. 30, nya byg Num. 25 1-3, local cults "of 
Ba'al (? of tfemosh); and possibfy H33 1. 14 n. nmp 11. 21. 

24 f. The stone is expressly associated with the sanctuary at QRHH 
(' this high-place to K. at QRHH '), but it was found at Dibon, 
evidently in situ. We may suppose, therefore, that QRHH was the 
name of a place in the district of Dibon (Nordlander), seel. 21 n. 
Among the Moabites Dibon may have had this extended sense, 
although in the O.T. it seems to be always the name of a town. 
QRHH can hardly have been the acropolis of Dibon (CL-Gan. &c.), for 
this is inconsistent with the terms of 11. 21. ff. Another explanation 
is suggested by Lagrange, Rev. Bibl. x 527 f. He takes nrnpS W&h 
closely together, Kemosh-at-QRHH, like DWK2 DOK>jni> 39 i. 24 2 n. 
This expression is used of the cult of a deity transplanted from one 
place to another, especially to a foreign land; it would be unnatural in 
Moab, where Kemosh was the chief god of the whole country 1 . 
According to Sayce nmp is the Korku mentioned in the Karnak list 
of the conquests of Ramses ii, Pair. Pal. 237 cf. 21. The pronuncia- 
tion of the worcTls not certain ; it was eithernn"|p r or perhaps rather 
nrnp like ^rro, with the ending ri' as iiTnT^lTP^, and prob. mn 
ITiT; DriveT'SamyeZ xc. [*] . . 52 Lidzb. detects traces of J and I 

0, and reads yw^ 1JD32 with a drink-offering of deliverance \ for 2 \ 
cf. 2 Ch. 29 35 0*3032. Lev. 16 3; illustrate from Ps. 116 13. 
Lagrange proposes yw* D32 cf. Ex. 17 15; other suggestions are 

1 Lagrange identifies nmp with nn i>p, nttirt Tp Is. 16 7. u. Jer. 48 31. 36. 
2 K. 3 25 ; regarding the latter as a corrupt form of ngnn Tp ' New town ' LXX 
Is. 16 7. ii (so Cheyne Ency. Bibl. col. 2676), and nmp as its ancient name. 
But the reading of the LXX in Jer. 48 (LXX 31) 31 Kftpa8as B, KiSdpas A+ai>xpov 
does not imply an original nmp 'mx ; it is merely a transliteration of tnrt Tp (for 
nn Tp). Qir-hareseth is prob. the same as Qir-Moab = the modern Kerak (Targ. 
on Is. and Jer. loc. cit.). Nold.has shown that there is no etymological connexion 
between nmp and Kerak, Inschr. Ron. Mesa 8 f. See Expos. Times xiii (1903) 

8 Moabite 

the deliverance of Meshd, Smend u. Socin Inschr. Kbn. 
Mesa (1886) 17 ; yfc?" 1 DC3 a high-place of deliverance, Driver 1. c. 

L. 4. p*> . n Perhaps p^n (Cl.-Gan., Nold., Lidzb.), i.e. (?) \&&\ 
those who attack (?), assailants, lit. cast themselves. Neither the form 
fyw like 333) nor the meaning occurs in Hebr., which uses only the 
Hif. and Hof. of "]*?&. In Arab. dJu i = to put in, make to enter, 
possibly in Moab. the vb. = impel, assail. The reading p7Dn is less 
probable. K3B> !>33 MN"in Cf. 1. 7. Ps. 59 n. 118 7 &c. 

L. 5. WJT1 i. e. Ujn_, the yd rad. of the 1^ (Hebr. n6) verb being 
retained, as in Ijyx 1. 6. If i?JOtJ" *]ta = ^'^ <j/~ /sra<r/ as elsewhere, 
UJH must be the impf. with waw conv. introducing the predicate, 
'Omri . . . he oppressed, a very harsh construction here; see Gesenius 
in h ; Driver Tenses 127 a. The rendering was king over I. 
is more suitable, although this requires ?y after ^?9 (1. 2). Perhaps 
the prep, was omitted by accident. spN^ Impf. of continuance 

in the past. The yodh seems certain (Lidzb.). For epN cf. i K. 
8 46 (Qal). 2 K. 17 1 8 (Hithp.). rwnN3 Cf. Num. 21 29. 

Jer. 48 46 tyiD3 Dy..3K1O. The ancient n of the suff., ahu-au-6 i', 
is preserved in Moabite; contrast Y in the Siloam inscr. 2 2-4. 
The form JT' is found in the O.T., e.g. "?ng Gen. 9 21 &c.; Driver 
Sam. xxxv. 

L. 6. nE&rvi i.e. nbbrw (Nold.), or less probably ne|>rw in 
accordance with Hebr. usage ; and similarly elsewhere in the inscr. 
nabm= succeeded him; so Aj>. in Arab. In Hebr. the Hif. = cause 
to succeed, substitute, Is. 9 9. NH 03 nN 1| 1 Cf. Gen. 27 31. 

i S. 19 20-24. For NH see 3 9 n. After IDS there are traces 

of a letter, possibly O (Lidzb.), doubtfully 3 ; the reading H33 or 
*m3 is thus very questionable. 

L. 7. D^y n3N T3N i.e. ffys) 13N 13K, Q^y for cbyb as in poetry, 
e.g. Ps. 89 2. 3. 38; or C&'y *HN T3N, c f. Jer. 51 39 cbw rw WM 
(Driver). tJ'T'1 Either Bn*1 or ^1. . The context requires a plupf. 

sense, for which tS>"V HDyi would be the normal expression (1. 18). 

L. 8. tOinD i. e. N3-]nD (Nold.), in the O.T. N3TD, or K3^TD 
(Cl.-Gan. 6V^/<f </<? Dhiban (1877) 55), as in the modern name b^L.; 
so Konig Lehrgeb. ii 345, explaining the form by the Arab, dialectical 
form'un 'water' 1 . Medeba (Num. 21 30. Josh. 13 9. 

1 The n in wirro and in na: 1. 14 used to denote and 6, according to Hommel, 
marks an affinity with the Minaean dialect of Arabic known from the el-Ola inscrr. 
(NW. Arabia) ; Anc. Hebr. Trad. 276. The alleged affinity between Moabite and 
Minaean must be received with caution ; at the same time it is natural that the 

l] The Moabite Stone 9 

Is. 15 2 &c.) was E. of the N. end of the Dead Sea. 3^1 The 

subj., though grammatically 'Omri, must really be Israel. HD* 

The reading seems certain ; HD^ for rPBJ yamaih(u) = VDJ his days. 
For the form with u cf. the Hebr. VW Hab. 3 10. *nnto3 Nah. 2 4. 
iriTy Job 24 23, and the Syr. *Sia.', where the original h of the sufF. 
is written but not sounded. For the plur. form without yodh cf. HBH 
1. 20. nn^lJO 1. 22, contrast nnyB' 1. 22. HJ3 Prob. is also plur., 

his sons (see below) ; although fW3 1. 6 is sing. 

L. 9. TO To be completed by restoring B1 at the end of 1. 8, i. e. 
roeh (Nold.). LI. 6-9 are important for the historical 

setting of the inscr., although the exact bearing of some details is 
obscure. 'Ul NH DJ 1)ON' I 1 1. 6 points to a fresh attempt made 
by Ahab to assert his authority in Moab; this was prob. the im- 
mediate cause of Mesha"s revolt, nni21 TO fcONl 1. 7 indicates that 
the revolt was successful both against Ahab (TO) and his dynasty 
(nra, cf. asnx jva 2 K. 8 18. 9 yff. 10 n. Mic. 6 16 &c.). bNi^i 
cby TON TON 1. 7 records the final overthrow of Israel's power in 
Moab, marked, as we may infer from 2 K. 3 27, by the futile con- 
clusion of Joram's expedition l , or by the extinction of the house of 
'Omri. Then in 11. 7-9 the inscr. goes back to the first stage of 
the revolt. This began with the recovery of Mehedeba (1. 8 end), 
which had been occupied by 'Omri : ' and he dwelt in it his days and 
half the days of his sons, forty years.' 'Omri's reign, according to 
i K. 16 23, lasted 18 years, Ahab's 22 (i K. 16 29), Ahaziah's 2 
(i K. 22 52), Joram's 12 (2 K. 3 i). Thus 'Omri's 'days' were 18, 
and 'half the days of his sons' were 18, making a total of 36, or 
' forty years ' in round numbers, i Half the days ' of 'Omri's sons 
brings us, strictly speaking, to the i8th year of Ahab; at any rate 
it wasin^the closing years_of Ahab's reign, and not after his death 
(2^K7TTTir 5), that_jVIegha' begari his sfmgglp for inHpppnrfcnre. 
But the biblical record so far agrees with the inscr., inasmuch as the 
Moabite rebellion continued after Ahab's death, during the reigns of 
his two successors (nrQTl 1. 7). This second stage of the rebellion is 
recorded in ll.__io ff. ; 'Ataroth, Nebo. Yahas w^re recovered, until 
Israel was finally driven out. At the close of his 18 years' struggle, 
Mesh a' was able to commemorate his victories, and the efforts which 

language of Moab should betray the influence of its Arabic-speaking neighbours. 
See further Konig Hebr, u. Sem. 82. 

1 2 K. 3 27 b seems intentionally to cast a veil over the abrupt retirement of the 
allies. It may have been due to superstitious dread of the god of the land after the 
sacrifice of Mesha"s son, or perhaps to an unexpected invasion of the Syrians. See 
Lagrange Rev. Bibl. x 538-545. 

io Moabite [1 

he made for the future security of his kingdom, on a triumphal 
inscription. The stone, be it noted, was set up in nrnp 1. 3 ; but nmp 
was not fortified till Moab's freedom had been won, and Israelite 
prisoners could be employed upon the worjks, II. 24-26. The fore- 
going account to a great extent turns on the rendering of ii33 1. 8 his 
sons \ i. e. Q32 like HC^ his days in this line. To tajce H33 as a sing., 
his son i. e. Ahab, raises serious chronological difficulties. It is 
impossible to ge^j^jeaxsjput of 'Omjfs 18 and the half of Ahab's 22. 
Wellhausen makes the attempt by discarding the dates in Kings, and 
lengthening the combined reigns to 60 years (Isr. u.Jiid. Gesch? pf.); 
but to do this is to dislocate the biblical chronology, and the trans- 
lation of nJ2 his son is not so certain as to demand such a violent 
measure 2 . fSHD^JO 1. 30 JVD^yn m Num. 32 38. Josh. 13 17. 

Jer. 48 23 (pj>D JTa). Eze. 25 9 &c. Now Ma'in ( cr ^l), SW. of 
]V^depa. niB>N Prob. from </niE> sink, so pit (cf. nnitf Jer. 

18 20) or reservoir for water, 1. 23. The word prob. occurs in 
this sense in Sirach 50 3, where D3 rVK>K is to be corrected to 
D'O nit?N XaxKos oxre! ^aXdorqTjs^cod. A. See Wisdom of Ben Sira, Cambr. 

(1899) 63. 

L. io. jmp=Hebr. txm& Gen. 145. Jer. 48 i &c., now_Quj6yat 
(eyb/0, S. of ' Attarus. For the form cf. jrtan 1. 30=0^611, pin 
1. 3 1 f. = gOTin. These names are prob. not in the dual it is difficult 
to see what significance the dual could have but in the sing., with 
the sing. termjnatioii_4 Z5::: j_D- T -, called by Earth a 'local ending' 
(Nominalb. 319 n. 5); cf. frfa 2 K. 6 13. ]FTj> Josh. 21 32. This ending 
was subsequently expanded into D? ; e. g. in Hebr. D^"^, D^pin & c ., 
in Aram. jntp^=Q9?', Hebr. (n?'^; similarly the^Ioab. Dinv= 
Hebr. ^nH^- ^ these forms were originally duals, it is not clear how 
D^__ ? f\_ could have been contracted into D , ]. It is true that 
the dual in Moab. ended in }', e.g. }J1ND 1. 2o=DTlKD, but the origin 
of this form is quite distinct. See Gesenius-Kautzsch 256; on the 
other hand, Konig Lehrgeb. ii 437, Wright Comp. Gr. 150, regard 
these forms as dual, and Noldeke points f , ?DJ"]P &c. E^NI 

. HJ Cf. Num. 32 34 JE. 'A taroth= modern 'Attarus 

1 So Nordlander Inschr, Kon. Mesa (1896) 30 f. See Lidzbarski Ephemeris i 
143 f- 

8 Marti has recently suggested the rendering ' he (i. e. 'Omri) dwelt therein his 
days, and half of my days (i. e. 'P^. for 'O|) his son (dwelt therein),' Ency. Bibl. i 
col. 792. This gets over the chronological difficulty, but it involves a very harsh 
construction. Marti rather exaggerates the awkwardness of the passage. Winckler 
cuts the knot by making 'sn the half mean the whole \ Altor, Forsch. ii 401-407. 

1] The Moabite Stone n 

about 8 miles NNW. of Dibon. For Ti e>K cf. bsiK* K*K Jud. 20 
17 &c. 

L. ii. dnniw i.e. EDfip^^the Arab, viii conj. Jjc3|.; see Wright 
Comp. Gr. 208 f. The stem exists also in Assyr., e. g. iktasad ' he 
plundered/ 1p3 In Hebr. "Vp = wall] but the meaning > 

town appears in the Moab. pr. nn. 3N1D Tp, ntnn Tp; cf. Arab. 
i^$ village. mnxi i.e. nfHNI; so in Arab. '\=take a city, in 

Hebr. lai*. At the end of the line D is prob. to be restored. 

L. 12. nn for n-K") C 1 '?), so point nn, cf. n*35f, njitfj ninp (i. 13); 

Stade Lehrb. 192 b. Cf. Nah. 3 6 **h. Eze. 28 17 ml. 3^ 

Prob. 35?W from 31B>, Josh. 14 7 ; or 3tfNl from n3B>. ^NIN Of 

the many interpretations proposed for this word the most suitable 
here is altar-hearth, Eze. 43 15. 16 from \Altf #r, Arab. <Jj> whence 
ij\ hearth + h\K\, as in ta*D, 7DBTI. Here 7N1X is in the constr. St., 
and in Eze. 43 i5f. it has the article; this is against treating ^NIK 
as a compound, hearth of El, as e. g. Konig does, Lehrgeb. ii 416. See 
Cheyne Ency. Bibl. i col. 298 ; Marti on Is. 29 i. The ^>X1N was 
perhaps a fire-altar, i. e. a pillar surmounted by a cresset, Rob. Smith 
Rel. of Sem. 469. If i>&nx=/z0 of El as in 2 S. 23 20 and Is. 33 
7, it is difficult to believe that this was the title of a priest, as Lidzb. 
takes it, Eph. i 278. mn Prob^Daudoh (11. i n. 3 ., cf. ii 

Jud. 10 i), apparently a local god worshipped by the Israelites E. of 
Jordan 1 . As a pr. n. Dudu occurs in the Tell-el-Am. letters, e.g. 
44. 45 ; in Hebr. in, iin, innn, mb &c. ; in Aram. ,1^11 CIS ii 
107 ; in Palm. Nil 139 2 ; arM-tn the inscrr. from Safa TT 2 . The 
primary meaning is loved one, then kinsman, uncle. See Gray Hebr. 
Pr. Names 6oflf. 8 mriDNI i.e. 'liinDKI c f. Jer. 22 19. 2 S. 17 13. 

Arab, t JK **'- 

L. 13. BUM vtb Cf. mm *xb x S. is 33. a S. 21 9. nnpi 

i.e. n 4 ")p3 Jer. 48 24. Am. 2 2 (with art.), mentioned by the latter 
perhaps on account of this sanctuary of Kemosh (Nold.). It is not 
unlikely that Ar, the capital of Moab. was the same place ; see Driver 
on Am. 22. Its site is unknown, but it must have been on the N. or 
NE. border of Moab. Another suggestion identifies Qeriyyoth with 
Rabbath-Moab, S. of the Arnon, Buhl Geogr. A It. Palast. 270. 3BW 

1 The difficult "|-n Am. 8. 14 LXX 6 0e6s aov is ingeniously corrected to *ff by 
Winckler Altor. Forsch. i 195. 

* Dussaud et Macler Voyage Archlol. au Safd (1901) 126. 

* Winckler treats Ariel-Dodah as a compound deity, i.e. 'nergal-Tamnraz- 
Jahve with his consort Dodah' an etymological extravagance; Gesch. Isr. ii 
257 f- 

1 2 Moabite 

i.e. 2W 2 K. 17 24. pfc? if not a city, may be the frw of 

i Ch. 5 16 (E. of Jordan) which is prob. the same as "Won Dt. 3 10. 
Josh. 13 9. 1 6 f. At the end of the line an N can be traced, prob. 
part of B>N. 

L. 14. mn Site unknown; not in the O. T. $ PD3 *fy "IDKI 

THK Cf. 1. 32. Josh. 8 i. Jud. 7 9. i S. 23 4 &c. rO3 Num. 32 3. 

38 JE (assigned to Reuben). Is. 15 2. Jer. 48 i. 22. A city on or 
near Mt. Nebo; Buhl 266 f. The name may point to the worship of 
the Babyl. god Nebo in the city or on the mountain, though not 
necessarily, cf. Arab. jL.IJl the height. "|bnxi So in Job 16 22. 

23. 8 ; in prose only Ex. 923. 

L. 15. r6i>3 Pronounced r$b, as Is. 15 i tyba. 21 n b\! 

show. mnpn ypno (yp|0) Cf. Is. 58 8 TTIK irnpa ypn^ m. In 

Hebr. rby is usual, e.g. 'pn fife i S. 9 26, and with 'D, Vn JT^yD 
Neh. 415. DTltf Prob. sing, with the ending am (1. 10 n.) rather 

than dual. In Moab. the dual ends in f, JflKD 1. 20. 

L. 1 6. *?3 Restore ni?3 i.e. $>3. After nynt? we may read 

[pai }13J |]^N, and at the end of the line n[l3]l. * i. e. ">?. resident 
foreigner, sojourner (stranger, AV., RV.), or possibly, as this is not very 
suitable, ^ young, child (Lidzb.); see 20 A 15 n. 

L. 17. HDm i.e. ribPf) cf. Jud. 5 30 D^njl Q D1, prob. female 
slaves. B>D3 nnt?y A compound deity like mnt^yata 10 3 . 

"inB'V was most likely a female deity, though the name is written 
without the usual fern, ending, as in the Babyl. Ishtar, the Palm, nny 
(in nnjnny 112 4), and in the Phoen. pr. n. iWjmy 22 i. The male 
"int^V (">nny) belonged only to the S. Semites. See 4 i n. nnonnn 

i.e. nijicnnrj. For the practice of devoting a city to the god, cf. in 
Israel Num. 21 2 f. JE. Dt. 2 34. 3 6. Josh. 6 17-19. The ban (Arab. 
"pj->* separate, prohibit} involved the destruction both of persons and 
of property, Lev. 27 28 f. See Driver Sam. 101 f. Deut. 98 f., for the 
idea Rob. Smith Rel. of Sem. 434 &c., and 79 8 n. At the end of 
the line restore ^[3-njtf rather than ^[jojtf; the latter in 1. 12 is sing. 
and has nN before it. 

L. 18. Dn-ariDXI The pron. is here used as an accus.; cf. ten eos 
Ezr. 4 10. pn Dan. 2 35. In Bibl. Aram., as in Syr., there is no 
verbal suff. 3 plur. ; in Syr. \&(, ^J? are used instead. 

L. 19. fiT Num. 21 23. Dt. 2 32. Is. 15 4. Jer. 48 21 &c. The site 
is not known, but it lay on the E. plains, N. of the Arnon ; according 
to Eusebius it was between Dibon and Medaba (Onom. 264 96 ed. 
Lagarde). Yahas was occupied by the Israelite king at the beginning 
of the war, prob. as an advanced post. nDnr6ro i. e. nbnnpnn or 

1] The Moabite Stone 13 

nfohflpna following the Arab, form JULij'J inf. conj. viii. The place- 
names ^Nfif K, ybntPK are in form infinitives of conj. viii. 'ton rujnri 
Cf. of Yahweh Dt. 33 27. Josh. 24 18. 

L. 20. fnNl3=DVlKD } pronounced jriKD, cf. the dual ending of the 
oblique cases in Arab. ^ , and the contraction of at to / in 
Aram. ^>l, ^lijoo ; or the pronunciation may have been PpNO, like 
the Arab. ^U, Targ. JTIKD. nen Prob. his chiefs,=VVVr\, the 

plur. with suff. as riDS rU3 (?) 1. 8. In Moab, as in Israel, the nation was 
organized in clans or families ; e. g. Ex. 614?. 1825 JE. flNBM 

i. e. nXEM cf. 1. 30. The suff. is sing, collective. 

L. 21. nSD^ Inf. of ?JD' (1. 29), i.e. J"lSD7, as rriSDp should be read 
in Num. 32 14. Is. 30 i. Ges.-Kautzsch 195 n. 1 pn Perhaps 

a district, rather than a city (1. 3 n.) ; note the expressions i>y n3D$> 
(cf. pNH !>y TIDD' 1. 29) and nyCB>D 'n i>3 1. 28, which seem hardly 
applicable to a city (Nordlander 42). pyn Lit. the woods, prob. 

the royal groves or park nmp; cf. Qoh. 2 6. 

L. 22. i>ayn /fo acropolis of nmp; cf. Neh. 3 27. 2 Ch. 27 3. Is. 
32 14 &c. of the fortified mound within Jerusalem, 2 K. 5 24 withirif 
Samaria. nnytp Plur. with scriptio plena, cf. 1. 8 n. nninjD 

must also be plur., i. e. OC&1?*? or Wfyp (Nold.), 1. 8 n. 

L. 23. ita nn Cf. i K. 16 1 8. ^3 Either both, double, Hebr. 

D^bs, Arab. ^lf, "^ both, Eth. ^r/, or j/* from N^ 
j/ra/'w. After BWl there are traces of 1 ; restore P[D!? 
i. e. fob or }??&. The 3 in 3np3 is doubtful (Lidzb.). 

L. 24. JN i.e. P. The order as in Gen. 47 13. 

L. 25. nrnson Prob. nivpen from ma, cutting, perhaps for water. In 
Hebr. n"O is used of cutting trees, and ma of cutting wells or trenches. 
TTD may be taken from m3 (point T'1?) whence nnsip ^>z'/, Zeph. 
2 9 ; but it is difficult to see how nm3D can come from a n6 verb, 
unless it be a peculiar Moab. form. ''IDNS i. e. ^.B&ta. The yodh 

is faintly visible. For 3 with the help of,cf. i S. 14 6 and 1. 28 n. 

L. 26. 1jny Num. 32 34. Dt. 2 36. Jer. 48 19 &c. The ruins 'Ard'ir 
( \jS-\jS-) S. of Dibon are on the N. edge of the ravine of the Arnon 
(W.. el Mojib). After pis perhaps the stroke | followed. 

L. 27. n03 n3 Prob. the same as ni3 Num. 21 i9f. i>y3 H1D3 
22 41 &c., situated perhaps on Mt. 'Attarus. Din i.e. D^n 2 K. 

825. 1X3 Dt. 4 43 (in Reuben) &c. i Mace. 5 26 ff. Boo-op. 

The site is unknown ; it must have been towards the E. border of the 
Moab. table-land. py i.e. |?V Mic. 3 12. 

14 Moabite [1 

L. 28. At the beginning we may conjecture t?["n | xn] ; for B>") see 
1. 20 n. Hale'vy suggests plausibly E>[N3 | nvt], i. e. with the help of 
fifty men of D. (1. 25), Rev. Se'm. (1900) 292. nyB> obedience, 

cf. Is. 11 14 DnyDB>B Jly 'J31. For the idiom see Driver Tenses 
189. 2. At the end of the line part of a 3 can be discerned; 
restore [']rota. In the space which follows BH *?y over chiefs may be 

L. 29. pp3 Prob. Hi?? * the cities. TlDD 11 Cf. 1. 21. 

L. 30. Before 7131 only K3 can be seen, perhaps to be com- 
pleted N3*in l. 8. fnirn ro Jer. 48 22. Num. 33 46 }^>jj 

DTibn. |Vi>y3 Till Cf. 1. 9 n. The preceding stroke usually 

marks a stop ; and as fyo^JD was ' built ' in 1. 9, it seems unreasonable 
to take "3 7131 as accus. after W3 1. 29. On the other hand if '3 7131 
begins a new sentence as casus pendens, and as for Beth-b., the 
construction of NEW (cf. note on ljyi 1. 5) becomes awkward. At 
the end of the line the usual restoration Ipj is possible, meaning 
breeders of a particular kind of sheep ; cf. 2 K. 3 4 (of Mesha'). 

L. 31. }3"iim See 1. i n. 10 . Is. 15 5. Jer. 48 36*. The city lay 
on the table-land S. of Wadi Kerak, but on lower ground ; hence the 
verb TV 1. 32, and 'n TTl in the O.T. The word must be construed 
as a casus pendens. Neither [pTi }*n j]3 (Smend u. Socin) nor 
[mn ^]3 (Nold.) can be supported by a close examination of the 
stone. Lidzb. suggests . pi 713. As Hauronan lay in the S., and 
outside the Israelite occupation, it is likely that these lines gave an 
account of campaigns against the Edomites. 

L. 32. EMM 'h "lN Cf. 1. 14. At the end of the line HaleVy (1. c.) 
supplies }3"i )ID* "Ip3 DPIf! 33 ^Xl ' and I fought against the city many 

L. 33. PI3. Restore n3K*l i.e. rg?h 1. 8 f. m(XJ^y prob. the 

name of a place. 

L. 34. p1B> ? meaning. 

. ' /^fft^ufiLt^r^. 

x* s HEBREW 

2. Siloam. Circ. 700 B. c. Imp. Mus., Constantinople. 

TIJD ropjn w rrn nn rdpan . . . 

n MI . K .......... pa "ran rnr rvn D ijn i 3 

jnp -]^ pi tp rinpS &>N D^nn - i^n nnp: 4 

na^n W *fl&n p ow 5 

Sj; nvn si n*n na n 6 

. . . the boring through \ And this was the manner of the 
boring through: whilst yet ..... 2 the pick, each towards his 

fellow, and whilst yet there were three cubits to be bored 

7 3 

[through, there was hearjd the voice of each calling to his 

fellow, for there was a split in the rock on the right hand 
..... And on the day of the 4 boring through the miners 
struck, each to meet his fellow, pick upon pick; and 6 the 
waters flowed from the source to the pool for two hundred 7 


and a thousand cubits ; and a hundred cubits was the height 
of the rock above the head of the miners. 

This ancient Hebrew inscr. was discovered in 1880 on the right 
wall of the tunnel which connects the Virgin's Spring ('Ain Sitti 
Maryam) with the pool of Siloam (Birket Silwan, Jn. 9 7), about 
19 ft from the Siloam end. This tunnel pierces the SE. spur of 
the hill on which the temple of Jerusalem formerly stood. Above 
the inscr. the rock was dressed for a considerable space, as though it 
had been prepared for some more writing, or for a relievo representing 
the miners at work (Cl.-Gan. Rec. i 295. ib. ii 285 illustrn.). The 
inscr. describes an incident in the boring of the tunnel : the gangs 
which started from opposite ends successfully effected a junction, und 
so freed a passage for the water from the spring to the pool. The 
course of the tunnel is marked by two curious curves which perhaps 
were designed intentionally to avoid some underground obstacle, 
supposed by Cl.-Gan. to have been the tombs of the kings (Rec. ii 

1 6 Hebrew [2 

66). A plan, showing the points where the excavators lost the 
direction and where they met, is given by Conder PEFQS (1882) 
122; Stade Gesch. i 591 ; Benzinger Hebr. Arch. 54 &c. For an 
interesting parallel see the Lat. inscr. of Lambaesis (N. Afr.), CIL viii 
2728, which describes the excavation of a cuniculus or subterranean 
aqueduct on similar principles. 

There can be little doubt that the work was carried out in the 
reign of Hezekiah. We are told that, as a precaution against a possible 
siege (2 Ch. 322 ff.), he brought water from the only natural spring near 
Jerusalem by a channel through the rock to a place of security within 
the walls ; 2 Ch. 32 30. 2 K. 20 20. Sirach 48 17 *. In ancient times 
the city walls took in the pool of Siloam ; the ' waters of Gihon ' were 
outside them; and the Gihon of the O.T., as the evidence implies, 
was identical with the Virgin's Spring 2 . The aqueduct, therefore, and 
with it the inscr., may be assigned to a date about 700 B. c. 9 The 
character of the writing points to the same period. It belongs_lo. the 
archaic..stage represented by the Moabite Stone ; but in general form 
it is lighter and more flowing than the Moabite, and some of the 
/\ letters, e. g. K, 1, t, n, X, are considerably different. It will be noticed 

, that the final vowels are represented by consonants, e.g. fQpJ, iTfi, 

3, 13,' l| 1 ; but within the word the vowel letter is not written, e. g. "IX, 
jD 11 ; 6-=au diphth. is written pkne, Tiy (from'aW), NX1D, but od 
is written defective, B>i>B>, nON, *?\>, D3XH. For the suff. 3 m. sing^ / 
used instead of the archaic n' (iT / ), e.g. 1jn. The words are separated 
by dots (see p. 62). The style is pure and idiomatic, and reads like 
a good prose passage out of the O.T. The fullest account of the in- 
scription, and the best facsimile, are given by Gjithe ZDMG xxjcvi 
(1882) , l 72g-75. Cl.-Ganneau's facsimile in Rec . i PL xvijs remarkably 
clear ; see also Driver Samuel xiv ff.; Socin ZDPVxxii (1899) 61 ff. 

1 Kai tiafaaytv ds ptffov avraiv rbv T&y (a corruption of TOTAflP) B. vSup A. 
In Hebr. the verse runs : [1. '] rrcroa asm : D'D noin "< rvraru TO pin impirv 
: mpo onrr Diom onis . 

a Targ., Pesh. render prrj i K. 1 33 by Nm'nD. 

3 Is. 8 6 can hardly refer to this invisible channel. An older water-course, which 
carried the water^above ground down the Kidron valley into a reservoir formed by 
a dam across the onening of the Tyropaeon valley, was discovered by Schick_some 
years ag6~(see CI.-Gah.T?^. ii plan) ; this would agree with the prophet's reference. 
An ancient reservoir close to the present pool of Sil., and NE. of it, was unearthed 
lately by Gvcthe ; this may have been the 'upper pool ' of Is. 73. 86 a and possibly 
the * old pool' of Is. 22 ifffiade 592). Other pools are mentioned in Is. 22 9. 
Neh. 2 14. 815. 16. It is impossible to identify with any certainty the details of 
the system of pools and channels in this quarter. See Guthe ZDPFv (1882) 355 ff.; 
Benzinger 52-54 ; Conder PEFQS (1897) 204 ff. j and for recent excavations in 
the neighbourhood, Bliss ib. n ff. 91 ff. 173 ff. 

2] Siloam 1 7 

L. i. At the beginning of the line we may conjecture fO behold/ or 
riKT, or D'3 cf. 1. 3. Blake (see n. i below) suggests Dfl ; for the con- 
struction cf. Gen. Hi. Is. 47 n. wpj Not in the O. T.; but 
the vb. occurs in 2 K. 12 10 &c.=fi'erce, Arab. Lliu ib, PQp3 may be 
pointed n3p3 or n?i?J, Syr. [-^A? hole, Arab. ( JJL5 tunnel. The word 
is to be translated as a verbal noun active, piercing through; see 

1. 3. nan Cf. Dt. 15 2 noopn -m rm. 19 4. i K. 9 15. In 

the lacuna there must have been a verb and a subject, e. g. the miners 
were lifting up, DK Dnxnn DD3O (Ex. 20 25) ; or 'iai WMn. 

L. 2. ijn So Jer. 6 2i=ttljn. 3]pjr6 11JJ3 i.e. 3i?3H; for the 

construction cf. Gen. 48 7. The 3 is fairly clear (Socin 1. c.), and a 
part of the top of p (Lidzb. Eph. i 53). This restoration was proposed 
by Guthe I.e. 737. y[BJM Pf. as in 2 S. 12 22 ; or V[O^1. 

L. 3. IVn i. e. JVn 2 K. 9 37 Keth., rather than $$ which in this 
inscr. would be nri^n (see above). rttf The context suggests 

fissure; but the meaning is uncertain, and the word not otherwise 
known. The v/Tif seethe, act presumptuously gives no suitable 
sense \ After fi^D many restore ^KB>Cfl and on the left, i. e. 

from S. to N. facing the two gangs, in the direction of the tunnel. 
Socin in his facsimile gives ^N and what are supposed to be fragments 
of D1; but while the N is certain, the ^ is very doubtful, and the 
restoration bx[B>Ol] is not sufficient to fill the gap (Lidzb. 1. c.). 

L. 4. D3Vnn the hewers; 3H of hewing out cisterns Dt. 6 II. 
2 Ch. 26 10, and of mining Dt. 8 9. See the word in Sirach 48 17 
(p. 1 6 n. i). mp$> i.e. rhpb from mp. 13^ Note the 

use of waw conv. with impf. 

L. 5. NV1D spring of water ; i. e. the Virgin's Spring, from which 
the tunnel starts. Cf. 2 Ch. 32 30 p^yn prM WD KD. DTINB 

nOM f^NI For the unusual order cf. Num. 3 50 )i>K1 HIND vho. The 
actual length of the tunnel is 1 706^8 ft. (Conder I.e. 122), very 
nearly 1200 cubits of 17 in.; but the 1200 is only a round number, 
like the 100 at the end of the line, and therefore is of no value for 
fixing the length of the cubit. 

L. 6. nvn H33 i. e. njfn rD3. The thickness of the rock above 
the excavators is roughly calculated at 100 cubits. ' Towards the 
north the rock surface is 170 feet above the roof of the tunnel.' 
Conder 1. c. 127. 

1 Blake, in thejourn. Amer. Or. Soc. xxii. i (1901) 52 f., suggests rnt from */TS\ 
which seems to have the primary meaning of narrow in Syr. and Arab., j) 
cvacuavit, privavit (Payne Smith), jjj fill, be in straits for water, conj. v 
straitened in one's bosom (Lane). This is possible. 



3. Byblus. CIS i. v-iv cent. B. c. Paris. 

K p p yiTirr p 

*ni S:u h n:&&& ^J rbs nmn rs PK 2 



nnsn T Mnn ^x JT n^m niian 4 
JT pn nns hy &x ja nina pn nnyni T *nns p hy 5 

L I **"* 

pa* 7j;s nn^SDDi Dn?j; B^N D . . . ni rripjn ^T nsiyni 6 

1 7 
n 8 

|nni MH jrw ^a a ^ y in^na* ^ni unni nj o 9 
IN oy jni T p DJ; [ySi M^M jy^ p Sn:i nSy[i MTI i 1 ?] 10 

TD n^y ftfl^fi SysS t|D B'N D*1N ^31 nD^fi ^ [ ..... f] n 

"^015! "ptf D2r NT nsny nSjn JT pn n[ns nSjn nn] 12 
. n DNI "i . D^ wn ^5 DXI NH nDSto Sys ....... 13 

. . i T Dp/b n^y n . DV . T . . ..n h ...... 14 

iyin n nnxn n ^aa rkyfr&ri ....... 15 

I am Yebaw-milk, king of Gebal, son of Yehar-ba'al, grand- 
son of Uri-milk, king 2 of Gebal, whom the lady, mistress of 
Gebal, made king over Gebal ; and I invoke 3 my lady, mistress 
of Gebal, [for she hears] my voice. And I make for my lady, 
mistress 4 of Gebal, this altar of bronze which is in this court, 
and this engraved work of gold which 5 is over against this 
engraved work of mine, and the uraeus (?) of gold which is 
in the midst of the stone, which is above this engraved work 
of gold, G and this portico and its pillars and the . . . which are 

3] Byblus 19 

upon them and its roof do I, 7 Yehaw-milk, king of Gebal, 
make to my lady, mistress of Gebal ; inasmuch as I invoked 
my lady, 8 mistress of Gebal, she has heard my voice and 
done kindness to me. May the mistress of Gebal bless 
Yehaw-milk, 9 king of Gebal, and grant him life and prolong 
his days and his years over Gebal, for he is a righteous king ! 
And may 10 [the lady, m]istress of Gebal, give [him] favour in 
the eyes of the gods and in the eyes of the people of this land 
and the favour of the people of the lan[d . . .] ! Every prince 
and every man who shall make any addition to this alt[ar or 
to this engraved worlk of gold and to this portico I, Yehaw- 


milk, ...... set .... him who does that work ; and if 

thou do not set there (??) . . and if .......... upon this 

place and ..... ... the lady, the mistress of Gebal, that man 

and his seed. 

This is the oldest Phoenician inscr. yet found in Phoenicia itself. 
It belongs to the Persian age. Above the inscr. Yehaw-milk, in 
Persian dress, stands with left hand uplifted, and with the right offering 
a bowl to the seated goddess. The scene perhaps pictures the 
occasion when he dedicated the objects recorded below. A conjectural 
restoration of the stele standing on the two lions which were found 
near it is illustrated in Berger Hist, de ttcriture'* 162. 

L. i. *]3N The__usual form of i sing, pron. in Phoen. ; rarely 
CIS i 103 c. 104. 107. Though not written (cf. ]rbys> 1. 2, T, 3 &c.), 
i -_ the final t_ vowel was prob. pronounced. In later Punic usage the 
final vowel seems to have been dropped in pronunciation as well 
as in spelling, e. g. Plautus Poenulus v 2 35 anech, Schroder xxix 18 4 
*]. Cf. 1 i n. itairv i. e. !JS"?^ let Milk grant life cf. linn 1. 9 

and taw 2 Ch. 29 14. i?33 Cf. i K. 5 32. Eze. 27 9. The Greeks 
changed the name Gebal to Bv/3Aos; it is now called DjebSl, about 
half-way between Tripoli and Beirut, where the inscr. was found in 
1869. Gubla is frequently mentioned in the Tell-el- Am. letters, e.g. 
50 2. 53. 54. 123 &c. bin-lit 1 Bdal is proud cf. TiT haughty 

Pr. 21 24; NHebr. (Hithp.), Aram, lif be haughty. The reading, 
however, is uncertain. The Corp. and Lidzbarski read ^jDirv 
B. rages; Vogii 5>y3in* B. gives joy cf. ^H 1 ?- i Ch. 5 24. p p 

Cf. 5 14. 27 4. CIS i 372. 391 f.; in Aram. 68 2 ; in Hebr. Ex. 

C 2 

2O Phoenician [3 

10 2. -Wto fire of Milk cf. nw i Ch. 6 9, and Urumilki 

of Gebal on the Taylor cylinder of Sennacherib, col. ii 50 (KB ii 91) 
an earlier king of the same name. The occurrence of milk in the 
royal names *]taw and *]^1N points to the cult of the patron-deity of 
Gebal, by tradition identified with K/aoVos, the mythical founder of the 
city, Philo Bybl. Fr. Hist. Gr. iii 568 6 Kpovos . . . vo\w Trpumjv 
*Tift TTJV eiri ^OIVIK^S Bv/3Aov. Milk alone as the name of the god 
has not been found on any inscription ; it is merely a title. 

L. 2. B>N The Phoen. relative, pronounced as a monosyllable zsh or 
ash, e.g. Plaut. Poen. v 2 56 assamar = IDS K>K, or possibly as a 
dissyllable $K, Plaut. ib. 1 5 ; Apuleius Herb. Medicam. 47 (48) nesso 
tsse sade=iT$ && HlfJ. The short form B> is also found, e.g. CIS i 
112b 3 , and more frequently in Pun. and NPun. e.g. 41 2. 3. 56 6. 
57 7. 9. 10 N^=^, and in the transcriptions ', w Plaut. ib. 1 
i. 8 &c. The etymology of tJ>K is obscure. Taking B> as the original 
element, it is possible that N, properly a demonstrative sound, 
'Deutelaut/ was added to it; cf. the K in IN, ], KiBK, Konig 
Lehrgeb. ii 323 ; on the other hand, in the Assyr. la the vowel sound 
followed the consonant. Whatever the relation between B>N and *i'X 
may be, in actual usage the Phoen. t?K forms historically a link 
between the Hebr. "|B>X and B>. See Wright Comp. Gr. 119 ; Zimmern 
Vergl. Gr. 77. frfe i. e. ^nbya cf. jmn 4 7. JDBJP 5 5. The 

form of the rel. sentence is exactly like Gen. 45 4 1PK f)Dy ''JN 
TlS Dn*l3D (Ges. 138 </). The sentence has been rendered 'for 
whom . . . made the kingdom,' treating the suff. as = prep, and suffix, 
as in 'Onni Josh. 1619 &c., but n^OD= royal person not kingdom in 
Phoen.; see note below. i?33 r6jD nmn The title ^aa n^X?3 

is very ancient ; it was used by the inhabitants of Gebal in the 
fifteenth cent. B.C. of the goddess of their city, Bilit la Gubla (Tell- 
el-Am. letters 55-110). Whether Bilit (nSyn) was the name of 
the deity, or whether it was used in an appellative sense, mistress, 
like ^>JD lit owner, lord, cannot be decided with certainty 1 . Among 
the Phoenicians of a later age, at any rate, there is no clear evidence 
of a distinct goddess Ba'alath. The meaning of the expression D2"6 
minn n^ja 47 is too obscure to be decisive 2 . Probably, therefore, 
i>33 ni'XO is only the title of the chief goddess of the city, the mistress 

1 This goddess was, of course, a Canaanite not a Babylonian deity. But the 

Assyr. Bilit raises the same difficulty ; sometimes it is used as a pr. name, some- 

times as a title ' lady,' sometimes and this illustrates the usage here merely as 

a designation of Ishtar. Jastrow Rel. of Bab. and Assyr. 226 ; Zimmern KA 7' 3 356. 

, * The NPun. pr. n. rfonoy is uncertain ; Berger Inscr. ctram. (f Hadrumttc 2. 

8] Byblus 2 1 

of Gebal; her actual name was not pronounced, perhaps out of 
reverence. But there can be little doubt that the Ba'alath of Gebal 
was 'Ashtart, just as the Ba'al of Tyre was Melqarth (36 i), the Ba'al 
of Harran was Sin (p. 182), and ya^D n^JD was the title of an unnamed 
goddess in Sabaean (CIS iv 172 3)*. There is abundant evidence that 
'Ashtart was the chief goddess of Gebal. The city was specially sacred 
to her ; its coins are stamped JlSSHp i>33^ (149 B 1 1), with her symbol, 
the cone, standing in the temple-court (Rawlinson Phoenicia 146, 
Perrot et Chipiez Hist, de V Art iii 60). Moreover, the goddess repre- 
sented in the sacrificial scene above the inscr. is almost certainly 
'Ashtart. In appearance, indeed, she resembles the Egyptian Isis- 
Hathor, having on her head the solar disk between two cow-horns 2 ; 
but the Phoenicians borrowed some of the attributes, as well as the 
outward representation, of the Egyptian Isis for their own goddess. 
In an inscr. lately found at Memphis (1900) Isis and 'Ashtart are 
named together . . . D^tfh mnB>y D^N DK miN D^tfb TUlb 
(p. 91 n. i); and Plutarch has preserved the legend that Isis 
journeyed to Byblus (Gebal), where she was called 'Ao-raprT/, de Os. 
et Is. i5 3 . By the Greeks Ba'alath was taken to be a distinct 
deity, B^Afljjs, BooA-ris, and in particular the Ba'alath of Gebal was 
identified with Aphrodite, 'A^poSm; BvySAo?, Lucian de dea Syr. 6 4 . 
In certain parts of Arabia the planet Venus had the name of 
Balthi*. The title 7U1 is given to 'Ashtart and to other goddesses ; 
see 45 i. 47. 50. 60. 77 B. ninn The article in Phoen. 

is far less common than in Hebr. ; thus in 5 it occurs 7 times where 
Hebr. would have used it 28 times, Schroder 161. ro?DO king- 

dom, sovereignty, then generally, royal person, cf. 1. n. 57 2 &c. ; in 
contrast to DIN 5 4. 6; and often on coins of African kings="pD, 
57 i n. *pK fcOpI The ptcp. followed by the pron. as in ^ys 

1 So with the Nab. N-von lit. lord of Shara ; the actual name of the god is 
unknown. Wellhausen Reste Ar. Jfeid.* 51 ; and see E. Meyer Ency. Bibl. 3742. 

* Cf. Philo Bybl. >) SJ 'Aaraprrj lirfOrjKt TJ} ISiq. Kf>a\TJ fiaaiteias itapaarjuov 
KpaXt)v ravpov Fr. Hist. Gr. iii 569. 

* Is. 10 4, if emended to Tpfo nn rare 'rfa (Lagarde), may farther illustrate the 
combination of Phoen. and Egypt, deities ; Beltis is perhaps the goddess of Gebal. 
Cheyne Isaiah, SBOT '137. 

* Cf. Philo Bybl. 6 Kporos Bv&\oy plv rijv irofav ry Of$ BooXriSi, rg xal Aiovp, 
KStaoi il>. 

8 Chwolson Die Ssaoaer ii 22 ( = En-Nedfm i iv) .^. U"^J *j*j^\ ***** f_}- 
Isaac of Antioch (died circ. 460 A. D.) speaks of Baaltis as a goddess common 
to the Osrhoenes and Arabs (Opera \ 210 1. 98 ; 212 1. 129 ed. Bickell). Cumont 
in Pauly's Realencydopadie (1896; s. v. Baltis. 

2 2 Phoenician [3 

*]3K 11. 3. 6. -]JK DP 1. 12. T.3K 33B> 53; cf. in Hebr. Is. 48 13 *M Nip. 
Jer. 8814 13$ *?$&. The idiom is more frequent in Aram., e. g. 
WK yT Dan. 2 8. In the Mishnah the ptcp. and pron. are united 
and form a present tense, Driver Tenses 135. 4. Cl.-Gan. thinks 
that the words refer to the scene above ' I am (here) invoking/ j/. i 1 1 . 

L. 3. J1X 1. 7. 28 4. 42 21 usually rVK 11. 8. 15, the sign of the 
accus. JVX was prob. pronounced 'iyyath, later 'iylh, 'ith-=yth in 
Plautus, J1K in later inscrr. Noldeke, ZDMG xl (1886) 738, suggests 
that the pronunciation was 'tilth (iydth, 'lydtti) ; but the analogy of 
the Hebr. form 'iwqyath, 'iyyath, 'eth, favours the vocalization n*K.' 
The Aram, forms J"P, fcJ, seem to be shortened from the fuller form 
preserved in Phoen. (61 28 .); these, like the Arab. Ljl, presuppose 
an original lydih (so No'ld. 1. c.) : Konig Lehrgeb. ii 295, Wright Comp. 
Gr. 112. ^p [jrtDP 3] Cf. the common formula 23 7. 24 2 &c. 

and Ps. 116 i. 13. 17. 

L. 4. |T nBTB nanon The word denoting material (npm) is in 
apposition to the preceding noun, a familiar construction in Hebr., 
e. g. nt?mn Ipan 2 K. 16 17 &c., Driver Tenses 188 (i). 191 ; but 
in accordance with Phoen. usage (1. 2 n.} there is no article with 

IT rwna, cf. JT pn nnan in this line, pn myn l. 5, TN pn ypio 24 i. 

n&?m might be explained as an accus. of limitation of the type 
im Dalian i Ch. 28 1 8 and HJA* llCil (Driver I.e. 193, Wright 
Ar. Gr. ii 44 e), but the former construction is far more probable in 

LI. 4-6. The principal objects dedicated by Yehaw-milk were 
apparently three, (i) fT nPTO PQTOn," (2) JT prfnnBn, (3) NMTBTyn. 
NotTce that tHese~tHree have the demonstrative pron., and appear 
again in the recapitulation L uf. Attached to (2) was pn myn, 
just as moy, D . . . m, nruSDOl were attached to (3). The meaning of 
the second object, pn nnsn and pn myn, is obscure. A reasonable 
sense is obtained for 11. 4 and 5 by treating nna as = Hebr. nvia 
engraving on a seal (Ex. 28 u &c.), or plate (i K. 7 37), or wall 
(i K. 6 29. 2 Ch. 3 7). T 'nriQ will then mean this engraved work 
of mine, i. e. the stele which bears the inscription ; over against, 
opposite to this (}Q ^y cf. 45 3. i K. 8 8. 2 Ch. 5 9), was nnsn 
}T pn, another incised stone, gilded, and surmounted by pn myn 
set in the midst of the stone, i. e. prob. as a centre-piece at the top 
of it. What the gilded incised stone represented it is impossible to 
say for certain. Perhaps the stone was carved to represent a small 
shrine, like the fa9ade of a temple, with the goddess standing or 
seated within, such as may be seen on the coins of Gebal, e. g. 

3] Byblus 23 

Babelon Pers. Ache'm. nos. 1398, 1403, 1407 &c. ; cf. the aedicula 
from Sardinia, CIS i 148, PL xxx. It has been suggested that nna 
may mean not merely engraved work but statue or bust, and that the 
statue of the king (T 'nna) was erected opposite to a gilded statue of 
the goddess (ft pin 'an) ; a position which may be illustrated from 
the Rosetta Stone, where the priests decree a statue of Ptolemy to 
be placed near the principal god of the temple, Cl.-Ganneau J&f. i 17. 
But whether nna could be used in this sense is questionable; and 
even if the word is to be found in TOUTI QowiK-tfiouri iraraucouri, 
which Herodotus says ' the Phoenicians place at the prow of their 
triremes' (iii 37), this single example of doubtful significance 
TraTcuKouri may refer to figures of the Egyptian god Ptah is hardly 
sufficient to warrant the rendering statue. An obvious meaning of nna 
is door, here a monumental door or pylon ( Vogue*, Renan) ; this suits 
Jf fin nna but not T 'nna, which seems to denote the stele of the 
inscr. What is intended by nnyn, if that be the right reading, is even 
more doubtful. Possibly my is the Phoen. equivalent of the Egyptian 
'ar'a, i. e. the uraeus, or small serpent, which appears sometimes as an 
accessory to the winged disk and on the head-dress of gods and kings 
in Egyptian art. Cl.-Ganneau takes the word as a plur. denoting 
an uraeus-frieze of Egyptian pattern on the epistyle of the aedicula 
(nnan) ; he gives several illustrations of Egyptian and Phoen. votive 
shrines with this decoration (1. c. 22-24). t "i[x]n3 in this court 

is the best restoration of the text; cf. 33 2. 3. pn=x/ovo-os, 

3HT, 45. 24 i. 33 3. 5. In Hebr. pin is poetical, e.g. Ps. 68 14;. 
many words poetical, archaic, or rare in Hebr. are common in Phoen., \ 

e. g. ^>ya for n^y, nya for bn, for TUP, INS? for -lea, nyj for aio, \ 

nT for {jnn &c. In this inscr. and in 4 5. 33 5 pn has been 
rendered incision, engraving from f\T\=cut, sharpen in Hebr. See 33 
5 n. The rendering gold is preferable here and in 4 5. TQTQ, 

Prob.^ina cf. n^y for i>y 11. n. 12. 14 &c. naiyn Prob. 

gallery, portico, oroa. Etymologically the word is the same as the v 
Arab. iSJi lit. ' eaves to catch the rain/ or ' gable from which the rain 
drips ' ; then ' the gallery below the ropf,^ ' upper_balcony ' ; see 
Hoffmann Ueb, einige Phon. Inschr. i2f. in Abh. Gott. Ges. xxxvi 
(1890). The word occurs again 10 i. 33 5. The Corp. reads, with 
less probability, naiyn the row of columns, cfTthe Hebr. naiyD a~7ow 
(of lamps) Ex. 39 37^ moy i.e. nnsy ; cf. in SabaeanThe dedication 

of the peristyle oj 'Umddn, py ]h33O CIS iv 240 6. D ... HI 

perhaps D[twn]iTI and the capitals, Ex. 36 38. 38 17. 
and its ceiling, cf. f13D in Jer. 22 14. Hag. 1 4. 

24 Phoenician 

L. 7. BWM i. e. IPN + 3 = -ie>N ICO, 1PN3 , 10 9. HNIp Pf. 

1 sing.; cf. D7ya 5 19. flNit^ 16 2. Though not written, the final / 
was pronounced; Plaut. Poen. v 1 i corathi. Schroder 204. 

L. 8. 7yB1 . . . yDPl Pf., prob. pronounced as fern. ; cf. N3B 56 i. 
NJB< 27 3. Kin 54 3 (NPun.) TiJ CIS i 191 2 (Pun.). In Pun. inscrr. 
the pf. 3 sing. fem. often ends in N (N ), e.g. CIS i 216 3 f. 280 

2 f. &c. Contrast impf. with 1 after nK>N2 in Hebr., Ex. 16 34. 7ya 
Dy3 'h = Hebr. Dy 21B ntPy Gen. 26 29. Ps. 119 65 or Dy 1DH 
Gen. 24 12 &c. 

L. 9. linni Piel impf. 3 sing. fem. with suff. of 3 sing. mas. i.e. 

The same stem of the VVnn occurs in the pr. nn. 

J7NW &c., cf. ^>NW Gen. 4 18 and perhaps njn. 
i. e. SP.KTO.; c f. 65 3. Ps. 21 5. inJBn 1D are plur. Cf. Dt. 17 20. 

i K. 3 14. Nn Pron. of 3 sing., used in this form for both 

genders, prob. with a difference of pronunciation, hit or hi*, according 
to the gender of the antecedent; e.g. mas. Nil DINn 1. 15. Nn "i2in 
4 6. 5 10 &c. Moab. St. 1 6. 27. Old Aram. 61 30. 62 n. 22. 68 17 f. 
Palm. 147 ii c 6: fem. Nn n2N7D 1. 13. 6 u. 22. 27 2 &c. 

L. 10. fy? jn . . . jnm Cf. DIN pi DJ?N jyi? D^m }n o^ jn[;i] in 

the inscr. from Memphis 1. 4 p. 91 n. i, and the Hebr. idiom with Ty3, 
Pr. 3 4; also with ^yi?, Ex. 7 20. Num. 25 6 &c.; cf. 62 23 
mp. D:&N Cf. 5 9. 16. 18. 22. 10 7 (constr. St.). 20 A 3. 63 

(constr. St.). P0<?. v 1 I alonim valonuthr^ 1 ^ D H 3^N; the sing. 
occurs only in pr. nn. ftairr 1 , }$>yriN. This Dii'N is not the direct 
equivalent of the Hebr. DTlta, for 3 does not interchange with n ; it is 
an independent formation with the ending }', like the Hebr. JIM, }V^y ; 
K6nig Lehrgeb. ii 444. In the cases quoted D37N has a plur. meaning 
gods (DtJHpn D3^NH 5 9. 22); contrast D^N, which, though plur. in 
form, is sing, in meaning, 33 6 n. 

L. ii. No convincing restoration has been proposed for the be- 
ginning of the line. For the imprecations cf. 5 10-12. ep 1 Prob. 

Hif. impf. 3 sing. mas. r^y=^y, after f]D* 5 20. Moab. St. 1 21. 29. 

L. 12. Dty Ptcp., cf. 1. 2 n. At the beginning of the next line we 
may restore 1 ^a 723 *pB to complete the construction, as in Lev. 
20 5. Jer. 21 10 &c. Cl.-Ganneau I.e. restores ?ya[? ^Dp 723 17], 
cf. 4 3 n. 

L. 13. NH D2N7O. Phoen. omits the art. with the pron. in these 
cases, cf. Nn DlNn 1. 15, and sometimes with the noun too, as here 
and 5 ii Nn n27OO. Cf. 1 3 riNT fl2n and add. note ii. The 

rest of the line is obscure. Cl.-Ganneau takes DN1 . . . DN1 as depre- 

3] By bins 25 

cative particles after the adjuration which he restores in 1. 12 
cf. Neh. 13 25, Do not set there . . . nor. $>3K perhaps =i?3 not. 

L. 14. Cl.-Ganneau suggests n[no] s sweep refuse into the sanctuary; 
cf. Lam. 3 45 TlD. The prohibition may be illustr. by a Gk. inscr. 
(B. C. 380) en-! TS tepas yas Kmrpov fir} ayev fjLrj8c(j.iav Michel ./?r. 
d' inscr. gr. 702 21. 

L. 15. 1JHT In fig. sense as 4 7 . 5 8, 11. 22 ; cf. also Ps. 21 n. 
iyif is an isolated instance of the suff. l' with a noun instead of 
the usual *'. A verb is required at the beginning of the line, such as 
fpn may . . . cut off I 5 9 f. 22. 

Judging from this inscr., the dialect of Gebal approached nearer to 
Hebr. than the normal Phoen. speech. Thus the suffixed forms 
follow the Hebr. type, DH$>y 1. 6, IJHT 1. 15, inJfcjn 10 (plur.) 1. 9, 
(plur.) 1. 6, nrUBDO (sing.) 1. 6 ; linn 1. 9 with 1 for *n_ cf. 
Ps. 413. The verb nin seems to have been used at Gebal ; in NPun. 
it occurs rather often in the form K1PI, niy &c. ; in Phoen. proper it is 
only found in compound names. Idioms which resemble Hebr. are 

tyKgg==ntPK3 1. 1, ?a fry 1. R over asainst t ny TiKn 1. o. ?yfr fn ?nn l. 9 f-. 
[3 *3aJoipL i2 f., fryafr E|p^ l. ii cf. nwyfr t|p* i K. is 33. Dt. 13 12 &c. 

Tfiere is a Hebr. ring about the phrase NH p*TC l^D 3 1. 9. 

Additional note i. The fern. sing, ending in Phoenician. The ending 
of the fern. sing, of nouns in Phoen., whether in the absol. or constr. 
state, is n', an archaic form which belongs also to the language of 
Moab, e.g. DD2 1 3. ni?DD 26. 28. 29. The n' was prob. pronounced 
Jl (in transcriptions'ai?), _as jin_the names of the old Canaanite 
towns *7*t?$^J^ &cT, in the O.T.; for hoen. followedjhe r, 
same general laws of tone as Hebr., whichjlengthened the vowel^of 1 1 
a/^juhder the accent. Hebrew, however, went further, and aspirated 
the final n into n, e. g. in the Siloam inscr. mpJ 2 i. minn, HDN 5 ; 
the transcription of some pr. names suggests that the Punic dialect 
did the same to a limited extent, e. g. Dido = NTT, Carthago = 
N&nn nip, 'I/uAKtov=&tan &c., Schroder 126. The instances of 
the ending K' with fern, nouns cited by Schroder 172 n. 9 are all 
doubtful. With regard to the fem. ending of the verb, it seems that 

Phoen^ proper did not use a consonantal form, e.g. ysi . . yos? 3 8. 
The ending N', developed like the Hebr. ii-^ out of an original D , 
is confined to the Punic and Neo-Punic inscrr., e. g. NT13, yTU passim, 
WE 11 27 3. NB>=Nyt:t? CIS i 1804. See Stade Morgenl. Forschungen 
(1875) 214 ff.; Wright Comp. Gr. 134. 

26 Phoenician [4 

Additional note ii. The forms of the demonstrative pron. in Phoenician. 

Sing, (i) T mas., sometimes fern. e.g. 3 10. 6 3. 7 i. 19 i. 42 3 
&c., and often in NPun. r pM 54 i. 58 i. Cf. the Old Aram. T in TS 
61 3. TO1 4. 22, and the Hebr. 1T Ps. 12 8. It does not take the art. 
after a definite noun ; cf. Moab. HKT DDin 1 3 ; Poen. v. 1 i macom 
esse=ntn D1pD is an exception. 

(2) ft mas. 3 4. 5. 12. Cf. Old Aram. fT 61 1. 62 i and the emphatic 
ilJT 62 22. 63 20. 64 3. 68 6. 76 c 2 (p. 185 . i) ; in Nab., Palm., 
Palest, (P3) and Bibl. Aram., nn ; Eth. zentu. 

(3) NT fern. 3 6. 12. Cf. Old Aram. 61 i8f. 69 13. 76 B 5 (used 
as fern, of Hit) ; in Nab., Bibl. Aram., K1 (used as fern, of HJl) ; Palm, 
m ; Eth. zafi. 

(4) nr fern. NPun. 54 4. 57 3 &c. ; in Plautus syth. Both NT and 
JIT are, in origin, fern, formations from T. 

(5) TN mas. 11. 24 i. 25 i. 30 i, and fern. 13 2. 15 i. The N is 
a demonstrative sound, not the article. 

Plur. i>N 5 22. CIS i 14 5 &c. ; cf. i Ch. 20 8; with the art. ^NH 

27 3, cf. i>Kn in the Pentateuch; in NPun. N^N, Plautus ily; Old 
Aram. ^>N (?) 61 29 ; Egypt. Aram. I^N 74 A 2 ; Nab. n^N 87 3 &c. ; 
Palm. N 110 i &c.; Bibl. Aram. $*, (i^X Jer. 10 n); Palest. 
Aram. ^N late Hebr. ^K ; Eth. 'eltu. 

4. Sidon. Tabnith. Circ. 300 B. c. Imp. Mus., Constantinople. 

p Din^ -j^a mwy pa njnn ^M i 
PNS nat^ MTX iSib nnnte^y pa n^ww 2 
n b^ SN T pn n*K psn >N DT Sa nx a ? 3 
j^nx >N t|Da jSiN ^a jwnn h#\ *rby nns 4 
hx hx r pxa aa^ *pK nSa^n^D D^D Sai pn 5 
nu DNI NH nann mnsry nayna junn Si *nSj; n 6 
nnn D^na jnr [-j] 1 ? pr ^ jwvi nil ^nSy nnsn n 7 

I, Tabnith, priest of 'Ashtart, king of the Sidonians, son 2 of 
Eshmun-'azar, priest of 'Ashtart, king of the Sidonians, lie in 
this coffin : 3 My [curse be] with whatsoever man thou art that 

4] Sidon Tabnilh 27 

bringest forth this coffin ! Do not, do not 4 open me, nor 
disquiet me, for I have not indeed (?) silver, I have not 
indeed (?) 5 gold, nor any jewels of ... only I am lying in 
this coffin : do not, do not open 6 me nor disquiet me, for 
that thing is an abomination to 'Ashtart. And if thou do 
at all 7 open me, and at all disquiet me, mayest thou have 
no seed among the living under the sun 8 nor resting-place 
among the shades ! 

The sarcophagus of Tabnith, like that of Eshmun-'azar ii (5), dis- 
plays the characteristics of Egyptian workmanship ; it was apparently 
stolen from an Egypt, tomb, for it bears the epitaph of an Egypt. 
general Penptah. The style is that of the fourth cent. B.C. ; and as the 
dynasty of Eshmun-'azar i and Tabnith_prob. belongs to the period after 
the occupation of Sidon by Alexander the Great in 3^2, the inscr. may 
be assigned to the end of the century, or perhaps rather to the first 
decade of the next, circ. 290, and 5 to a date 15 years later ; see 5 18 n. 

L. i. "px See 3 i n. nJ2n Father of Eshmun-'azar ii, 5 i. 

The name, pronounced Tabnfth or Tabneth, is preserved in that of 
a village near Nabatiyeh, SE. of Sidon, Kefr Tibnith. It corresponds 
to the Hebr. Tibni, i K 16 21 f. LXX Luc. a/?ewei, but hardly to 
the Gk. TeW?7s, the king of Sidon who rebelled against the Persians 
and was slain in 350, for his coins bear the letters yfi as the initials of 
his name,Babelon PA 1574-8. mntJ>J? fiTD cf. 615. It is prob. that 
the dynasty was founded by a priest of Ashtart at Sidon ; cf. i K. 1631 
and Jos. c. Ap. i 18 Ei0u>/3a\os 6 TTJS ' 

pronounced 'Ashtart, as the Gk. 'Affrdprr] (LXX &c.) proves : the chief 
goddess of the Phoenicians. Her cult was established at Sidon (5. 6. I K. 11 5. 33), 
at Gebal (3), at Ashqelon (Herod, i 105 TJJS Ovpavirjs 'A<ppoSiTt]S rb Ip6v . . . iravroiv 
af>x al orarov ipwv offa Tavrrjs TTJS Ofov, prob. alluded to in I S. 31 lo where rnnOJ? m 
is to be read, LXX TO ' 'Aarapriiov ; cf. the bilingual inscr. 32 i mnmnay p DH? 
'j'jpffiN 'Avriirarpos 'A<ppo8tffiov 'AaKa\aivlrr)s'), in Cvjprus (e. g. at Kition 13. 20), in 
Sici!y_at Eryx (CIS i 135 DTI fiN 'r 5 ? = the frequent VENEREI ERYCINAI), in Gaulus 
(38), and at Carthage (e. g. 45 i. CIS i 255 min '3? lay ... CDttJ. 263 mnuDN 
'y IZJN noya SJN). The goddess of Carthage called by classical writers Coelestis, 
Ovpavta (see quotation from Herodian below), was prob. none other than the 
Phoen. 'Ashtart; but see 48 I n. As an element in compound pr. nn. 'Ashtart 
occurs very often. She was the goddess of fertility and generation (cf. Dt. 7 13. 
28 4. 1 8. 51); and was identified both by Greeks and Phoenicians with Aphrodite, - 
e. g. the common epithets Kvirpts and KvOepeta (of Kuthera in Crete) in Homer, 
and Cypria, Paphia, as titles of Venus ; Aifiaviris was the title of Aphrodite wor- 
shipped in Lebanon (plba mniDJ?), Lucian adv. indoct. 3. There can be no doubt 
that the prototype of the Phoen. 'Ashtart was the Assyr. Ishtar ; to a considerable 

28 Phoenician [4 

L. 2. pN Of a mummy-case, as Gen. 50 26. 

L. 3. pan t?N DIN ^3 nN The construction is uncertain. Taking 
"D as whosoever and nN asr^RN, \ve may render whosoever thou art 
any man that shalt bring forth ; cf. D3nn nN p 64 5 f. whosoever thou 
art that shalt rob (so Cl.-Gan.) ; but here the construction is compli- 
cated by the insertion of DIN 73 and becomes very laboured. Renan 
may be right in explaining >O as a mistake for V^p, my curse be with 
every man ; see 6 4 n. pan is prob. Hifil impf. of pia which means 
(i) bring forth, fetch out, e.g. Is. 58 10 ; cf. the Aram. p33 go forth, in 
Af. bring forth] or (2) // upon, find, e.g. Pr. 3 13 || ND. 8 35. The 
first meaning is preferable here. According to Hoffmann pia = 
primarily to come upon by accident, break in upon, break (Ueber einige 
phb'n. Inschr. 57 ff.). 

L. 4. *rby nnan ^N 11. 6. 7. 5 7. 10. CIS ii 226 2 on^y nnan 11 Nh. 

Tpy is prob. the prep, with suff., upon me, used pregnantly after nnan 
lit. open over me; contrast 5 4 T 33^0 n^N T\T\& ^>N. Less prob. 
Tl^y is a noun (1} inner chamber (of the vault), the root r6y being used, 
as often in Assyr., in the sense of going away; so Winckler, Altor. 
Forsch. i 63 n. ; or (2) roof, lid, lit. ' that which ascends,' cf. sj^c upper 
part, Ju^lc an elevated place ; so Hoffmann 1. c. But no derivative of 
the verb is actually used in Assyr. or in Arab, with the meanings 
proposed in (i) and (2). To take n^y as = Hebr. i"Ppj? upper chamber 
does not suit the reference to a sepulchre. It is safer to render Tl^y 
upon me. See further 5 6 n. jrnn i-e W? Cf - * S - 28 J 5 of 

degree the character of the goddesses was alike, and both filled the most prominent 
place in the worship of the two races. No satisfactory Semitic derivation of 
Ishtar-'Ashtart has yet been found; hence it has been supposed that ultimately 
the name is of non-Semitic origin, Schrader COT 1 179, Sayce Hibb. Lects. 252 f. 
The form mra# with the fem. ending t is peculiar to the Palestinian deity. In 
Moabite the name occurs as intt with troo 1 1 7 ; in Aram, it becomes npy ( = tnnr 
= iniw?), e.g. Palm, rrnjnrw 112 4 n. = 'Arapyarts, and the pr.nn. mnrw CISii 52, 
vranny Cl.-Gan. Et. i 118. In S. Semitic (Sabaean) the phonetic equivalent is 
nnny CIS iv 41 2. 46 5 &c., a male, not a female deity. 'Ashtart was not 
properly a moon-goddess, any more than Ishtar ; but in some places she appears 
in this character, e. g. Lucian de Dea Syr. 4 &s ptv avrol ^tyovrnv, 'Aoraprjjs 
fffriv 'AardpTrjv S' eya> 5o6u 2t\rjvair)v /t/j/at (speaking of the temple at Sidon), 
and Herodian v 6 10 hi&ves niv olrv aurriv Ovpaviav KaXovac <&oiviKts Si 'Aarpoap- 
\T)V ovofia^ovcrt, at\r)vr)v tivai Oehovrfs. 'Ashtart was sometimes represented, as 
we have seen (3 a n.\ with the Egyptian symbols of Isis and Hathor, the solar 
disk between two cow-horns. It has been suggested that these were misunderstood, 
and taken to represent the full and crescent moon ; and in this way 'Ashtart came 
to be conceived as a moon-goddess. See Schiirer Gesch? ii 23 f. ; Driver, art. 
Ashtoreth, Hastings Diet. Bibl. vol. i' fj Lagrange Rev. Bibi. x (1901) 550 ff.; 
E. Meyer Ency. Bibl. 3741 ff. 

4] Sidon Tabniih 29 

disquieting the dead. >N The Phoen. negative ; twice in the 

O.T. i S. 4 21. Job 22 30 ; in Assyr. a-a, e, at. It is the usual nega- 
tive in Eth., and frequently occurs in Rabbinic, e. g. "it^QK ""N. The 
pr. nn. lorrx, i^PN do prob. not contain this form. The other neg. 
in Phoen. is i>n 5 3 n. n The parallel expression in 5 5 ^K 3 

DJD p DK> suggests that pix like p must contain some such meaning 
as with me. At any rate the final ]' is prob. the suff. i sing, in the 
verbal form which was sometimes used with preps.; e.g. p, DJnnn 5 9. 
Hoffmann I.e. reads f? IX, which is quite possible, andjakes^'^JL as 
a particle strengthening the preceding negative (cf. !?3 ''X 42 i8)=the 
!]K= n ?.r, Pal. 'I'alm. and Midr. 'nn used sometimes with 

merely a demonstrative force, here; so he renders there is not indeed 
with me (}i?=^). It is possible that S. Augustine on Ps. 123 (Op. iv. 
col. 1407 ed. Ben.) is alluding to this particle when he writes 'quod 
Punici dicunt iar, non lignum (*iy), sed quando dubitant ; hoc Graeci 
apa ; hoc Latini possunt vel solent dicere, " putas," cum ita loquntur, 
"putas, evasi hoc ?" ' For ran after a negative cf. run &6n Hab. 2 13 
and ou^t tSov Acts 2 7. Though Hoffmann's explanation cannot be 
regarded as certain, it is preferable to that of HaleVy, who takes jinx 
as = cuSwAor. It was not the custom to bury efScoAa of gold and silver 
in sepulchres. 

L. 5. D3D 5 5. 45 2 f. Prob. = Aram. V U>, ^~U>, |XB 65 6, lit. 
vessel, used here like the Hebr. ^3 for jewels. Hoffmann takes the 
word as = /ia/^/Aovas, poo, money, valuables (Talm.); but this does 
not account for the plur. form. Tt?D Meaning unknown. rta 

here apparently =^p3 only. There is no exact parallel for such usage 
in Hebr. 

L. 6. mnt?y wyn Cf. mrr rajnn Dt. 7 25. 17 1. is 12 &c. Pr. 3 32. 
11 20 &c. Nn nann See 3 13 n. g n. 

L. 7. jmn Tn i.e. WE! fr). In Hebr. the Qal. inf. abs. is found 
occasionally with the fin. vb. in a derived conjugation, e.g. Hif. D^Sf p* 

D1V- i S. 23 22. Nif. fy?B? bipD Ex. 19 13. ^ p* The stone- ->^Tt~ ^ H. 

cutter has accidentally omitted the 3 in these two words. The verb ~L/v^ 
|13 is used in Phoen., as in Arab, and Ethiop., for the Hebr. nvi, in the i/RTf . 9 1 -f 
sense to exist, to be; e.g. 5 8. n. 20. 29 15. 42 3. 7. 13 &c. JHT 

D"nn For yiT in metaph. sense cf. 61 20. 64 n. 69 12; and cf. the 
imprecations in 5 8-9. 11-12, and the Palm, ny 131 jnt n!> NliT K^ 
KD^y 145 4 f. B>K> nnn Cf. 5 12. The phrase is a favourite 

one with the author of Qoheleth. 

L. 8. QKS"i r,K 331PD Again in 5 8. For 33KtD of a resting-place in 
the under-world cf. Eze. 32 25. For DN!H cf. Is. 14 9. 26 14. 19. 

30 Phoenician [5 

Job 26 5. Ps. 88 ii &c.; the meaning usually given is weak ones, 
V^nsi to be weak ; but, as Cheyne remarks, ' the terrible ' or ' the wise ' 
is what we should expect ; see Ency. BibL art. Dead. 

6. Sidon. Eshmun-'azar. CISiS. Date, see p. 27. Louvre. Plate I. 

T n^na *pN MTI ntoSx p Dn^ DITX 

ajr ^i 'iyo n^n JVK ^^ Si D3D p w ^ a D^& p 

DM t| o n^^D rhy r iD^ton p 

n^n n*x w B^ DM T ni^a rfey nnu 


pn p D 1 ? p SMI nnpn inp* SMI DMSH n n^a D 1 ? j ^M r 

T iD^a rfey nns* ^M MH D*IM DM ro^aa n^M Dim r 
i ^ ^ir D^ p* ^M nan DanM DM Mn nSaa p? n^Mi T rhr\ i 
Da p Tiy ^ jte pi ^M a tra^ nnn D^nn ^Mni ^yaS na V 
p Dinx "|Sa nr^a^M ^M 3 -J^M na^M p Dn 1 DITM oa -| i 

p p CDTX 
D:rnc ^ ^Ta^M a na nrfcan 

nnntrj; n^M p D* pM pxa n[in^y nn] n'M 


nn pa 

' Sidon Eshmun-azar 

px ? ns D> pM pita CUTS [tf? 18 

j;v - 

opn n^n 

r>-Jt A; 

In the month Bui, in the fourteenth year 14 of the reign of 
king Eshmun-'azar, king of the Sidonians, 2 son of king 
Tabnith, king of the Sidonians, spake king Eshmun- c azar, 
king of the Sidonians, saying, I have been seized 3 before my 
time, the son of a (short) number of days . . . , an orphan, the 
son of a widow ; and I lie in this coffin and in this grave, 4 in 
the place which I built. I adjure every prince and every man 
that they open not this resting-place, 5 nor seek with me 
jewels, for there are no jewels with me there, nor take away 


the coffin of my resting-place, nor carry me from this resting- 
place (and lay me) on a second resting-place! Yea, if men 
speak to thee, do not listen to their words. For every prince 
and 7 every man who shall open this resting-place, or who 
shall take away the coffin of my resting-place, or who 
shall carry me from 8 this resting-place, may they have no 
resting-place with the Shades, nor be buried in a grave, nor 
have son or seed 9 in their stead; and may the holy gods 
deliver them up to a mighty prince who shall rule over them, 


to cut off that prince or man who shall open this resting- 
place, or who shall take away n this coffin, and the seed of 
that prince or of those men ! May they have no root down- 
wards or 12 fruit upwards, nor any comeliness among the 
living under the sun ! For I am to be pitied (?) ; I have been 
seized before my time, the son of 13 a (short) number of days 
. . . , an orphan, the son of a widow was I. For I, Eshmun- 

32 Phoenician [5 

'azar, king of the Sidonians, son u of king Tabnith, king of 
the Sidonians, grandson of king Eshmun-'azar, king of 
the Sidonians, and my mother Am -'ashtart, 15 priestess 
of 'Ashtart, our lady, the queen, daughter of king Eshmun- 
'azar, king of the Sidonians (we are they) who built the houses 
16 of the gods, the house of 'Ashtart in Sidon, the land of the 
sea, and we caused 'Ashtart to dwell there, making (her) 
glorious (?) ; and we 17 (are they) who built a house for 
Eshmun, in the holy field (?), the well of Yidlal in the 
mountain, and we caused him to dwell there, making (him) 
glorious (?). And we (are they) who built houses 18 for the 
gods of the Sidonians in Sidon, the land of the sea, a house 
for the Ba'al of Sidon, and a house for 'Ashtart, the Name of 
Ba'al. And further, the lord of kings gave to us 19 D6r and 
Yafd, the glorious corn-lands which are in the field of Sharon, 
in accordance with the great things which I did ; and we 
added them 20 to the borders of the land, that they might 
belong to the Sidonians for ever. I adjure every prince and 


every man that they open me not, nor uncover me, nor carry 
me from this resting-place, nor take away the coffin of my 
resting-place, lest 22 these holy gods deliver them up, and cut 
off that prince and those men, and their seed, for ever ! 

L. i. 71 12 i. 24 2. the eighth month, November, cf. i K. 6 38; 
Assyr. Arah samna, Palm. J1J3, Jewish ptJ>mD. The name is pro- 
bably native Canaanite ; its original meaning is not known. 1DV 
For ")B>y, an orthographic peculiarity found only here; 42 3. 46 i 
mfc?y. In Phoen. as in Hebr. B> stands for s and sh, e.g. yEB> 
1. 6 and NB* 1. 7. H3B> is plural. Phoen. uses 'in 14 years' 
for 'in the i4th year'; see 6 i n. and cf. the construction vi DB^3 12 
i . 'O/D? is usually taken as inf. constr. with suff. 3 mas. sing., 
'of his reign,' viz. of king Eshmun-'azar, cf. the Aram, idiom in 
which the suffixed noun is followed by "!, ?, before the genitive. The 
Hebr. t^nn 1N33 Eze. 1 3 is similar ; Ges. 1 3 1 n. and note 2 , Schrod. 
1 49 f. But the construction is awkward in Phoen., and the parallel 
which is quoted from 42 4 ff. "INBTT "Hits can be otherwise explained. 
Lidzsb. may be right in treating *ai?D as inf. constr. with *' compaginis, 

cf. e i f. mrwjna I^D *[a ]o . . . rrva. In 24 2. 26 2 ^bzb has the suff. 

5] Sidon Eshmun-azar 33 

3 mas. sing., but the construction is different. 1ty3DtJ>K i.e. 

Eshmun-'azar ii, see 4 i f. 

L. 2. ruun 'D p See 4 i. 1Ofci> , . .-an Elsewhere peculiar 

to Hebr. The \/"m 1. 6 has not been found in Phoen. outside 
this inscr. 

L. 3. TO i>3 r^T3J 1. 12, cf. Job 22 16 ny N^ 1BDJ?. Q o h. 7 17, and 
the beginning of Hezekiah's hymn, Is. 38 10. The Phoen. negative ^3, 
in Hebr. poetic, occurs again in 42 15. 43 6. The other negative 
is ''K 1. 5 and 4 4 n. ; the two are apparently combined in ^TK 
42 1 8. 21. 43 n. X^ is not used in Phoen. The meaning of 

the eight following letters (again in 1. 12 f.) is obscure. They may be 
read DO" 1 "]DD p the son of a (small) number of days, cf. "1QDD D'O* Num. 
9 20 a few days. The word *JD prob. comes from *pD (for the form 
cf. :JDO Ex. 26 36. D310 Num. 31 28), and means number, sum, as ^1P in the 
Babyl. Aram, of the Talmud, e. g. B. Bathr. 2 1 a ""plTl npO HD the number 
for a teacher of the young ; hence the denom. vb. "]D to sum, count up, e.g. 
B. Bathr. 166 b (Levy NHWB s.v.) ; cf. the Syr. Ui (from ^SUBD) sum, 
limit, and Arab. dL to stop, close up. The Hebr. "]1D (*J1t5>) to fence, hedge 
round Job 823, HD1DD hedge Mic. 7 4, is prob. a kindred root. With 
regard to p another explanation is possible ; it may be written for |D 
before a word beginning with D , cf. 1. 6 n., 29 1 3 DflJO p (Lidzb. 312); 
injlimyaritic p is the equivalent of ipfrom, e. g. CIS iy 20 4, ^rtoy3= 
^E>yo iy 2 9 f. If this is the case, tr. from the (full) number of (my) 
days. D"1TN 1. 3. Meaning unknown. The four letters occur again in an 
inscr. from Hadrumetum (Susa), Euting Hadr. 9 2 DiTN ^yasta 23 
(Carth. In. Anh. 6). To derive the word from *tfK to gird (Stade Morg. 
Forsch.22$ f.) gives no sense that suits the context ; on the other hand, if 
the root be D1T, it may have the same sense as the Arab. Ijj cease, stop 
short, and D1TN, possibly an Afel form, may mean cut off, i.e. by disease 
(Winckler Altor. Forsch. i 67); but it is hard to say what part of the 
verb D1TN (Afel) can be. None of the explanations which have been 
proposed, e.g. Hoffmann's ?$ [J"3] |3 DO pn !K, commend them- 
selves. The letters which follow may be read nt^N perhaps = Hebr. 
JlWOpK widowhood, here widow. rkn Prob. sarcophagus. The 

ft 9 Ml j. 

V ??r\=bore, hollow out', Arab. JJ>., hence UL. box, case; Aram. JVN 
sheath; Bab. Talm. KD^n bee-hive; 11. 5. 7. n. 21. 

L. 4. nJ3 i. e. ''033. 'Hi 5>a JIN *3p my curse be with every . . . ! 

cf. 1. 20. 4 3 (corn). In the Mishnah DJIp is used in adjurations and 

imprecations, very much in the same way as pip (e. g. Nedarim 10 a), 
Git tin 45 b a man of Sidon said to his wife""7B>n3D TN DN DJIp ' a 


34 Phoenician [5 

curse upon me if I do not divorce thee ! ' ; the word may have been 
used in Phoen. for similar imprecations. It is to be explained most 
prob. by the Syr. OOLO substantia, woo-rao-is, so person (from IPOD), 
often used in such phrases as ^&Su taous lu ipse, and with the suff. 
simply as an emphatic pers. pron. wooaxo egomel. In imprecations 
DJIP will then be the object in an elliptical sentence, ' (I pledge) myself, 
my person, with so and so (that I will avenge) . . .' See Wright Comp. 
Gr. 130. n3bB 3 2 n, nflD' and the vbs. which follow may be 
either sing, or plur. 33^0 A resting-place in the grave, as 16 2. 

2 Ch. 16 14. Is. 57 2, cf. 4 8. To violate a grave was the greatest 
indignity that could be offered to the dead; see Am. 2 i. Jer. 8 i f . 

L. 5. p Either J3 with me or \% with us. The former is better suited to 
the context, while the latter is what we should expect from the analogy 
of Hebr. But the sing. suff. with demonstrative 3, though properly 
belonging to verbs (e.g. }r6ys 3 2. plIP 9 8), may have been used in 
Phoen. with prepositions; cf. the form in ^K/33.n, fat?*.. See note on 
frnN 4 4. D3D See 4 5 n. 65 6. The five letters D3D33 are taken 

by the Corp. as one word D3b33 for D?b3 treasures cf. /ia/t/iwva. Stade, 
Morg. Forsch. 223, proposes D?9"|3 (from H3D) a rich man, lit. a son 
of pounds, cf. Talm. B. Erubim 85 b m HNO p. Both explanations 
are improbable. 

L. 6. W 33S?n rhy T 33K1D3 JDDJP tal Usually rendered, 'nor 
superimpose upon this resting-place~tKe chamber of a second resting- 
f place,' taking JDOJP as impf. 3 plur. with ending fV (cf. jp' 1. 22, fNB" 

*"<*?*> 33 6), and n?y as a noun, see 4 4 . This rendering, however, is 
JP " t *" prob. incorrect. In Hebr. D1Dy=(i) lay a burden upon (^y), lade Gen. 
44 13. Neh. 13 15, and (2) carry as a burden, lade oneself 'Zech. 12 3 
(with suff.). Neh. 4 u. Is. 46 3. Each time }DS^ occurs in this inscr., 
11. 5 f. 7. 21, the parallel verb in the context is NB*, just as in Is. 46 3 
D'tttwm . . . CTDOyn cf. v. i and Neh. 4 n ; it is therefore most pro- 
bable that JDtDJ?* means not lay a burden upon (which would require the 
prep. i>y rather than 3), but carry me as a burden, the final J r being the 
suff. i sing. (cf. Jttin 4 6. P13 11 8. p3D 29 15). Similarly in 42 13. 
43 8 DOy* is used of an offering carried into the presence of 
the god; cf. also the pr. nn. DCyJCPK 39 2. DDynipbo CIS i 
941 &c. T 33^03 JDOy can hardly mean carry me in this sepulchre, 
for the 33JPD, which denotes not the coffin but the sepulchre or place 
of burial, could not be carried away. The removal of the coffin or 
mummy-case is deprecated in the phrase *33tJ>D n^Tl JYN W i>K, 
repeated three times in this context (11. 5. 7. 21). Accordingly 
T 33KT33 must mean from this sepulchre, the 3 being written for D 

5] Sidon Eshmun-azar 35 

(IP) before a word beginning with O, see 1. 3 n. The prep. 2 itself 
cannot denote from (Winckler A I/or. Forsch. i 64 f.); the instances 
quoted, e.g. 11 DPm flPfcaa. 9 3 "\Ttib abaa. 33 6 D^N 5)033 are not 
conclusive. The meaning of nbtt is disputed. It occurs after nnB 
three times in this inscr.Jl. 7. 10. 20 (cf. L 4 FVK nnB* i>K). and three 
times in 4, 11. 4. 6. 7_j similarly after iy 1. 21. It is safest to take it 
here (1. 6), and in every case, as the prep, rby used in a pregnant 
sense ]_ thus after fDOy, carry me (and lay me] on a second sepulchre, 
after nna\ open over me, over this sepulchre i.e. open me up &c., exactly 
as the Palm. KnOM~Vn5y fins' 1 vh BttW amf let no man open over him 

this chamfer 145 3. Note the alternative construction with the accus. 
1. 4 T 33K>D JVK fins' 1 $>N. See 4 4 . DOTN Plur. of DHK, not 

found in Hebr.; 11. n. 22. 20 A 5. 33 4. 7. 42 16. 17. 
For suff. after in cf. the rare usage in O.T., e.g. Gen. 37 4 
The form here is Piel impf. 3 plur., and the suff. has a demonstra- 
tive J; cf. D33QD> 1. 19. Ps. 50 23 \m33V Gen. 27 19. 31 '33-nn. 
Job 7 14 *3njnn; Konig Lehrgeb. ii 443 c. pro This might 

mean their vain talk from ^ Is. 166. Jer. 48 30 &c., but it is much 
more likely that the stone-cutter made a mistake (cf. 11. 9. 15. 16), and 
intended to write anyp.Le. Drnyra. For 3 yDE cf. Gen. 22 18. 
2 S. 12 18 &c. with i>1p3. 

L. 7. rby nns^ 4 4 . NB e> ON or ^<? j^a// /a^<? azyay. 

Here and in 11. 10. 1 1 DK by itself = or. a variation from the JHebr. y 

usage. In 42 3 &c. Dj< . . . V?=.whether ... or, as in Hebr. 

T. 8. p 1 " 4 7 . oi> Prep. ^ with sufF. 3 plur., 1. n. Many ' 

scholars, however, take this suff. to be sing, and not plur., and suppose 
that^ it was pronounced P.? -ahim-em\2& ahi-e 1 ^,_the_jijsual form of 
this suff.); Schrod. 153-157, see 42 5 n. But in this inscr. the 
context does not require D^ to be taken as sing. DSB1 4 8. 

L. 9. tnnn = Dn^nn t 'n their stead. D313D^ Piel or Hifil 

impf. 3 plur. mas. with suff. D3 r , and may . . . deliver them up ; here 
followed by J1K with, instead of TS as in O.T. DBHpn D3^KH 

Cf. 1. 22. 3 10 n. Dan. 4 5. [n]3^OO So the text is prob. to 

be corrected. Cf. the mistake in n[3]?OD 1. n. T1K splendid, 

mighty, an epithet assumed by the Ptolemaic kings, 10 6; cf. Ps. 
136 1 8 D^HN D^O. hwo Qal ptcp. where the impf. might be 

expected. D33=Dn3 See add. note on suff. DJ' p. 39. 

L. 10. D3nvpi> to cut them off, see add. note p. 39. The object of the 
inf. is expanded in the two long clauses which follow: '(even) that 
prince .... or those men (1. n).' It is possible to put the stop at 
D3H^ and take 'lil ns^OD TVN as accus. pendens, the construction 

D a 

36 Phoenician [6 

being resumed by D? p n 7K 1. n (Hoffmann); but this is less in 
accordance with epigraphic style. DN or 1. 7 . 

L. ii. n[p]i>DD So correct the error of the mason. Nn 'D 3 
13 . nDn=nE>n 1. 22. 29 5. 42 17 nn DOIxn. For the ending 

n in non cf. Eth. 'emunlu, 'emdntu, Assyr. tunuti, fern. &'<z/*', Sab. <fo/; 
Konig Lehrgeb. ii 368. 'w B mB> Cf. Is. 37 31. Am. 2 9. 

Job 18 1 6. For IB cf. 44 2. 

L. 12. "ixn with the sense of beauty as in Is. 53 2. BW nnn 

4 7 . jm Apparently Nifal ptcp. of pn i. e. 1C 1 ?. /<? <? /#/'f, 

cf. Jer. 22 23 JjOnjTnp (text doubtful); for ptcp. as gerundive cf. X*113 
Ps. 76 8. ^i?nD 18 4. It is possible (Lidzb.) that }m may be some 
form (? ptcp.) connected with the -s/nu and means / am resting ; cf. 
nnj of rest in the grave 16 2. 

L. 14. p p refers to Eshmun-'azar, not to Tabnith; cf. 3 i. 
mn^yDX Not 'Ashtart is mother but handmaid of "Ashlar /, mn&>y[n]DK 
16 3, as is clear from JOPXON CIS i 881 which must = jOB>N[n]BK , 
for Eshmun could not be ' mother.' 

L. 15. jran Cf. Tim 3 3. 7. ON An error for t?N. J33 i.e. 

L. 1 6. DN nn Jud. 17 5. For DN see 3 io. The 'house of 
'Ashtart ' mentioned here is prob. the great temple of 'Aorap-n; in Sidon 
which Lucian visited, de dea Syr. 4; see p. 27. pK^l Prob. an error 
for ptJl 1. 17, Hifil or Piel (cf. Eze. 25 4 and 3^ in Mishnah) pf. i plur. 
of 3K" and we caused to dwell. Winckler, however, Altor. Forsch. i 67, 
prefers the text, which he renders and we brought in, quoting the Assyr. 
tsiru (a Canaanite word), send or bring in something, often in Tell-el- 
Amarna letters (Winckler, Engl. Tr., p. 10*). D"nNDD5? Meaning 

uncertain. The Corp. groups the letters OT1NO DP there, making (her] 
glorious, i.e. E Vi n'!'P cf. 1. 19 n. Hoffmann explains D"J 1KO && in app. to 
mnjpy and in 1. 17 to the suff. in 'jnP' 1 !, and illustrates the order by 
Ps. 47 10, and the idea by Ps. 7 18. 9 3 &c., comparing the name 
Semiramis=D1 1| DK > ; but it may be doubted whether Dtp can=nomen 
= numen. The rendering of the glorious heavens DV1N DOtJ' does not 
suit 1. 17. fnJKzsyruN. The final vowel, though not written 

(cf. Aram, ^i**/, later .), was prob. pronounced. 

L. 17. JDB'N Eshmun was the god of vital force and healing; hence 
the Greeks and Romans identified him with Aesculapius, e. g. in the 
trilingual inscr. 40 i fCB>i6 = AZKAHnin = AESCOLAPIO. He had 
a shrine near Berytus, TO TOV 'Ao-*cX->^rtoi5 aXo-os Strabo ed. Mull. 644 ; 
at Sidon his importance is implied by the name of king Eshmun-'azar. 
In Cyprus many pr. nn. were compounded with Eshmun, e. g. p 

6] Sidon Eshmun-azar 37 

12 4. PPK13S? 17 i f. rO&PM 19 2 &c. At_Carthage he had_a. temple 
which ^sfoorl nn the highest ground in the city, the Byrsa (cf. CIS i 
252 4 'N ra 13J?). His worship was carried to the Carthaginian colonies, 
e. g. to Sardinia, cf. 40 and the pr. nn. fDB>N13y ib. DDyjB>N 39 
2 &c. At Carthage his attributes were combined with those of 'Ashtart, 
e. g. mnpyJOPK fro mphyUP CIS i 245 3 f., and in Cyprus with those 
of Melqarth, e.g. ntpbn300i6 VH&6 CIS i 16. The_etymology of the 
najne is obscure. According to the ancients }CE>K was derived from 
*30ty the eighth of the Kaffetpot l ; recently G J ^Hoffmann has suggested 
a connexion with \&, ?O1pK <tne ^ at one / -^ xi 227. The two 

letters before {jnp are almost obliterated; the latter of the two is 1 
or i. The Corp. suggests 'p n^=iy' 1 the sacred grove ; 'p "iB>=mt? 1. 19 
/A? sacred field (Lidzb. ) is more likely. Hoffmann's holy demon (IB*) 
is improbable. i&T jy Meaning uncertain; perhaps, well of 

Yidlal. ^38*1 Hifil pf. i plur. with suff. *' a</ z#< caused him 

to dwell, \.e.VK&\. 

L. 1 8. ^N!> i. e. '3Vb plur. constr., cf. 20 A 3. pv ^J?3!j to the 

Baal of Sidon 33 6, cf. Hesychius QaXacro-ios Zevs* ei/ SiSwvi Ti/tarot. 
For Ba'al with a local designation cf. J33^ '3 11. IS '3 36 i. nn '3 
149 A i ff.; in O.T. penn '3 Jud. 3 3. Tivn '3 2 S. 13 23. mya 'a 
Dt. 4 3 &c. The actual name of the god was not pronounced ; 
see 3 2 n. ^3 DB> niHK'y 'A. the name of Bdal, i L e._the_mani- 

festation of B. In the O.T. the Name of Yahweh is frequently used 
for Hislnanifested presence (Ex. 23 20 f. I K. 8 16. Is. 18 7 

His Person and attributes as revealed to men (Ex. 815. 34 5 f. &c.). 
The Phoenicians, in accordance with their polytheistic tendencies, 
personified the attributes of Ba'al, and the name of Ba'al became a 
distinct deity and underwent a change of gender ; the manifestation of 
B. became 'Ashtart his consort. Cf. i>J?a }S run Tanith the Face o/. 
in the Carthaginian inscrr. ; and see further Vogue" Melanges a" Arch. 
Orient. 53 ff., Stade Morg. Forsch. 196. Some authorities, however, 
interpret differently, pronouncing DG? as Dfc*, and rendering 'Ashtart of 
the heaven of Ba'al, Dillmann Monatsber. d. Berl. Akad. (1881) 606 ff., 
Nowack Hebr. Archaol. ii 306 f., E^Meyer Ency. Bill. 3745. These 
scholars in 1. 16 group the Tetters D11N DDK' nint^j; A. of the glorious 
heavens ; see note in loc. But the meaning Himmels-Aslarte Baals, 
i. e. 'Ashtart the consort of BecXora^v (Dillm.), can only be extracted 

1 E. g. Damascius ap. Phot. 352 b, ed. Migne iii 1305 01 5J rbv 'Effpovvov oy&oor 
afiovffiv fpfirjvtvtiv ort 076005 Jjv T$ 'SaSvKy waiV. Philo Bybl- fr- Hist. Gr. iii 
569 ol tiTTa 2v5(K ircuSfs K.d0tipot, Kal 078001 ait-row d5eA</>os 'Aaic\r]vi6s. 

38 Phoenician [5 

from ^jn DB> 'V by violence ; the equivalent of such a title would 
be 'p '3 mrwy or DDB> 'y, see p. 27. Besides the jemples 
of 'Ashtart and Eshmun (11. 16. 17), perhaps the gods of the royal 
hous77Hoffm4,Jhe_king and his motheThad founded temples to the 
patron deities of the_gtate, Ba'al of Sidon and 'Ashtart the Name of 
l8 )- The 'house of 'A.' in 1. 18 is different from the 'house 

of 'A.' in 1. 16; the same goddess was worshipped in two temples 7 
under different aspects. JJV The Phoen. form of the Hebr.JBJ, c 

11. 12 3 &c., and the pr. nn. feirV, jn^ya, jrwfo &c. TheloTmjM, 
however, is implied in some names, e.g. fn 9 2. D^wno, byiunD 
&C. 1 Data H x = tne Ptolemaic title KV/HOS /Sao-iAeW (Gk. 

inscrr.), the chiefTTolder of royal power ihlEelEast. e. g. 10 5 f. 
(Ptolemy iii). 27 i (Ptolemy ii). 28 2 (Ptolemy i). 29 4 ff. (Ptolemy 
vii?); in 9 5 Alexander the Great (Seleucid era). Here the re- 
ference is perhaps to Ptolemy ii PhiTadelphus ; and the position of 
Eshmun-'azar as a subject-prince may be confirmed by Diodorus Sic. 
(xix 58), who mentions Phoen. kings after Alexander in the time of 
Antigonus (so Cl.-Gan. Rec. i 86). As illustrating Eshmun-'azar's 
commemoration of his suzerain's bounty, cf. what Theocritus says of 
Ptolemy ii, IIoAAov 8' ufrOinoun 8i8u>prrrat ffiurtAevo-U' Tl.oX.Xov 8f 
irroXiccrcri, TroXvv 8* ayaO<now_iTa.Lpois Id. xvii nof. The death of 
1 Eshmun- azar may have_occurred about 2 f _$__*. c. His dynasty has 
been placed much eariier,in the Persian period ; but the use of the 
title D3^)D pN favours the view adopted ; the Persian king is always 
no^DJ^D, cf. 71 3 ; Cl.-Gan. I.e. and Rec. v 223, E. Meyer I.e. 3762 n. 
See Appendix I. 

L. 19. 1ST The modern Tantura, on the coast, N. of Jaffa. In 
Assyr. inscrr. it is called Duru, Schrader COT 168; in the O.T. nn 
Josh. 12 23 or INT ib. 17 ii &c. w Joppa, Josh. 19 46. Jon. 

1 3 1&V miNn great, glorious 11. 9. 16 f. The idea of expanse 

is contained in the root (Ex. 15 10. Ps. 93 4 of the waves of the sea, 
majestic) ; so TIN is suitably applied to the wide corn-lands of 
(Is. 65 10. i Chr. 27 29 &c.). W = fnfc> c f. 29 9. 

Prob. in proportion to, in accordance with, cfTTnco 42 1 7 ; from 

1 Winckler Altor. Forsch. i 69 f. explains JIT as originally (H)ifil of jra (cf. 
subsequently used as the basis of a new Qal formation. In the same way he accounts 
for the Hebr. ps% n:r, aJT &c., viz. as Qal formations from the (H)ifil of verbs }'E. 
But (i) there is no evidence for a Hifil in Hebr. with ' for 'n, and (2) the cognate 
languages show that these verbs were originally VE, not J'E, e.g. as' = Aram. (Targ.) 
as% Arab, s^j ; SS' = Aram. ys% cf. Arab. x-j ; n^' = Aram. (Targ.) is', 
Jt-I. Arab. *^ y Assyr. ?stru. 

Sidon Eshmun-azar 39 

measure. '131 JIBVy the mighty things which I did, perhaps refer- 

ring to the support given to Ptol. ii in his struggle with Antiochus i, 
which began about 275 B. c., Bevan House ofSeleucus ii 233-235. The 
words have been transl. ' for the great tributes which I paid ' ; but 
nTP__Neh. 5 4, BAram. m3P, mo, is a loan-word from_J\.ssyr. 
(madattu), ajid even if it had found its way into Phoen. through Aram., 
^yais not a suitable verb to go with Jt ; the Hebr. "fu r65>y is not really 
parallel. D33BD*1 Qal perf. i plur. with suif. and we added them i. e. 
DJJBp'l, see add. note ; to take the form as Qal perf. 3 sing, with suff. 
does not account for the first 3. Stade, Morg. Forsch. 310, regards 
03330*1 as imperf. 3 sing, with waw conversive ; butL this idiom is not 
found elsewhere in the Phoen. inscrr. at present known (see 42 4 n.) ; 
and though the 3 energicum belongs to the imperf. rather than to the 
perf. in the cognate languages, yet a double energic 3, with the verb 
and in the suff. D3', produces a combination too clumsy to be 
probable. r6y sp 3 n. 

L. 20. DMabrrDrn'ni) Cf. 4 7 . and add. note below. i>33 

Prob. plur. = ^33. 

L. 21. iy Piel juss. 3 sing. r jDlur. from my lay bare, uncover, cf. 
2 Ch. 24 ii fnn HK Vijn ; here followed by the prep, rhy (cf. Pins' 
rhy 1. 7 &c. 4 4 n.), unless rby is to be taken as a noun, inner-chamber 
1. 6n. D7=m2;> in the sense of lest. In dialectical or late Hebr. 

\\rb preceded by the relat. has acquired this meaning, e. g. Cant. 1 7 
nDpB'. Dan. 1 10 HD^ "KPN. In Aram. JooX? is the ordinary word for 
lest-, so in BAram. noi' n Ezr. 7 23, and HD^ alone Ezr. 4 22; 
Kautzsch Gr. Bibl. Aram. 131, see further Driver Samuel 123 f. In the 
expression Dy D^ CIS i 270 ff. (49 5 n.), tb has a prohibitive sense ; 
cf. in Palm. yDE* Ktb let him not be satisfied 145 7. D3~13D^ 1. 9 . 

L. 22. ta=n^K Cf. 45 2. 27 3 !>n. }Vp^ Qal or Piel impf. 3 

plur. with ending } , cf. }NB 33 6. nan 1. 1 1 n. 

Additional note on the suffix of 3 plur. in Phoen. There are three 
forms : (i) PiY, so far only found in Plautus Poen. v 1 4 syllohom i.e. 
ED^P, cf. Hebr. Dn r , Arab. ^A, Aram. Dn r . (2) p^prob. em (from a^?'^), 
e.g. DJTIT 1. 22. D^p 23 7. DJO 43 6. (3) D3'. with | nouns sing., e.g. 
D32S 19 3 f- D33"JN 27 5 ; with nouns ^plur., e. g. D3[n3JT 1. 6. D313n 
42 19. D3lTy 25 2 (ptcp.); "wftrTthe verb, e.g. D3nvp^ 1. 10. 

1. 20 (inf.). D313D> 1. 9 (impf.). D33DD 11 1. 19 (pf.); with pj^s., e.g. 
D3nnn 1. 9. D33 ib. This suff. is compounded of D+3, the 3 being 
the energic or demonstrative nun which is commoia_in_Arab. with the 




impf. (also before suffixes, e.g. yaqtulan-ka and yaqtulanna-ka), and 
appears in Hebr. occasionally, e.g. Vif^j 1 ?). In Phoen. it has been 
already noticed 1. 6 above, *p"aT . This same 3 is regularly used in 
the Aram, dialects with the plur. suff. attached to the verb, e.g. Bibl. 
Aram. ft33 , Hand. JW', pa: 11 ', pm^ (Noldeke Mand. Gr. 88), Palest. 
Talm. p^, |WJ(')', &(> Onk - Nii>/ > P 33/ > n*J' Palman Gr. d.Jtid- 
Pal. Aram. 79). It is, a -peculiarity of Phoen. thatjhis 3 is combined 
with the suff. Q, anHthatjhis pi 7 is used as a suff. jvith nouns and 
See K6nig Lehrgeb. ii 444, Wright Comp. Gr. 194. 

6, Sidon. CIS i 4. iv cent. B. c, Louvre. 


In the month MP C , in the year when king Bod-'ashtart, 
king of the Sidonians, came to the throne, (it was) that Bod- 
'ashtart, king of the Sidonians, built the plain of this land to 
his god 'Ashtart. 

L. i. [y]DD Restored after 29 6. 7 3 ^D 'afo nc>n lit. 'in the 

year of the reign of king B.,' i.e. prob. his first year. For the construc- 
tion *]ta *3^D see 5 in.; in the latter case we find *Jftk. T\V 

(forJrUB' as Tfo for 1JI32) is obviously ^singular here, asu Jt is in such 
expressions as fits' r NH K>N 27 2, and similarly 9 5. 1O 8. DDDt? flea 
40 2, 47 i. . . rm . . 013 33 i ; so on the Moab. St. 1 2. 8, and in Aram. 
69 i. On Phoen. coins, to denote the year, it is always nt? or ntJO, 
not T\y&, e.g. Babelon Pers. Ach. p. 211 ff. On the other hand, r\yy 
is the form used for the plural; thus . . T\M2 . . QD" 1 ! 12 1. 13 1. 14 i. 
23 i and similarly 5 i. This is quite clear in the phrase n^n K>N 
xxxiii IW . . 29 5. In NPun. JW, HNW, is obviously plural, e.g. 53 2. 
54 3. 56 4. 58 3. There are cases where JltJ>2 sing, is used, e.g. 9 4. 
1O 5. 33 i, instead of the normal JWl plur. 23 6. 24 2. 26 2. 29 4. 8. 
30 4 ; but these cases may be accounted for~by the imitation of the 
Gk. formula~cv~efror ITOUS. Thus the usage seems to be estab- 

6] Sidon 41 

lished: in Phoen. HP was used for the sing, and D3K> for the plur. 
(cf. Hebr. H3 and DU3). The above is worked out clearly by Cl.-Gan. 
Rec. ii 75. 

L. z. mrWtt Perhaps Straton i 374-362 B.C.; cf. 149 B 13, 
and see Appendix I. The Ineaning of the prefix 13 is disputed. 
The word may be explained by the Hebr. 13 plur. 0^3 parts, members. 
The theophorous pr.nn. which contain this prefix, e.g. mpi>D13 39 2. 

42 2. ruri13 ib, i, will then describe the individual as being 
under thejprotection of the deity, a member or client of 'Ashtart, Esh- 
mun &c. ; cf. "U 17 2 n. In the same way we can account for the use 
ofjrMn a scrips nf Carthaginian inscrr. CIS i 269-286, where it 
occurs, not in connection with a deity, butjyith the name of the donor's 

patron, e.g. 49 a f. ( = CIS 269) jrWDPK 13 3*T 13 |l* > 
B. the Sidonian, the client of his master Eshmun-yathon. This usage is 
explained by the old Semitic custom which allowed a foreigner to 
place himself under the protection of a native, a member of whose 
household he became. The donors of these inscrr. were apparently 
strangers (e.g. p tPK) who availed themselves of the custom at 
Carthage; so Lidzbarski 134 n., Bloch Phoen. Gloss. i$n. Most 
authorities (e.g. Corp. p. 345) take 13 to be a shortened form of 13JJ 
servant ; but this does not suit the cases where 13 is used of women 
(CIS i 279. 280) J1EK would be the proper word nor the cases 
where 13 and 13V occur in the same context, e, g. rnptal3y p mp!>D13 
and vice versa, CIS i 203. 199. The pronunciation of mntJ>yi3 &c. 
was prob. Bod-'ashtart &c., the short vowel before 1 with daghesh 
(. . . 1?) being lengthened when 13 was used in composition before 
another syllable; this pronunciation is supported by the Gk. form 
Bo'jSao-Tparos, in an inscr. from Cos, Michel 424, rjpwv BovSaoTparov 
Tvptos. A different etymology is suggested by Grunwald, Eigennamen 
des A. T. 7 n., who quotes the Assyr. Pudi*ilu, Budu-ilu^ prince of 
God'(?) KB ii 91, Budi-ba'al ib. 173 ; this meaning otJSudu, however, 
is not clearly established. 

L. 3. }3 3 i.e. H33 ^| for he built; or supplying a clause before the 
conjunction . . . (it was} that he built. Cf. 33 3. 

L. 4. [}*]"1N pP Various restorations and renderings have been 
suggested ; the simplest is the plain of this land, ptj> being a plain 
between the mountains and the sea, cf. 619. To build the plain is not 
a very natural expression, but it is paralleled by i K. 16 24 nx }3'1 
inn. Hoffmann, Ub. ein.Phdn. In. 59, connects the word with Kf"]^ 
Ezr. 5 3. 9 walls (Vulg.), a form which is itself equally obscure. 

L. 5. 'yi> ^[N]!? Cf. 24 i. CIS i 94 4. The Phoen. suff. 3 m. sing. 

42 Phoenician [7 

is *' /, contracted from ahi; cf. Aram. H- , K__, o**. Both the Phoen. 
and Aram, have weakened the original ahu preserved in the Arab. i 
and the Hebr. W, ri', Y. 

7. Sidon. Sid. 4. iii-ii 

This offering (is that) which 'Abd-miskar, governor of the 
other side of SFT, the second governor, son of Ba'al-sillah, gave 
to his lord Shalman : may he bless ! 

L. i. nnJB Here of an offering in general, as perhaps in CIS i 
14 5 7N)7nn3; elsewhere 'D is used of sacrifices, with or without 
blood, e.g. 29 13. 42 14. 48 10. For T with a fern, noun see 3 add. 

note ii -DDDiay Cf. laDenon 59 A 5. naoona CIS i 267 &c. 

"13DD must be the name of a deity, though it appears as the name of 
individuals in the Latin forms mescar, misicir &c. CIL viii 5194. 5217. 
The etymology of the name is uncertain. Renan thinks of the Egypt. 
Sokari, who at Memphis was the god of the dead (Maspero Hist. Anc. 
26. 412); another suggestion is that the name is pure Egypt, mer-seker 
'loving silence,' a title of Hathor (cf. 12D1Dn supr.), with an elision 
of the r ; Hoffmann proposes a compound of the Cyprian HD 
(=mpi>D 40 i n.) + the Egyptian Sw^apis, ^ r > ^ xi 239 f.; Cl.-Gan. 
suggests that 13010= "13TD (cf. 9 6 n.}, which may be the equivalent of 
Mvrjfjuxrvvr) to whom a temple (Aedes Memoriae) was dedicated at 
Carthage, Rev. Arch. iii. t. 33, 274. This last explanation is certainly 
attractive. tj&? IT nQD^ "OJ? 21 Meaning obscure. Lidzbarski 

367 renders, most plausibly, ' under- prefect of Trans-LSPT,' or 
' of JTrans-sPT,' taking the b as a prep. (cf. }TV? 13J?) and nan as 
the name of a stream (V'fpD), or as=HebnnDtyfoft; Eph. i 16. 147. 
This rendering mayT>e Illustrated by the legend on some Cilician coins 

of Mazaios, "m iOnJ-Qj? y V HTD i.e. 'Mazaios governor of 
Trans-Euphrates and Cilicia,' 149 A 6. Cl.-Ganneau's explanation, 
' rab retired, moreover rob for the second time,' is less probable ; 
it is difficult to believe that 7130^== added to this, and yP=rP3t?'. 
Landau, Beitr. z. Alter iumsk. d. Or. ii 13, renders 'which 'A. gave for 
LSPT, the over-SNi/ treating 1 in m as due to dittography, and 
reading -OJD =TQp. 

L. 2. r&te Baal prospers, cf. n^TOJH 32 2. nhfJOB'X 35 2 ; nhf 
is Piel. \chw The name of this deity has been found on a 

8] Tyre 43 

Gr. inscr. from Sheh Barakdt, N. of Aleppo, SeAa/xai^s CIG 4450. 
4451. The Assyr. Shulmanu may be the same word (Cl.-Gan. t. ii 
48), but as it occurs only in pr. nn., e.g. Shalman-asar, it may be 
merely the title of some god; Jastrow Rel. of Bab. and Assyr. 
189. *py A brief petition often found at the end of a votive 

inscr., e.g. 9 8. 12 4. 30 6 &c. (<+ 7. 


8. Tyre, iii cent. B. c. Louvre. 

T ppn hy& . . h^fcsfc* rfey rn 

p &fipn jnriK *pay TU . . . 3 
p fi^n n"^fir?a p tbsp?n] . . 4 
p D[s^n] . . 5 
pv n . . . 6 
p DS^ n , t ; Vt . . . 7 

L. i. n?V is the prep. upon. The next four letters are read 
the left by Cl.-Ganneau ^?<?f. i 89 ; but the letters are very 
doubtful. bysJ Nif. pf. 3 m. sing. Ppn is used in the O.T. 

for a sacrificial bowl Ex. 12 22. i K. 7 50. Jer. 52 19. Here we must 
suppose that the word is used in an extended sense of a large recep- 
tacle or reservoir. The inscr. is carved on a small moulded cube of 
stone pierced with a round passage about 4^ inches in diameter ; it was 
probably a spout through which water ran into a tank or reservoir. 
It seems to be the latter which is referred to as PjDil, and not the 
stone which bears the inscr. The Hebr. PJD has also the meaning 
threshold, e.g. Is. 6 4; but this meaning is not suitable here. 

L. 2. "iv p&Q may possibly mean in Tyrian weight, cf. "pDH J3N 
2 S 14 26; but the first word is very uncertain. P]D3 ^1 and 

moreover (?) silver (shekels). The first of the numerical signs is pro- 
bably to be taken as_thgj>ymbol for i OOP "/"> ; it seems to be different 
from the three signs which follow. This symbol ~\* is found on the 
Aram, papyrus CIS ii 1477 see Euting Nabataische Inschriften 96 
and Schroder ZDMG xxxix (1885) 317. The total number will be 

44 Phoenician ,[9 

1070. IX JDB coinage of Tyre, J72B lit. stamped; so in 

Arab. jCb seal, imprint. The coinage of Tyre, i.e. the Tyrian or 
Phoen. as distinct from the Attic standard, is frequently mentioned 
in the Talmud, e.g. Bab. Qam. 90 b H1V P13. Bekoroth 49 b. Jos. 
Bell, ii 21 2 Tvpiov vo/xwr/ia. This was the standard adopted by the 
Hasmonean princes, as being the native and traditional one; see 
Levy Gesch.jud. Mtinz. 155. 

L. 3. tDBB>n The title only here in Phoenicia itself. At an early 
date, in the time of Nebuchadnezzar, we hear of a succession of judges 
at Tyre, who took the place of the king ; they held office for short 
terms, and in one instance two ruled together for six years, Jos. 
c . Ap. i 21. Whether this precedent was followed in the third cent, 
is not known ; cf. 17 2. The stiff etes at Carthage belonged to a more 
developed constitution. *]tarj; i.e. Milk is (my) strength, a common 
name in the Pun. inscrr. 

L. 4. mphm 6 2 n. ltajn=l!>-DSn Uom is king, cf. 32 2 

ons wriDjn p nhfCjn. These names show that Bjn was a deity 
who had votaries among the Sidonians at the Piraeus. No further 
traces of him have as yet been found in Phoen. ; but D. H. Miiller, 
ZDMG xxx 691 f., quotes DIDJH (with mimation) as a pr. name found 
in Himyaritic; in Arab, too pr. names are formed from the same 
root. The Arab, ^prop, support; and it is possible that DJTJ = 
Supporter, Upholder. 

L. 5. T f|Dn tfn JVN i'yal made the half of this tank. >SH again in 
CISi 169 n. 

L. 6. tjon *snn is a grammatical anomaly. 

0. Umm-el-'Awftmid. CIS i 7. Date 132 B.C. Louvre. 

9] Umm-el- Awdmid 45 

To the lord Ba'al-shamem (this is that) which 'Abd-elim, 
2 son of Mattan, son of 'Abd-elim, son of Ba'al-shamar, in 3 the 
district of Laodicaea, vowed : even this gate and the doors 
* thereof I made in fulfilment of it (? ?) ; I built (this) in the year 
1 80 6 of the lord of kings, the I43rd year of the people 6 of 
Tyre, that it may be to me for a memorial and a good name 
7 under the foot of my lord Ba'al-shamem 8 for ever : may he 
bless me ! 

Umm-el-'Awa'mid is a ruined site near the coast between Tyre and 

L. i. DDB> ?jn lord of the heavens, i.e. the god who dwells in the 
heavens, to whom the heavens belong \ Unlike the early Ba'als who 
were connected with the earth and with special localities, Bajiljof 
heaven had a general, universal character. He makes his appear- 
ance in the later stages of Sem. religion, during the Gk. period. 
The earliest texts which mention him are the Punic (^-zcent. B. c.), 
39 i Dopynb p&6 ; CIS i 379 D&PhoP JH3 tun (Carthage); *dp 
'U1 DDB^JO }ro naten (a newly^ discovered _ins_cr. from. Carthage, 
Lidzb. JEth. i 248 -) : Plant. Poen. v 2 67 baha.iqen. But Carthage 
was not the original home of the cultus. This Inscr., dated 132 B. c., 
gives evidence for Phoenicia, and throughout the N. Semitic world 
V X 2 can be traced at this and a later period ; thus among the 
Nabataeans of Hauran CIS ii 163 pDPJO. 176 }C?Jd!>; in the Saft 
inscrr. }D ^JD (Littmann Safd-Inschr. 58. 70); in Palm. 133 i n. 
The name implies a conception of deity which seems to have been 
produced by outside influences. Lidzb. 1. c. suggestively notices that 
the Jewish title onDBTT Vita lYffP Ezr. 1 2. DWH ta Ps. 136 26. nta 
tf>DP Ezr. 6 9 &c. tODt? K1O Dan. 622 &c., which begins to be used 
in the Persian period, and may reflect the influence of Persian 
religion, was circulated by the Jews of the Dispersion at the very 
time when 'w 'u came into vogue (3-2 cent.); and it is probable 
that Jewish monotheistic ideas found their way into the surround- 1 
ing heathenism, as they certainly did at Palmyra (135 i n.). On the 
other hand, when Syria came under Gk. rule, '{? '2 was readily 

1 The S. Arab, god noun is generally said to = 'v '2; but Lidzb., Eph. i 243 ff., has 
proved that the identification cannot be sustained. The S. Arab, inscrr. do not give 
IQCT the position of 'w '2 ; he is only one among other deities ; and ' heaven ' is never 
written 'low in S. Arab. The Minaean form is nrrcw, the Sabaean poo, and 
' heaven ' is always sing. (Hommel Siid-ar. Chrest. 46). Like other Arab, names 
with i possessor of . . , ncwi is an epithet, prob. possessor of loftiness. 

46 Phoenician [9 

identified with Zeus, as later, under the Romans, with Jupiter ; thus 
in 2 Mace. 6 2 ^..v\^>.\=> = Zeus 'O\v'/X7rios and Z. Ee'vios *. Yet 
'{? '2 never occupied the predominant position of Zeus or Jupiter 
among the N. Semitic races 2 . Among the Nabataeans (supr.) in 
Roman times he never took the place of the national god Dushara ; 
at Palmyra he was not counted among the Trarpwot 0eoi, and it is 
remarkable that the dedications which contain his name were made 
by private persons, and they are few in number. There is no record 
of any official or general adoption of his worship by a king or city. 
A striking reference to the god occurs in the story of Ahiqar. Down 
to the fifth cent. A.D. his cult lasted in Syria, and from there passed 
into Armenia ; see Lidzb. 1. c. jno Cf. 2 K. 11 1 8 !P a priest 

of Ba'al; Mf/fna a king of Tyre, inscr. of Tiglath-pileser, COT 169 ; 
mu/fun, mythum &c. in Lat. inscrr., CIL viii p. 1030 a. Di>Nn3y 

'A^ST/XI/AOS Jos. c . Ap. i 2 1 ; see 33 6 n. 

L. 3. -px^ 3^>D3 Cf. Hebr. ^ Neh. 3 17 f., and the Assyr. 
pulug(g]u and pulukku, both in the sense of 'district/ 'border,' 
Delitzsch Assyr. HWB 525. 527. It is impossibleto_sajr jwhich of 
the many LaP^^ '" s y ria jg intPnHe^ perhaps L. ad mare, as 
distinguished from L. ad Libanum, is the most likely. Appian, Syriaca 

57, mentions a AooSuceia ^ ev T# QoiviKfj, and there is a series of 
coins belonging to L. ad Libanum which bear the legend B>K N31N^ 
?yj;n 149 B 8 s . In the Talm. a N">p'n < 6 is mentioned, and the 
context implies that it was near Tyre, Menahoth 85 b: also Siphre 
(Deut.) 148 a, ed. Friedmann. The 2 in J7B3 is rendered ' oriundus a ' 
by Winckler Altor. Forsch. i 65 ; but the rendering is scarcely 
supported, see 6 6 n. Cl.-Gan. takes "]7tib as the name of a month, 
XaoStKios, and explains thus : the vow was made in the middle (a!>B2 
lit. division) of the month, and the building carried out at the end 

of it Onbm), fit. i 37 ff. nnln From bn 20 AS. Ps. HI 3=rfrr. 

1 The DOW yips? of Dan. 12 II &c. is prob. an intentional disfigurement of ^3 
DOW, Nestle ZATW ^(1884) 248, Driver Daniel 188. In Julian ed. Hoffmann 249 
1. 8 he is mentioned along with Zeus, Hermes, Serapis. 

9 Philo of Bybl. exaggerates when he says TOVTOV yap (T& jjAtoi') Qt&v fv6ptov 
Hovov ovpavov Kvpiov Eef\ad/jir]v KaXovvrfs, Fr. Hist. Gr. iii 565 f. The identification 
with the sun is hardly correct. 

8 Babelon gives p>:33 DN Dtbb Z. the metropolis of Canaan, RS p. 84, cf. p. 86 
WR? CN is 1 ?, 149 B 15 is n3 ND 1Q3 DN ons 1 ); but the construction '2 CM is objec- 
tionable, and XD the rel. should be read, n and ttj being almost indistinguishable on 
the coins. It is surprising to find the same legend on coins of Berytus (Babelon 
Pers. Ach. clxiii f.) ; but the L. of the inscr. is not likely to have been Berytus, 
which was destroyed by Tryphon in 140 B.C. 

9] Umm-el-Awdmtd 47 

For the n artificially inserted in the plur., cf. Hebr. rrt'T?*?, Aram. 
fnaK, Ji'^5/* Arab, iLl+lf, and 63 16 n. 

L. 4. DJ3 Tl^na r6j?B ^N No satisfactory explanation of these 
.words has been discovered. The translation given above is that of the 
Corpus; hw = IPX, r6ya Pf. i sing., vfara i the fulfilment of it, 
i.e. the vow, nJ3 Pf. i sing. But h by itself ='b (*6) is contrary to 
usage, and the suff. in Vv3f)3 has no direct antecedent. Another 
explanation is W3 MIPS) D3 npyQp B>K which are for the making of the 
temple, I have finished; I built /'/..., or / have completely built. But 
we should expect the forms n^3, J1J3 for the Pf. i sing., and perhaps 
nan. Lidzb. proposes to treat h before r6ys as an affirmative, the 
Arab. J, and W3n as a noun JTyDri or ripari with *' compaginis, and 
nJ3 as inf. constr. with suff., which I have indeed made in the com- 
pletion of my building ; this involves too many doubtful assump- 
tions. ntJ>3 Sing.; see i n. 

L. 5. Data pi> 6 1 8 n. The date is reckoned by the Seleucid era ) 
which began in 3123. c. 1 Strictly speaking the lord of kings was 
Alexander the Great (died 323 B.C.); at the .time when the era was 
instituted, however, the reigning king was Seleucus i Nicator. ' The 
i Both year of the Seleucids' will be 132 B.C., and 'the 14 3rd year of] 4 
the people of Tyre ' thus rqakesjhe Tyrian era begin in 275 B. c., atf f 1 
which time the_city T after its capture by_Ptolemy Philadelphug t _began 
to recover itself as an autonomous municipality. 

L. 6. b i.e. |pb tS!2=Wf 13D = 13T 56 i. DP 

*: ^ yT * : 

Cf. Is. 56 5 ; and for DVJ DB> cf. 30 DB> 65 3, and in the Mishnah, e.g. 
Berakoth 17 a. 

L. 7. Dys = Hebr. Tfy n My or his lord. The context 

makes the former more suitable. 

L. 8. p"tt* Cf. 7 2 n. The suff. shows that here and elsewhere 
the verb is Piel not Pual. 

1 Its starting-point was the victory of Ptolemy i Soter, the ally of Seleucus, over 
Demetrius Poliorcetes, son of Antigonns, at Gaza in 312 B.C. This was followed 
by the victory of Seleucus over Nicanor the general of Antigonus, the recovery of 
Babylon, and the conquest of Susiana and Media. Porphyr. Tyr. Fr. Hist. Gr. 
iii 707. See Cl.-Gan. t. i 60 ff. ; Bevan House of Seleucus i 52. The Seleucid 
era was used by the Nabataeans, 97 iii n., by the Palmyrenes, 110 5 n., and by 
the Jews, who called it rvmos? po the era of contracts, e. g. 'Ab. zar. 10 a. For 
other designations see i Mace. In. Jos. Ant. xii 5 3. xiii 6 7. 

4 8 Phoenician [10 

10. Ma'stlb. Date 222 B.C. Louvre. 

p &>K fi a 

pn ^p najn mwy 3 

pn ^K rw*tt n-wy 1 ? 4 

in in /v ntn 5 

ns p Dyj 3 TTKTI oJ?o 6 

K DNDDINI D'fc 1 ? 7 

p mm 9 
b . . 10 

The portico on the quarter (?) of the sun-rise and the north 
(side) 2 of it, which the Elim, the envoys of Milk- 3 'Ash tart 
and her servants, the citizens of IJammon, built 4 to 'Ashtart 
in the asherah (?), the god of Hammon, 5 in the gotfr year of 
Ptolemy, lord 6 of kings, the noble, the beneficent, son of 

7 8 

Ptolemy and Arsinoe, the divine Adelphoi, in the three (and) 

fiftieth year of the people of [Tyre] ; 9 as also they built all 

10 11 

the rest ...... which . in the land, to be to them for ..... 

. . . ever. 

Ma'sub is situated to the S. of Umm-el- Awamid, about half way 
between Tyre and Ptolemais ('Akka). The general purport of the 
inscr. seems to be this : Certain distinguished citizens of Hammon, 
a town near Tyre, build or restore a portico in the neighbouring 
temple of 'Ashtart at Ma'sub, in honour of their own Milk-'Ashtart, the 
deity of Hammon. It may have been that the temple of Hammon 
was founded from that at Ma'sub, and the restoration an act of piety 
towards the mother-shrine. 

L. i. naiy See 8 6 n. mna The \/l33=3<? much, great, as 

in Assyr. kabdru, Old Aram. e.g. 61 1 1. 62 4. 9, Aram. -JLo, Arab.^T; 
so r 3 may be taken as an adj. agreeing with nsny the great portico. 




A more expressive meaning, however, is suggested by the Assyr. 
kibratu ' a (widely) extended territory,' ' a quarter of the world,' 
e.g. lar kibrat arbati 'king of the four quarters,' Schrader COT 247, 
cf. the Hebr. pn n~!33 Gen. 35 1 6 &c. a distance (lit. a large space) 
of land; hence we may render '3 quarter. In this case HIM will be 
an accus. of place, defined more fully by the following genit. t?EB> NTO 
(a single term) as often in Hebr., e.g. Ex. 33 10. i K. 19 13. Jer. 36 10. 
If mua be rendered great, then NVD wili be accus., on the east, cf. 
Josh. 1 4. 15. 23 4. For fcflflo cf. Ps. 75 7 and the Old Aram. NpiD 
WV 62 14. 

L. 2. ^D1 Perhaps and the north (side} of it, i>S*=pSX, J being 
interchanged with b, as rDB>i> and roj?3 chamber. The 1 co-ordinates 
the word with nEHJJ, to ^vhich also the suff. refers. For the suff. *>' 
usedjor the femT ('y fern, in 3 ft) as well ^s for thp mas, cf. ^-pjjf 1. 3 

andCIS i 280 '31K 'TlT . . n3*ng> KIT) B>N. A different meaning is 
suggested by Halvy ^?;. j/. Juiv. xii 109 f., who takes ?a as a 
dialectical form of ^St3 (cf. "1V3 and "UM) = attach, add, in Rabb. Hebr. 
7BB something attached, subordinate, so vSD = n^? 1 ?* aa? z'/y annexes. 
The first explanation is preferable. D^Nn appears to be a title, 

'primores/ ^ig/J, leaders; cf. 3WD \^K Ex. 15 15. Eze. 17 13 &c. 
This use of the word is perhaps to be found again on the Phoen. seal 

15O 5 iprunpfo B>K D!?N E^N pvW>- IN^D Plur. constr.= 

'3J<pp, in appos. to D^xn. Cf. Le Bas-Waddington Foy. ^4r^. iii 
no. 1890 Aoimos 'AKKa(3a.iov fv(rcj3[G>v] KOL 7T/^<^^is VTTO r^s *cupias 
'Arapyan/s (from Kefr Hawar). 

L. 3. mnB>jnta The name of the goddess and her city occur again 
in inscrr. from the same neighbourhood, CIS i 8 }cn !>N mnBtyaW?, 
and mnE>jnta fro irmy p )n^yni> (recently discovered) Cl.-Gan. 
Rec. v 151; cf. also the Pun. inscr. CIS i 250 nay . . mnc^jm 
rnnt^yDta ra. Milk t -'Ashtart is a distinct deity Jbimed- out of 
the combined^jittributes of Milk andAshtart. In the combination 
'Ashtart predominates, for 

not a god. Other examples of compound divinities are 
CIS i 245 3 f. tr3 -ins?y 117. byzzbn 37 1 n. iDKata ib. Pi^mp/w 
150 5 &c. ; see Baethgen Beilr. 37 if. As the name of a god, ' 
*pD alone is not found (see, however, 50 i n.}; but thejmany pr. nn. 
of which "pD forms a part imply that a deity was worshipped in 
Phoenicia and its colonies under this title ; 3 i ., Driver Deut. 
223 1 . H3JJ1 Not plur. constr., for this form is not written with 

1 Hoffmann, Ueb. einige Phiin. Inschr. 26, renders Queen- Ashtart (Milka- 
'Ashtart, but in Phoen. this would be Milkath-'Ashtart), King Baal &c. We 

50 Phoenician [10 

* in Phoen., e.g. "\abv 1. 2, byi (prob.) L 3, ffo 1. 7 ; it is therefore 
plur. with suff. 3 fern. sing.= rnaj|. Cf. ^BX 1. 2 . |n ijO This 
must prob. be rendered citizens ofHammon, cf. CIS i 1 20 TOD ni>jn Nnn 
' Eirene, the citizeness of Byzantium.' 309 3 ""Baim 5>JD ; NPun. by3 
Diyrtton 54 2 ; Sab. ^ynx CIS iv 86 8. 172 i ; and WV ^JD Josh. 24 1 1. 
Jud. 9 2. If ^yn be taken as a divine name, '"OS? must=^r servant the 
Baal o/H., an unsuitable expression, for Ba'al could not be termed 
the servant of 'Ashtart. To render his servant B.-hamman's, on the 
analogy of ITyJDPK "jb isfak 5 i, is to introduce confusion into 
the general sense of the inscr. A place called ftein (hot spring ?), near 
Tyre, is mentioned in Josh. 19 28 as belonging to Asher; it is prob. to 
be identified with Umm-el-'Awamid (9), where there are ruins of 
a Phoen. city: GueVin Galilee ii 141, Hoffmann I.e., Buhl Geogr.Alt. 
Pal. 229 *. 

L. 4. mB3 n*V)*S& This difficult phrase is usually rendered to 
'Ashtart in the asherah, the goddess being regarded as dwelling in 
her symbol, the sacred pole (rnt}^3); see Cl.-Gan. Rec. i 83, Robert- 
son Smith Rel. of Sem. 172, Driver Deuteron. 202 f. We have no 
clear evidence, however, that the asherah was the symbol of 'Ashtart, 
Ohnefalsch-Richter, Cyprus, the Bwleand Homer 165. 168, explains 
'Ashtart in the asherah as referring to an image of 'Ashtart standing 
in a niche in an asherah, and he gives an illustration of Artemis in 
a similar position. But it is by no means certain that the poles or trees 
figured on gems &c. to which he alludes are asherahs; so that this 
explanation has only the value of a conjecture. The most plausible 
solution of the difficulty is that proposed by Hoffmann 1. c. The 
primary meaning of mtJ'N he takes to have been a sign-post set up to 
mark the site or the boundaries of a deity's influence ; cf. Assyr. asm 
'place,' Aram. }W place, Arab, yl sign, trace, from the same root. 
Meaning originally the sign of the deity's habitation, the asherah 
would readily be used of the sacred precincts or TC/ACVOS of the god, 
which is exactly the sense required here; in Assyr. a$irfu, estrtu 

must take "jto, like bsa and p, as an appellative; but while two divine names are 
sometimes compounded to form a single divinity as above, the language does not 
favour a combination of this kind; the analogy of ordinary pr. nn. compounded 
with I"JD requires that l"3O be taken as a predicate, e. g. nobo Yah is king. Bdal 
is king would be a suitable name for a man, but not for the god himself. 

1 Meyer, Ency. Bibl. 3741, renders pn 'a B.-hammdn (37 4 n.} i. e. the numen 
occupying the hamman of Milk-' Ashtart, the god of the hammdn-pillar, who in 
turn has an asherah in which dwells an Astarte, the dedication being made to the 
latter. This seems improbable. Would Jon '* be called his servant (nO) in 
relation to prr to ? 

10] MaM 51 

actually denotes a ' sanctuary ' or ' temple ' ; so Zimmern KA T 3 437 n. 
The fern, ending does not mark the gender, according to Hoffmann, 
but has merely a grammatical significance ; it is the sign of a ' nomen 
unitatis' (Ges. 122 /). The word asherah has been read in only one 
other inscr., 14 3, and there the text is uncertain. It is true that mt?N t 
was a goddess, known in Assyria as Ash-ra-tum, in Arabia as Alhirat ) 
(cf. 69 i6.), and in Canaan, i K. 15 13 = 2 Ch. 15 16. 2 K. 21 7. 
23 4. 7; see Lagrange Relig. S/m. i2off. Here, however, mt?N3 
cannot be treated as a divine name. JOH />K Again in CIS i 8 

|0n !>N mnB3&Ve from Umm-el-'AwSmid; this shows that pn ^X 
is in apposition to mnB'J?!?. 

L. 5. Da!> ptf 5 i8.; Ptolemy iii Euergetes, B.C. 247-221. T\V3. 
Sing, for the usual TWtJQ plur., see 6 in. 

L. 6. TiNH corresponds to the Gk. //,eya\oSoov ; see 6 9 rc. PVS 
DJ?3 i.e. evepyeVov; cf. 3 8. DWnfi p wn of Ptolemy, i.e. of 

Ptolemy ii Philadelphus, B.C. 285-247. Cf. 27 r. 

L. 7. DNJD1N i. e. 'Apcrivo^s. The Phoen. has transcribed the geni- 
tive; cf. 27 2. D'[n]N }!>S i.e. 020$ (H? cf. 3 io., the Phoen. 
equivalent of the title 0ewv dSeX<^wv in Gk. Ptolemaic inscrr., e.g. the ? 
bilingual inscr. of Canopus (B.C. 238), where Ptolemy iii is styled TOV "> 
HToXe/Aatov xai ' Apcrivo^s ^cwv dSeX^uv, Michel 551; see 95 I ft. 

L. 8. [nx] osh See 9 5 . 

L. 9. U>NCO = "iB'K 1O3, see 3 7 w. ; lit. according as, introducing a 
fresh *"/m ; similarly 45 1.4. p The subj. is D^XH 1. 2. 

Prob.=n > "inx, here used in a concrete sense, as in 42 4. 8. 10 
1X5?n ; Cl.-Gan. 7?^. i 85. Hoffmann conjectures D[tnpcn] for the 
missing word^ 

L. 10. JHK3 Perhaps the land within the domain of the sanctuary 
of Hammon (Hoffm.). . . ^ D/> p^ Cf. 9 6, which suggests 

that the line may be restored tby$ DJ?J Dtri 

E 2 

52 Phoenician [11 

11. Ba'al Lebanon. CIS i 5. viii cent. B. c. Biblioth. Nat., Paris. 

pa 1 ? hpb jiv TK orw *frb onn -oy nsnnmp po i.. 

n npro n wa 

nennmp pD y&.. 

a . . . governor of Qarth-hadasht, servant of Hiram, king 
of the Sidonians, gave this to Ba'al of Lebanon, his lord, of 
choicest bronze. 

b . . TB, governor of Qarth-hadasht. 

c to Ba'al of Lebanon, his lord. 

These inscriptions, the most ancient examples of the Phoen. language 
and writing yet discovered, are found upon eight fragments of thin 
bronze, which formed parts of bowls or paterae used for ceremonial 
purposes l . Six of the fragments when pieced together make up inscr. 
a; the remaining two, b and c, are considered to have belonged to 
a second bowlj owing to slight differences in some of the letters, e. g. 
K and 7. The writing is of the archaic type represented by the 
Moabite Stone (ix cent.) and the Old Aramaic of the Zenjirli inscrr. 
(viii cent), allowing for the differences between engraving on metal 
and carving on stone. The Old-Greek alphabet belongs to the same 
type ; in particular, the correspondence between the 4- i^e. t and the ~f~ 
i. e. n and the same letters in Old Greek is noticeable. On this account 
Lidzbarski (p. 176) is disposed to assign the inscrr. to a date not far 
from the period when the Greeks borrowed their alphabet from the 
Semites (2nd millennium B.C.), considerably earlier than the date of 
the Moabite Stone. Internal evidence, however, favours a later age, 

1 Fine specimens of these bowls, discovered at Nimroud, may be seen in the 
British Museum, Nimroud Gallery, table-cases C and D. They are the work of 
Phoen. artists; in some instances the artist's name is inscribed on the edge in 
Phoen. letters. The design and workmanship exhibit the characteristics of Egyp- 
tian art. The date of thebowls is^Tilft'ealTieFtlSSn"Yob~B7c. l5ee BrTtT Mns. 
Guide to Babyl, <S Assyr. Antiq. (1900) aa f. 

ll] Baal Lebanon 53 

that of the Zenjirli inscrr. (61-63), the middle of the eighth cent. B.C.; 
and the character of the writing agrees with this. 

The fragments, now in the Bibliotheque Nationale, were found in 
Cyprus. The dedication to Ba'al of Lebanon seems at first sight to 
point to Phoenicia or Syria as their original home. But the Phoen. 
colony in Cyprus may well have carried with them the cult of their 
deity from the mother- land ; or if the pD governor^ from Phoenicia, 
he may have wished to remember the^god_of his native place, just 
as the Tyrian colonists at Malta made their dedication to Melqarth, the 
Ba'al of Tyre, 36 i. 

pD governor, prefect, cf. 15 steward Is. 22 15. The title occurs in 
the Tell-el-Amarna letters, apparently as a Canaanite loan-word, 
zukini =. rabizi 'officer' 237 9. The V = &e of use, service (Hebr.), 
care for (Assyr.). JlBHrimp i. e. new-town, ' Carthage.' That 

there was a place of this name in Cyprus is made certain by the 
mention of Kartt-hadas($)tt (Assyr. D interchanged with north-sfimitir 
p) in the lists of Asarhaddon and Asurbanipal, along with well-known 
Cyprian towns, such as Paphos, Idalion, Tamassos ; KB ii 240. It is 
clear from this inscr. that the city at this period was under the 
dominion of the Phfign. king. Its site is unknown. An attempt is 
made by Schrader, Sitzungsb. Berl. Akad. (1890) 337-344, to identify 
it with Kition, the modern Larnaka. Karti-hadast occupies, he says, 
the place on the Assyr. lists where we should expect to find Kition ; 
and as the name JiBHrrmp new-town suggests a previous ' old town/ 
it is probable that 'n'p was the Phoen. quarter of the ancient Kition. 
The identification he thinks to be confirmed by the discovery in 
Larnaka itself of an inscr. containing the words TlEnnmpn /fc ny 
'Abd. the man of Carthage, 20 B 6. This is very likely the Cyprian 
Cjirthage; but the speciaj_niention of tnTlndividuars nariveT pjace 
rather points to the fact that his home_was_not in Kition but else- 
where. The bronze fragments are said to have been found on a 
mountain 20 miles NE. of Limassol and 10 from the sea (CIS i p. 23), 
at some distance from Larnaka; but this can have no bearing on the 
argument, for the bowls may have been removed from the place to 
which they originally belonged. The evidence, in fact, is not sufficient 
to establish Schrader's identification. 12JJ servant i. e. high official 
as ^22 "]ta 13V in 2 K. 25 8. Lidzb., ? vassal as in the Zenjirli inscr. 
63 3. Din i. e. CH^n = ffVITK brother of the exalted one; cfJ^Dp j 

40_2._Ji3^ttn ib. frton i K. 16 34 for 'nK. Hiram here has the title ' 
WTO "]5B~&^ of the Sidom'ans. It is improbable that he is the Hiram i 

54 Phoenician [11 

who was the friend of David and Solomon, for this Hiram is con- 
sistently called king of Tyre in the O.T., e.g. 2 S. 5 ix. i K. 5 15. 
9 1 1 &c. ; and historical usage shows that *1V "|ta did not mean the 
same thing as D^TV "|f>O. The official title king of the Sidonians 
implies the union of Tyre and Sidon under one ruler ; thus Ethba'al 
circ. 855 B.C. is~called DWV *]!>B in i K. 16 31 and TvpiW KCU 
SiSoviW /Jao-iAevs by Josephus (Ant. viii 13 i cf. TvpiW /Jao-.ib. 13 2). 
The long of the Sidonians was virtually king of all Phoenicia^Sidonians 
hpin^^gengrfl.1ji^i2njQLPhnenir.ians^used by the people themselves 
(e.g. 4 i f . 5 i f.), by_the Assyrians, byjhe Hebrews (e.g. Jud. 3 3. 
i K. 11 5 &c.), and_by the Greeks (Homer, e.g. Od. 4 618. //. 6 290). 
Another Hiram (ffirumimi) is mentioned by Tiglath-pileser iii as 
paying tribute in 738 B. c. (COT 252). It is true he is called of Tyre 
(Surrat); but since no king of Sidon is mentioned if there had been 
one the Assyrian king would certainly not have allowed him to escape 
tribute we may conclude that Sidon was at this time subject to 
Tyre, and Hiram ii Jdng of both cities. Hence DJTX "pD would have 
been his full official title ; and the probability is that this Hiram ii, 
who was reigning in 738, is the king alluded to in the inscr. The, 
epigraphical evidence supports this i jdj-te_^_Jor_Jhe__character of the 
writing_closely~resembles that of the Old Aram, of the Zenjirli inscrr., 
which belong to this period, and mention Tiglath-pileser By name, 
62 15 f. 63 3. 6. The third Hiram known to us as the contemporary 
of Cyrus (Jo^.j4^.j^i)_iS-^ci^theii.excluded; he could not have 
been called DJ1X "pD, for by his time the title had long been an 
anachronism. The union of the two cities under the hegemony of 
Tyre came to an end in 701, when Sennacherib expelled Luli larru 
Siduni (='EXouXaios king of Tyre, Jos. Ant. ix 14 2), and made 
Sidon subject to Assyria ; KB ii 90. Tyre survived as a separate state 
with a king of its own. The above view is stated forcibly by Landau 
Beitr. z. Altertumsk. d. Orients i (1893) 17-29. TK Demonstr. 

pron. ; add. note ii p. ~2T>T~ pn^ i?ja is not mentioned elsewhere ; 
cf. pin i>jn "in Jud. 3 3, and the Zcvs opeios=Dnnn ho to whom 
a temple was dedicated at the gates of Sidon, Renan Mission de 
Phfaicie 397. yiK Cf. 7 2. 12 4 &c. 'j nErN"l3 Cf. Am. 6 6 

D'ODP JWtO the best of ointments ; it is also possible to render as the 
first-fruits (aTrapxrj) of bronze, cf. Ex. 23 19 &c. The '2 is beth 

12] Kition 55 

12. Kition. CIS i 10. 8.0.341. Paris. 

\\ TO *]hb |iv&fi ^jbS i K iwa ^n rrvS ill ill DM i 

p pfien jro am p' PN I' MPK DI-M 3 
* paenf? r6 pw&PK p tfe 


On the 6th day of the month Bui, in the 2ist year of 
ki[ng Pumi-yathon, king of Kition and] Idalion and Tamassos, 
son of king Milk-yathon, king of Kition and Idalion. This 
altar and two hearths (?) 2 (are they) which Bodo, priest of 
Reshef-hes, son of Yakun-shalom, son of Eshmun-adon, gave 
to his lord Reshef-hes. May he bless ! 

L. i. vi DO 1 "} lit. in days, 6 for on the sixth day, xxi nJEQ lit. in 
years, 21 for in the twenty-first year (see 6 i n.). This clumsy expe- 
dient is used to express the ordinal numbers which Phoen. does not 
possess; instinctively the noun was written in the plur. before the 
numerical signs; cf. 14 i. 23 i. 27 i. In Hebr. and Aram, a similar 
usage is occasionally found, e.g. Ex. 19 15 D 1 ^ T\vhvh after three 
days, i.e. on the third day; Dan. 12 12 unto 1335 days, i.e. unto the 
1335^ day ; Mishnah Berakoth 9 b rrtJ?B> 'j IV i.e. to the third hour; 
Mt. 20 3 ^ljl l^ktfc>J> ; Konig Syntax 315 m, Lehrgeb. ii 255 n. A 
less pj^3bable_exrjlanation is that jPMsjiQtjjlur. but sing.^QP*, like J,he 
Aram. Kgff, \4\ v>./ (Noldeke ZDMG xl 721); the Aram. KOP*,' 
howeverTls used oj day as distinguished from night, and not in such 
constructions as the above. 72 Cf. 5 i n. iJVDa l^l^h 

Restored from 13 I f. With jn^DB cf. inaiay 23 6. ^DSnO=DSnOfi 
CIS i 55. [yo]BDa ib. 197 3. The form suggests that there is some 
connexion between >DS, clearly a divinity, and the god Dya in the 
pr. nn. Dyaiay CIS i 112 c^c 2 . Dysoya Eut. Carth. 263 2 (namphamo 
&c. in Lat. inscrr., CILviii p. io3ob), but the exact nature of the con- 
nexion has not been made out. It is possible that oya forms an element 
in the names Pygmaios, Pygmalion (? jv^y Dya) 1 ; at any rate Pygma- 
lion could be confused with Pumi-yathon, as will appear below. An 

1 It is curious actually to find the name pteac in Phoen. (Punic), and in com- 
bination with mn\DJ?, apparently as a deity. It occurs in an inscr. on a gold 
medallion found in a grave at Carthage, 1894, and written in the earliest type 
of characters. The form of the name must be due to Gk. influence. The inscr. 
is given in Lidzbarski 171 ; see also Cl.-Gan. Rec. v 152 n. 



interesting side-light is thrown by Gk. historians upon Pumi-yathon 
(361-312 B.C.). Athenaeus Deipnosoph., Fr. Hist. Gr. ii 472, on the 
authority of the historian Daris, gajgjftaf A1py ;ir "^ r , nfw tha nopf^rAA 

of Tyre (332 B.C.), ga^ye to one Pnytagoras an estate which Pasicyprus \ 
king^ of Amathous sold along with his crown to Pumatos of Kition, I 
Jlu/xaro) TO) KiTict. There is good reason for believing thatjhis. estate I 
was none other than TamassosT For if we compare 26 i and this 
:, on the one hand, with 13 i on the other, we may infer that 
Pumi-yathon acquired Tamassos between the 8th and 2ist year of his 
reign, and lost it between his 2ist and 37th year, i.e. between 341 
and 325. This agrees very well with the statement of Athenaeus 
that Alexander disposed of it in 332. Pumi-yathon's reign continued 
for some time after the latest date furnished by the inscrr. (13 i), as 
appears from his coins, stamped with his 46th year (149 B 6). Diodorus 
Sic., xix 79, tells us how his reign came to an end ; he was put to death 
by Ptolemy i Soter, who came to Cyprus CTTI TOVS aTrctflovVras TWV 
/JcuriXcwv IIvyyu.aXia>va 8e evpwv SiaTrpeo-ySeuo/tevov Trpos 'Avrtyovov dvctXe. 
Diodorus calls him Pygmalion ; but this is prob. only another name 
for Pumi-yathon ; see Babelon Pers. Ache'm. cxxxi, Droysen Hellenica 
ii 2 10. His death took place in 312; after this, the reckoning 
by the era of TO DJJ began, i.e. in 311 B.C. ?HM TO *pD 

The usual title of the kings of Cyprus. TO= Kition, on the S. coast ; 
the importance of the town was such that ' the people of Kition,' 
D^riS or O^fi?, was the name given by the Hebrews to all the inhabi- 
tants of Cyprus. ^1N = Idalion, in the middle of the island, NW. of 
Kition. This and the following city are found in the lists of Asar- 
haddon and Assur-banipal, COT 7 355 11. 13. 19. 

L. 2. twon = Tamassos, N. of Idalion; only here in the Phoen. 
inscrr. known. jDwD Cf. 13 2. CIS i 16. 89 &c., and on 

coins, 149 B 5. natD Cf. 3 4. 

L. 3. DHK Meaning uncertain, possibly lions (B*Y1K == J'^"JX) J carved 
in stone and placed beside the altar ; cf. TOVS Svo Xe'ovras, dedicated to 
Ba'al or Zeus, in a Gk. inscr. found near Sidon, Renan Miss, de Phe'n. 
397. More probably altar-hearths, from H1N (lIN, "HN) burn, Arab, 
g*:! plur. j;,'l hearth; 5>tnK 1 12. 03{W=D^ cf. K?N 23 6. 

j i *^ ^JJ/t 

For the prosthetic N cf. Arab. ^UJL N12 Cf. 14 2 f. 31 c, 

frequently in Carth. inscrr. It is prob. that N*U is a shortened form 
of pDBWn, mp?O~*n, or some such name, rather than of Niay ; see 
6 2 . In Hebr. the ending would be JV, e.g. K3n=^3Pl J smj?= 
prism The deity S|en, Reshef or Reshuf, cf. the Assyr. 
or *!&'"]($), occurs frequently in Cyprian inscrr. and pr. nn., 

13] Kition 5 7 

e.g. jnBn 15 2. 23 2-6. t|PTT3y 27 4; cf. epnmp 150 5. His 
cult was popular in Cyprus, . and_.especially at Idalion; but beyond 
an allusion to his temple at Carthage CIS i 251 [*|]BnN 712 12J? 
(the reading [pjjBnxnay in ib. 393 is uncertain), Phoen. inscrr. 
do not mention him outside Cyprus. In ISL Syria,Jiowever, his 
worship was of ancient date; 61 2. 3. P)BH = flame, lightning-flash, 
Ps. 78 48. Cant. 8 6 ; hence the god was identified with Apollo 
(30, Tarn. 2, CIS i 89), who as e*o7/?oAos, e/ca-nj/SoAos &c. was the 
author of pestilence (//. i 50 f.). Thus PjKn may have been the Phoen. 
Fire-god who smites men and cattle with fiery darts (cf. Dt. 32 23. 
Hab. 3 5; Driver Deut. 368). The name always has a qualifying 
term, e. g. b3P"*|ga (24 2. 25 2. 26 2 from Idalion), n^K '"1 (30 3 f. 
from Tamassos), DJVni?K '"i Tarn. 24. In these three instances the 
qualifying term is the name of a place or city; it is probable, there- 
fore, that the same is the case in pn '"1 Reshef of iis, ? Issos (Cilicia). 
Cl.-Ganneau, vocalizing yrj "\ takesthe name to be a Phoen. rendering 
of 'ATroAAcov 'Aymevs ' Apollo who guards the streets ' ; the explanation 
is ingenious, and may be illustrated by the Assyr. ilu suki ' the god of 

the streets.' The original pronunciation of fjtJH is preserved in the 
name of an Arab village near Jaffa, v_J~J Arsdf (cf. fjBHX above) 
= the Seleucid Apollonias ; Rec. i i76ff. In Egyptian the god is 
called Raspu or Resonp ; he is represented as bearded, like Apollo, 
and is mentionedTarnong Asiatic deities ; Miiller A sien u, Eur. 311 f. 
The Corp. takes the view \hz.i^n f "^Reshe/of{he arrow, cf. Ps. 76 4 
Dt?p 'SKH ; but the figure of Raspu from Egypt, monuments, given in 
Corp. p, 38, holds a spear, not an arrow, and for other reasons the 
view is improbable. D^tW5' i. e, peace be (to him) ; again in 14 

2 (rest.), and in NPun. 

L. 4. pKJDW See 5 17 n. 

13. Kition. CIS i 11, 6.0.325. 

nil in - 

58 Phoenician [14 

On the I4th day of the month Merpa, in the 3;th year 
of king Pumi-yathon, king of Kition and Idalion, son of 
king Milk-yathon, king of Kition and Idalion : This statue 
(is that) which Yaash, wife of [Ba'alath ?]-yathon, temple- 
serv[ant of 'Ashtarjt, daughter of Shime'o, son of Ba'al-yathon, 
gave and set up of bronze to her mistress, 'Ashtart ; may she 
hear (her) voice ! 

This inscr. was found and inaccurately copied by Pococke at 
Larnaka in 1738, with 32 others ; they have all since disappeared. 

L. i. xiv DCto See 12 i n. Nn Name of a month, accord- 

ing to Euting, Seeks Phbn. Inschr. (1875), the 7th month, October. 
It is also called DKEHD Idal. 7 (Euting Sitz. Berl. Akad. (1887) 422), 
CIS i 124 3 (Malta), 179 5 (Carthage). jmDB See 12 i n. It 

is noteworthy that Tamassos does not occur in the king's title in his 
37th year. 

L. 2. J"6[D] Fern., because the statue represented a female figure 
the goddess 'Ashtart ; similarly CIS i 40. When the statue represented 
a male the mas. is used, e. g. 23 2. 5. 25 i. 27 3 ; the same distinction 
is observed in the use of X!oi> and Knioi> in Palmyrene. In the (XI. *** 
^OD occurs Dt. 4 16. Eze. 8 3. 5. 2 Ch. 33 7. 15. NJD^jny 

Perf. 3 fern.; the same formula in 23 2. 30 r. VtoW is Hif., cf. CJHp' 
28 4. JlKHp^ 29 9. 14. The jnjtiaj Ji of the Hifil was weakened into\, 
the spiritus lenis and written w^ h '"H'al \ b"t prob. pronounced t'tnf, H 

BB -" < f 

\tqdtsh', cf. the similar weakening of the h into I in Arabic, conj. iv; II 
\tade Morg. Forsch. 208. In NPun. the Qal Kit) is used in the same ' 
sense. jn^n^ya] So Corp. ; but the reading is very doubtful. 

L- 3- 'V J"Q lay So restored by Berger, and adopted by Corp. ; 
frequently in Carth. inscrr. KyiOt? In HebnJiypE?,. a_ .diminutive 

from i?yi~yDB> 33 2. Adopting the text above, the husband, father, 
and grandfather of Yaash are mentioned. ^ra"6 The stiff. '' is 

here used for the 3 sing. fern. ; similarly ^3 27 4. 

14. Kition. CIS i 13. 3.0.375. 

ro *]h& jrvaba T^ab.j 11 row D^trniT 

[1 jrf^K T 

[p . . . p . . . na . . . bjrnKy thm]y p n^ p nwn^ KM 2 

y]w 3 mron oxb rb xnn 3 

14] Kition 59 


On the aoth day of the month Zebah-Sissim (?) in the 

and (?) year of [ ] 'Abd-osir, son of Bodo, son of 

Yak[un-shalom ....], set up [ ... .] of Bodo, to his lady, 
the glorious (?) Mother, because she heard [. . .]. 

More than half of the inscr. has perished ; but most of what is 
missing may be supplied with probability from the preceding inscrr. 
12 and 13. 

L. i. xx DD'3 See 12 i n. DWPQT The name of a month. 

The text here is rather obscure, but the reading given is determined 
by 29 4, where the word occurs again. Berger, Rev. d'Assyr. iii 
(1895) 69 ff., regards DW as the name of a god, and, supposing that 
B* is interchanged with D, identifies him with DDD Sasom in the 
Cyprian name DDDnay 16 i n. 27 3 &c. The month DtPBTQT is then 
explained as the month in which sacrifices were offered to Sasom ; 
for the constrn. cf. D^n^X TOt 'sacrifices offered to God/ Ps. 51 19. 
But as Cl.-Ganneau justly remarks, there is no evidence that Sasom, 
who seems to have been a foreign deity, occupied such a place of 
importance in the Phoen. pantheon as to have given his name to 
a month in the calendar. We should therefore render DESPOT sacrifice 
of 'sixty ', i.e. the month of the sixty sacrifices, and compare kKarofiftaiwv, 
the name of the first month in the Athenian calendar; Et. ii 20. 
The king mentioned here was either Milk-yathon or Pumi-yathon, 
prob. the former; for the full style of Pumi-yathon, as given in 12 
and 13, would make the line too long. 

L. 2. KJB' See 13 2 n. "iDK*ny Servant of Osiris, cf. 16 i. 18 2 f. 

36 2 (hi Gk. AiovuVtos). 27 2 "IDKHCK. 69 9 nDBB. p N13 

[D7BOJ3 11 The same names in 12^3 f., but not the same persons. 
The Bodo ben Yakun-shalom who dedicated an altar in the 2ist 
year of Pumi-yathon (341) could hardly have had a son who set up 
a statue early in the reign of Milk-yathon, circ. 375. 

L. 3. *rQ-ii> Cf. 13 3. Qtib For Mother as the title of a goddess 

cf. NBN^ rarh 47. njr6 nni> DK^ CIS i 195 2. $>jn |a ran DN!> 

380 4, all Carthaginian. The Mother may have been a Phoen. 
goddess, or one adopted from the Gk. or Egypt, pantheon ; there 
are traces of the worship of Demeter in Cyprus (see Cl.-Gan. Et. i 
i54f.). mtNn The meaning is uncertain. Perhaps the N here 
=y, and the name is ptcp. f. of 1TJJ she who helps, cf. 52 5 mr&Ql 
for mfJOl ; buOJ for y is Punic and, late. If the word be derived 
from "iTN the meaning will be she who girds on, figuratively protects ; 

60 Phoenician [16 

the Piel would properly express this, Ps. 18 33. In CIS i 255 we 
find rmxn mntPjf i.e. (prob.) ''A. the glorious '; it is natural to 
suppose that niTNH here is merely a variety of this word. 

15. Kition. CIS i 44. iv-iii cent. B. c. Brit. Mus., Cyprus 
Room no. 47. 

p rnpfena? p \rr\v *xw&> TM 

This pillar (is) to Eshmun-adoni SRDL, son of 'Abd- 
melqarth, son of Reshef-yathon, interpreter of the thrones. 

This inscr. is carved on the base of a marble obelisk, about 5 ft. 
high, terminating in a pyramidal or gabled top. The monument is an 
unusually perfect specimen of the Phoen. type of massebah (see the 
heliogravure in CIS i Tab. viii, and the illustration in Nowack Hebr. 
Arch, ii 18, Benzinger Hebr. Arch. 380); it may be compared with 
the fine specimen discovered at Larnaka (Kition) in 1894, now in the 
Brit. Mus., no. 31, Cyprus Room; see 21. 

L. i. naSDH The usual word in Phoen. (rarely mttJD 56 i) for a 
gravestone or pillar erected over a tomb to commemorate the dead and 
perpetuate his memory among the living ; cf. 16 1. 18 i DTD rn^B. 19 i. 
21 1 &c.; similarly among the Hebrews, e. g. Gen. 35 20 ^>m map navo. 
The name of the person commemorated is usually introduced by h, 
e. g. 18 3 f. 19 3 f. CIS i 59 116; see further 16 2 n. Thus the usage 
of na^E and the form of the sentence leave little doubt as to the way 
in which this inscr. is to be interpreted ; it records the fact the stone 
was erected to the memory of Eshmun-adoni RDL and set up over his 
grave. The view, therefore, that the massebah was a religious offering 
'(which) SRDL (erected) to Eshmun his lord' is not in accordance 
with the usage of the language ; it requires K3ty tPK to be supplied ; 
and in the case of a dedication to a god the order of words would 
be different, as for instance in 12. 13 and 14. TN See add. note 

p. 26 ; T is also found after naVD 19 i. CIS i 61. ^TiUOBW is to 

be taken as a pr. name formed by a combination of Eshmun and 
Adon, the latter being the title of a god whose actual name was not 
pronounced. Similar combinations current in Cyprus are Eshmun- 

16] Kition 6 1 

melqarth (CIS i 16. 23. 24) and Adonis-Osiris '. In these cases, 
however, the combination forms the name of a deity, cf. 1O 3 n. 
In CIS i 42 and 43 \nwetJ>X is followed by what appears to be 
fragments of pr. names, . . T3^"lMDe>K 42 and . . 3fcWOlJODB>N 43 ; 
here the word which follows is i>TttJ>, evidently also a pr. name. It is 
prob. that in all three instances we have the individual's nomen and 
cognomen given, a very unusual practice (so Lidzb.). The name fn~iB> 
is found again in a Pun. inscr. CIS i 444 3f. [V]TitP; the etymology 
and pronunciation are unknown. 

L. 2. jrPDBn See 12 3 n. It is curious to find the same name 
followed by tn<f same title in 2j3_4jQ_6 and, according to some, in 
CIS i 22 D'D"O [f]ta }rp[BBn]. The three inscrr. prob. belong to 
the same period ; and though in 23 4 f. 6 the son of Reshef-yathon 
is Adon-shemesh, yet it is conceivable that he had another son, 
'Abd-melqarth, who appears here. The facts are worth noticing, but 
they are not sufficient to establish an identification. D^Dian f^D 

The first word certainly means interpreter (to refs. above add CIS i 
350 4 f^On); it has this meaning in Gen. 42 23, cf. Job 33 23 and 
ep/Lw/vevnjs in Gk. inscriptions. D'D*13 is prob. the plur. of ^D"l3 
ND3 seat, throne ; for the form cf. Old Aram. ND"D 63 7 ; Aram. 
Hcoioo ; Arab. ^^- The title, then, may signify 'interpreter of i / 
the thrones/ i. e. dragoman to the court, whose office it was to act as j ^/ 
interpreter between the Cyprian kings and the Persian or Greek 

16. Kition. CIS i 46. iv-iii cent. B. c. Bodl. Library, Oxford. 

in p - DDD *tty P * 

p DNn ra 

I 'Abd-osir, son of 'Abd-sasom, son of ftor, set up (this) 
pillar in my life-time over my resting-place for ever; also 
to my wife, Amath-'ashtart, daughter of T'M, son of 

ovs, iroAts Kvvpov dpxcuoT&TT], kv $ 'AScwis 'Oaipis, bv Alyvirnov 
5vra Kvvpiot ical *oiVis ISioTToiovvro, Stephanus Byzant. ed. Meineke, p. 82. 


62 Phoenician [18 

L. r. "pS The dead speaks in his own name. In other inscrr. of 
this character we find the donor 1 , and once both the donor and the 
dead, using the ist person (32). nDK*ny See 14 2 n. DDD"ay 

Cf. 27 3. CIS i 49. 53. Tarn. 2. The analogy of other proper names 
compounded with *ny shows that_ODp_is Jhe jiame ofa deity ; it was 
prob. pronounced Sasom (Cypr. apasasomose, 'At/rao-w/x-os = DDDH2y 
Tarn. 2, cf. LXX Soo-o/uu i Ch. 2 40) or Sesom (2ea-/x.aos= <l ODD 
28 3), or, as the Cypriote equivalent may imply, Sasm (Cl.-Gan. Rec. \ 
185, ii 26). The fact that both here and in CIS i 53 (irmy p 'y) 
'Abd-sasom belongs to families in which Egyptian names occur, makes 
it probable that ODD was a foreign deity, introduced, like Osiris and 
Horus, from Egypt. Nothing is known of the special character of 
this god ; Baethgen Beitr, 64 f. On some coins of Sinope the Aram, 
legend }DD*t2y is certified by Lidzbarski, as against Babelon's reading 
1O3"Dy Pers. Ache'm. Ixxix ff. This }DD is, however, explained by 
Lidzbarski as the equivalent of the Persian name Sieriv^s; it is there- 
fore not to be identified with the Phoen. ODD; Eph. i 106. in 
Horus, the Egyptian god. 

L. 2. "rQB^ during my life-time', JO^ places the fact in the past, 
and 3 gives the date ; for the three preps, cf. 45 5 nTOD^. 42 5 

~lDn3D!?. There is no exact parallel in Hebr.; HWNiapb for what 

t L : L 

was at first i Ch. 15 13 is different, '3>p being =np+p as in ^Pp 

2 Ch. 30 3. As a rule the n:D was erected by the children (iltib 
18 3 f. D33N^ 19 3 f.) or a friend (32) to commemorate the dead 
'among the living' DTQ (e.g. 18 i); but here we have an excep- 
tional instance of the rUE being set up by the person commemorated 

during his life-time. This was done by persons who had no children 

to perform the pious duty, as may be seen from 2 S 1 8 1 8 nj5;> 

j 15 ^-pN ION 'a 7]bBn~PV3 -\v$ nntfp-nN ijnn 

N3O' Perf. i sing., cf. 29 3 i> rlKJB'' B>N . . . ^DDH. >P 

Again in 21 5 DJnm 7 D by. For :Dfc>D see 5 4 n. ; for 

nro cf. is. 30 15. 

L. 3. mnt?ynN Cf. 5 14 n. and 27 2 IDKDBN. CIS i 395 3 
i>jnnN. ib. 446 2 f. mptanN. DNn Restored in CIS i 66 i but 

not found elsewhere. I^DTiy Cf. 'A/?Si/uA.Kan' in the Cypr. text 

of CIS i 89 and in 670 3. The name also occurs in the Tell-el-Am. 
letters, e.g. 77 37 Abd-milki. 

In this inscr._the_ words are separated by dots as in 13 f and the 
ancient inscrr.JL._2 1 jL - 62. 63. It is noticeable that the tops of the 

^ are open. 
1 E.g. CIS i 57 ' the pillar which I, Menahem, set up to my father.' 

17] Kition 63 

17. Kition. CIS i 47. 

ne> tDfipn p 2 
p mpta 3 
p K> 4 
I 5 

To 'THD, daughter of 'Abd-eshmun the judge, wife of 
Ger-melqarth, son of Ben-hodesh, son of Ger-melqarth, son 
of Eshmun-'azar. 

L. i. TntDJJ The meaning of this name is unknown. It has been 
explained as=lin ntDJf Ps. 104 i. 2 ; but this derivation is too fanciful 
to be likely. 

L. 2. DBBTl See 8 s. mptelJl i.e. guest of Melqarth, cf. 

pD-tf 46 2. mnPjna 29 2. 3. T5HJ 31 a i. "DDO"U CIS i 267 3. 
P3m2 (=5^VJ ">a) ib. 1 12 b 1 . b 2 . The ' guest ' ( = 7rapoiK05, Trapaairos) was 
one who placed himself under the protection of the deity ; cf. in Hebr. 
Ps. 15 i ^i1N2 Tia 11 ''D mrp (see Cheyne in loc.), and in Arab. 4ill ^U. 
i.e. one who dwells in Mekka, beside the Ka'aba; the verb .U. in 
conj. iii is used of ' dwelling beside a temple ' or ' receiving under pro- 
tection as a client'; similarly 'cliens Bacchi/ Hor. Ep. ii 2 78. It is 
prob. that in 20 A 15. B 10 the D"l3 are mentioned as a class in the 
list of ministers and attendants of the temple of 'Ashtart at JKition. 
A good illustration of the religious practice is given by a Palmyrene 
in the Brit. Mus., Semitic Room no. 581, which is inscribed 

nrvn 1 in m TJ Km *n xnu $rb HB^TB^ ' To Shadrapa the 

good god, that he might be a guest with him, he and all the sons of 
his house.' The religious idea of the 'guest' of a deity had its 
origin in the social custom of extending hospitality and protection 
to a stranger, and in the old Semitic right of sanctuary. Cf. 14O B 8 
and 13 6 2 n. ; see further Robertson Smith Rel. of the Semites * 
75 ff., Kinship 41 f. 

L. 3. cnn32 i.e. 'born on the new-moon.' The name is found again 
in 3O 2 (Cypriote 6 Nw/^viW). 34. CIS i 117 where the Greek 
equivalent is NOYMHNIO2. The naming of children after festivals 
was common in early Christian times, e. g. j^*a** *=> = Kupiaxos, 
Dominicus ; )nN.o(n i. e. born on the Ascension ; Joa_o. ^ i. e. born 
during the spring fast ; Paschalis, Natalis &c. 

64 Phoenician [18 

18. Kition. CIS i 58. 


, 4 

The pillar among the living which 'Abd-osir set up to his 
father Arketha. 

L. i. DTQ naD Cf. CIS i 116 i DT13 "DO nav. This inscr. proves 
that DTQ cannot mean 'in (his) life-time' (H3O^ 16 2), like the Gk. oiv, 
w<ra, and the Lat. vivus, viva, in similar cases ; a son would not set up 
a memorial to his father while the latter was still alive. The meaning, 
therefore, is ' among the living ' ; see 15 n. 

L. 3. "IDKiay Cf. 14 2 n. The name 'A/38ov(ripos has been found on 
the Phoen. coast, Renan Miss, de Phe'n. 241 ; hence the conjecture 
that the Phoen. pronunciation of the Egyptian Osir was Usir. "ax 
It is not certain whether the form was pronounced ""^NrzHebr. ^3N or 
"ZiSrrAram. w|&^ Schroder 150 n. Noldeke, ZA (1894) iv 402, 
thinks that the pronunciation was originally .??K, K7p } ^BK 21 i. 3. 

L. 4.' NrD1&6 Possibly a Gk. name; Archytas has been suggested. 

19. Kition. CIS i 60. 


This is the pillar which Eshmun-sillah and Mar-yehai set 
up to their father Melexenos * . . 

L. i. T Fern., see 3 add. note ii. m& Hif. pf. 3 plur. 

L. 2. r&HDBtt Cf. n^v^ya 7 2. n^Dyn 32 2. 

20] Kition 65 

L. 3. WlO i. e. prob. Wno Mar gives life (Piel), 27 3 ff. The name 
Mar has been explained by the Aram, no, N"lO=bjn, pS; it is con- 
jectured that, like these names, ID was originally used in an appellative 
sense lord, and afterwards as the title of a deity. A better explanation 
is proposed by Hoffmann, ZA xi 240. He regards ID in TYno, 
TO ID CIS ii 85 (? Aram.), 1DD no Cl.-Gan./4 viii t. i 143, as a 
diminutive of mpta ; and similarly Mar in 0e<3 Bc\/x,api 7?ez>. Arch. 
xxix (1875) 267 inscribed on a lamp from Tyre, and in Mapvas the 
Philistine god of Gaza, who appears also in Hauran, Aii M.dpva. TU> 
/cvpto) Wadd. 2412 g; see also 40 i n. RIND JOB'S. D33K Cf. 

27 5, and see 5 add. note. 

L. 4. 

20 A and B. Kition. CIS i 86 A and B. iv cent. B. c. 
Brit. Mus., Semitic Room. 

66 Phoenician 20 


rh t?K ____ 16 

Total (?) for the month Ethanim. 2 On the new-moon of 
the month Ethanim : 3 To the gods of the new-moon QP' a. 
4 To the builders who built the house of 'Ashtart ? QP' . . . 
6 To the velarii, and to the men who have charge of the door ? 
QR ao. 6 To ? ? who reside for the sacred service, on this day, 
Q . . . 7 To servants a QP' a. 8 To sacrifkers a QR i. 9 To 
men a who ? ? ? ? ? for the service . . . 10 The velarii, QP' i . . . 
11 To servants 3 QP' 3. 12 To the barbers officiating at the 
service QP' a. 13 To the masons who made pillars (?) of stone in 
the house of MK . . . H To 'Abd-Eshmun, chief of the scribes, ? , 
on this day, QR 3 ? . . 15 [To ' dogs '] and temple-clients QR 3 
and P' 3. le ---- who ?, on this day, QR a ? . . . 

The two inscrr. A and B are written in black pigment on both 
sides of a stone tablet. The writing of A is in a small, close hand ; 
that of B is in a bolder and clearer character. Many of the letters are 
difficult to decipher. 

L. i. rtan sum, total; from n^3 be complete. The first two letters, 
however, are uncertain. DJDN The month of steady flowings, the 

7th month, Oct.-Nov.; cf. 30 4, i K. 8 2 B'JriKn OTJ. Like the name 
of the month bul (5 i .), the name ethanim was prob. of Canaanite 
origin, and adopted by the Israelites from the Canaanite calendar: 
Benzinger Hebr. Arch. 201. 

L. 2. tjnra on the new-moon i.e. the first day of the lunar month, cf. 
B 2. 20 4. Ps. 81 4. 

L. 3. }ta Cf. B 3, plur. constr. as in 5 18. 10 7. Who 'the gods of 
the new-moon ' were is not known. The religious celebration of the 
new-moon was an ancient custom ; see i S. 20 5 f. Is. 113. Hos. 2 
13. Am. 85. 2 K. 4 23. KBp A coin of somejdnd. The 

four strokes, grouped like numerals, between 11. 3 and 4 may possibly 
indicate the 4th day of the month ; or they may merely separate the. 
previous lines from what follows. 

L. 4. p C>K D3^> i. e. Bte D6. fD may mean Kiiion, as on 

coins from Sidon, 149 B 15, although TO is the usual form. 

20] Kition 67 

L. 5. 03isi> Cf. 1. 10; perhaps, 'those who have charge of the 
temple-curtains' (n^B Ex. 26 31 ff. &c.), cf. Talm. Sheqalim lib 
roiB ?y 1TJ77N, and the velarit, i. e. slaves who drew the curtains, in 
the Lat. inscrr. This explanation agrees well with what follows : ' the 
men in charge of the door.' For in cf. 9 3 n. 1p Cf. 11. 8. 14. 16. 

B 8. 10 ; a coin, here followed by the symbol for 20. 

L. 6. iyi D1N7 Meaning and text obscure. It has been proposed to 
render iy3 who kindles the fire. In Hebr. the Piel is used in this 
sense, e.g. 2 Ch. 4 20 asfB3 ongaj) Drwftn nVilBrrnw, c f. 13 
ii. rote? D335? B>N who reside for the work. The construction is 

curious, but there is no doubt about the reading; ratei> = raNtei> 
1. 12. 3 n. 13. 45 2. nunp Adj., fern. sing. For the expression 

'p rate cf. gTgp rnag rasfe EX. 36 3 and i Ch. 9 13. 28 13 &c. 

L. 9. DP&6 Te. &$? cf. B 7. 46 i. In Phoen. B>N (B*K) is not used 
so frequently as DIN. D^n iyj rVN DN The words are unintelligible. 

L. 12. DaW> i. e . Da^aJ) (Eze. 5 i), cf. oi>N aia CIS i 257 ff. and the 
pr. n. l^i 27 5. The barbers attached to the temple assisted at 
the hair-offerings, a customary form of devotion in heathen Semitic 
religion. Lucian, de Dea Syr. vi. Iv, alludes to the practice of offering 
hair to Adonis at Byblus and Bambyce ; it was a sacrificial act offered 
with the idea of attaching the worshipper to the deity and his shrine ; 
see Robertson Smith Rel. of Sem. 1 313. The ceremonial shaving of 
the head was forbidden to the Israelites as a heathen practice; and 
the prohibition was extended to making incisions in the flesh, which 
also was prob. performed by these temple-barbers. See Lev. 19 27 f. 
215. Eze. 44 20. 

L. 13. DKnn For B>in cf. 22 2. 45 9. 52 6, CIS i 64 KHH 21 jrrote. 
The word is generally used of workers in metal, but also of workers 
in stone, e.g. 28 5 n. "Vj? fait 'n. i Ch. 22 14; see also 2 Ch. 
24 12. nne>N Cf. B 5. The meaning of the word is uncertain. 

It has been taken as=ni"iB' + K prosth. pillars, Ps. 113. . . 3D 

In B 5 i>3!D nn&?N. Elsewhere j>3O occurs with the prefix qtyi as the 
nameofthe god Reshef-mukl r 24 2 &c. f ^>3P is prob. ihe name of a /> 74 
city (Lidzb.). 

L. 14. D1SD 31 Cf. 12DH frequently in Carth. inscrr., e. g. CIS i 
154 4. 240 ff. n/i Again 1. 16. It is not unlikely that r6 is an 

abbreviation for [Dta]r6 to the associates, 42 2 n. 

L. 15. D1371 [M^] Restored from B 10. Is the reference to 
persons or to animals ? The words may be renderedybr the dogs and 
the whelps (Qia?l), supposing that the item of expenditure is food for 
the temple-hounds, which in some cases were considered sacred, 

F a 

68 Phoenician [20 

e.g. the hound of Isis, Adonis, &c.; so Hoffmann Uber em. Phb'n. 
Inschr. 17. In a Gk. inscr.from Epidaurus sacred hounds are mentioned 
as connected with the temple of Aesculapius (=Eshmun), Michel 
1069 izdf. 1 On the other hand, 02^3 and D"U may be persons: 
to the ' dogs ' and temple-clients. In this case D2^>3 is explained by 
Dt. 23 19, cf. KWCS Apoc. 22 15 ; they were temple-prostitutes, other- 
wise called D^np in the O.T., e.g. Dt. 23 18. i K. 14 24 &c.; in Assyr. 
harimtu, kadittu (of Ishtar), Zimmern KAT 3 423. The pr. n. D^N 2^3 
CIS i 49, and such names as Kalbi-Bau, Kalbi-Marduk &c. in Neo- 
Babyl. contracts, may be quoted in illustration, though in these cases 
it is likely that 2^3 was used as a term not of contempt but of self- 
abasement, the humble slave of the gods. The word is found in the 
Tell-el-Am. letters in this sense, e.g. kalbu-larri 'servant, lit. dog, of 
the king' 75 36. 86 19. 161 15 &c.; cf. 2 K. 8 13 2i?3H Tny 2 . It is 
possible that D''273=D l| Bhp originally had a similar meaning, devoted 
followers; we cannot tell. If Q^>2=' dogs' metaphorically, the D13 
must be the temple-clients, lit. guests, here apparently a regular class 
attached to the temple and supported out of its funds ; see 17 2 . 
Or, again, D13 may be pointed 013 and mean youths, cf. 1 16 n. ; but 
this is very uncertain. 


rrv &nrn - 2 
tnn W? -> ( 3 

. . . nir?nmpn no^n^ -> 6 
DM50 nfe trx D^^b - 7 

. . nan n - nai noy -> 9 
n Mai /n n o-uSi oaSaf?- 10 


1 See Cl.-Ganneau ^^. i 235 S. 

* Further illustrations from Assyr. are given by Thureau-Dangin in PSBA 

i 133. 

20] Kition 69 

Continuation (?). 2 On the new-moon of the month Pa- 
'aloth : 3 To the gods of the new-moon QP' 2. 4 To the 
ba'als of the days for the ? peace-offering. 6 To the persons of 
the house which is by the pillars (?) of Mikal and ... e To 
'Abd-ubast the Carthaginian . . . 7 To the men who were 
taken (?) from the ' dogs ' (?), QP' . . . 8 To the friends (?) who . . . 
were taken (?), QR 2 which . . . 9 To the virgins and virgins 22 
in the sacrifice . . . 10 To the ' dogs ' and to the temple-clients 
QR 3 and P' 2. n To servants 3 QP' 3. 

L. i. 3py Arabic usage shows that the root had the two meanings 
of 'follow, be behind (conj. i) and to pay back, recompense (conj. iv). The 
name 3py, probably in full 7N~3py, may have had either of these two 
meanings originally; see Baethgen Beitrdge 158, who compares the 
Palmyrene name 3pyny A te follows, rewards. Hence the noun here may 
be rendered either reward, cf. 31 3py Ps. 1 9 1 2 and Pr. 22 4, or continua- 
tion, i. e. from the foregoing account. 

L. 2. n?j?S Name of a month, perhaps the 6th. It is found again in 
23 i (rest.). 29 8. Tarn. 2 i. 

L. 3. See A 3 . 

L. 4. QO 1 ' *?y?b i. e. D^ .?Jpp is taken to mean 'the gods who 
preside over the different days of the month.' cbw 313 in magno 

sacrificio pacifico (Corp.); but 313 is very doubtful. For D^ cf. 
&3 tbv 42 3 ff. 

L. 5. The sense is obscure ; t?S3 may be sing, collective (not plur., 
which would be Jlt?S3) in the sense of persons, men- and women-slaves, 
as in Gen. 12 5. Lev. 22 u. Eze. 27 13 (with DIN). 
See A 13 n. 

L. 6. nD3N13j6 Cf. Carth. 161 6 (rest.). The name occurs in 
an inscr. from the temple of Osiris at Abydos, 31 d, and in the ! 
form 'A/38ov/:?ao-Tios in a Gk. inscr. from Sidon, Waddington 1866 c. \ /i 
There can be no doubt that HD3N is the Egyptian goddess Bast, > ' 
with N prosth. ; see Herodotus ii 60. 137 (temple of Bubastis). 156, 
and cf. the name DD3N ^ya 31 a. Tltnnmpn the Carthaginian ; the / 
Carthage in Cyprus (11 n.) or in Africa. 

L. 7. npi> Either Qal took or Pual were taken, pf. 3 plur. D3J3O 

is unintelligible, unless it be a mistake for D3?gD 1. 10. 

L. 8. Djni> Possibly to the friends i.e. DSHp. The Corp. renders 
1:6 were taken i. e. by lot, cf. i S. 10 20 f. ; but this is uncertain. 

7O Phoenician [21 

L. 9. nE7y virgins who sang and danced in the temple rites; cf. 

nisein nto^( p s . 68 26. ni!>y i?y Ps. 46 (tide), i Ch. 15 20. 
L. 10. See A 15 n. 

21. Kition. iv cent. B.C. Brit. Mus., Cyprus Room no. 31. Plate II. 
D1D1D ai P1K Wb K>K TN M2 i 

an Dm& p DIDID an PIK p D-ID^D an a 

'fcNbl DnDnD an WU p DnDnD an bfc?& p 3 

in an niy p jn aba p onbya na barib^b 4 
oanw aa^D by Dty 5 

This pillar (is that) which Arish, chief of the brokers, erected 
to his father, Parsi, 2 chief of the brokers, son of Arish, chief of 
the brokers, son of Menahem, chief of the brokers, 3 son of 
Mashal, chief of the brokers, son of Parsi, chief of the brokers ; 
and to his mother, 4 Shem-zabul, daughter of Ba'al-ram, son 
of Milk-yathon, son of 'Azar, chief of the prefects (?), over their 
resting-place, for ever. 

This inscr. is written on a fine monolith of white marble with a 
gabled top ; it belongs to the type of memorial inscrr. represented by 
15. 16. 18. 19. The stone was found in the necropolis of Kition 
outside Old Larnaka in 1894. 

L. i. BHX is found again in 38 4 and often in Garth, inscrr.; on a 
v cent, gold ring from Syria, Levy Siegel u. Gemmen 53 ; in the form 
Arisus CIL viii 3335, Arsus ib. 9054; cf. ^INIiy 45 7. The 
\/BnN Assyr. e'resu desire, request, Hebr. nB'HS ; possibly this is the 
meaning of the name here. D1D1D 21 Not found elsewhere. 

The usage of "ND"]D in Rabbinic literature gives a clue to the meaning 
here. Thus in Pesikta ed. Buber 45 a "^0"^=. mediator and is applied 
to Moses, rPYQjn ^nn TID"lDn PIN 'even the mediator trembled 
on account of it'; in the Mishnah it is used of a negotiator in a 
business transaction, e. g. Baba Bathra 87 a, cf. the Midrash on this 
passage, Midr. R. Deuteron. 3 fol. 91 b ('D applied to Moses) ; Talm. 
Jerus. Megila 1\d &c. In Arab. J^/- denotes intelligent, skilful, 

21] Kition 7 1 

one who manages a business well. Thus the earliest authority for the 
word is this inscr. ; and there is no reason to doubt that it is a genuine 
Phoen. word, a technical term of Phoen. commercial life. It was 
probably adopted from Phoenicia by the cognate languages. Frankel, 
Aram. Fremdw. in Arab. (1886) 186, conjectured that the Arab.^1^1 
was a loan-word from Aram., but since the discovery of this inscr. he 
has abandoned the conjecture, ZA (1896) x 99. So we may render 
D1D1D 11 chief of the brokers, who probably formed a merchant guild 
or corporation, apxiTrpay/zarcvnys. In the family of Arish the office 
was hereditary, having been held, on the father's side, for six genera- 
tions. ^isi> Cf. 18 3 f. n. 1D13 Perhaps 6 Ile'pon??, "'DISH 
Neh. 12 22. The name has been found on the foot of a vase from 
Sidon, Cl.-Ganneau At. ii 155. 

L. 2. nm Cf. 30 2. CIS i 87 3 (Cyprus). 102 b (Egypt). 

L. 3. *7Wb Cf. Euting Carth. Inschr. 130 4 f. ^K>rnpta. 

L. 4. 71TO5? Perhaps the Name has, or is, carried cf. the fern. pr. n. 
blffc^yi CIS i 158 2 f. In Assyr. zabdlu = ' carry/ 'bring '(e.g. 
KB ii p. 235 1. 88; iii 2 p. 92 1. 53 &c.), ? = ' honour/ 'exalt/ 
as given in COT* 550; cf. Arab. JJ>J take up and carry. The 
pronunciation was prob. zabul ; cf. the pr. n. Zabullus CIL viii 
5987. 9947. The explanation suggested by .Derenbourg, Rev. 
Etudes Juiv. xxx 1 1 8 ff., that i'lTEt? is a variation of such "a, name 
as rwat? (similarly Hale'vy Rev. Se'm. iii iSsff. 'heavenly name/ cf. 
Hab. 3 n) has little probability. The 'Name' may denote 'Ashtart, 
called ^yi DtJ> in 5 18. D1?yi Cf. 23 2 n., a name belonging to 

the royal family of Kition. JJ'Vl/'IO, also a royal name, is given to other 
persons, e. g. 41 6 f. (Carth.) &c. Ity Prob. shortened from 

i>ynty or the like; it is found in Carth. inscrr., e.g. CIS i 453 5 f. 
Carth. 27 5 f. &c. DJytn IT Like D1D1D n only met with here. 

A careful examination of the stone makes it almost certain that Djyin 
is the right reading, and that the indentation in the stone after T is not 
a letter, but a recent mark due to an accidental blow. The reading 
DJy'fn, given by Noldeke, ZA iv 402 ff., cannot, therefore, be accepted. 
The meaning is doubtful, (i) The word may be connected with the 
Assyr. hazdnu 'governor/ ' prefect/ of which the plur. is hazianuti, 
pointing to run as the root (Zimmern ZA vi 248); Tell-el-Am. 179 19. 
147 5 Zimridi feazanu $a Ziduna, and often. This gives a suitable sense. 
The title may have passed from the Canaanite coast to Cyprus; 
Assyrian influence was predominant in both regions at various times. 
The y, not used in Assyr., may be due to an attempt to express the 
long vowel. (2) It is natural to think of the Arab. ^jj* lay up, store, 

72 Phoenician [22 

guard; ,*yli guardian of treasures, of Paradise Qur. 39 73. Chief of 
the treasurers would give a good sense here ; but it is not likely that a 
pure Arab, title would be used of a local official in Cyprus. (3) Nold., 
1. c., suggests D^JJ \tn eye-gazers, i. e. seers, diviners, cf. 

Waddington 2795; but the construction seers of, i.e. zuith, eyes is 
not very natural, even if the reading DJJMH is to be accepted. (4) 
Hale*vy, Rev. Sem. Hi (1895) 183 ff., proposes chief of the inspectors of 
jav so"Lidzb.(?). The plur. of fl? in Hebr. is nfrjj, but 

the mas. form may have been used in Phoen.; HaleVy compares 
E^JJn Josh. 15 34, which is perhaps a dual. The office may be 
illustrated from a Gk. inscr., B.C. 333, where an official is rewarded for 
his services TTC/H TTJV cVi/ie'Xeiav T&V Kprjv&v, Michel 105 = CIA iv 2. 
169b; cf. also eTri/AeX^r^s aipeOfis "Effects TH^S (from Palmyra), 
Waddington 2571 c. ; procurator aquarum, Rushforth Lat. Hist. 
Inscr. 89. It may be questioned whether HTPI seer could be used for 
inspector; 10t? keeper 38 7 would be a more natural term. On the 
whole (i) is to be preferred. 

L. 5. D^ wnru aapo i>y Cf. 16 2. 

22. Kition. iv-iii cent. Larnaka. 


To 'Abd-'ashtar, son of Eshmun- . . . , the chariot-smith ; 
Zl . . . made (it). 

This inscr. was found at Larnaka in 1894 ; see Myres and Richter 
Catal. of Cypr. Mus. 172 and Plate viii. Below the inscr. is the 
incised outline of a figure resembling the steering-oar (?) carved on 
CIS i 265, Tab. xlvii. But the figure here can hardly be meant for 
an oar, nor does it look like any part of a chariot. Michon, R^v. 
Arch. (1900) 458, suggests that it represents some tool, such as a 
plane, and compares the monument of Boitenos Hermes, a maker 
of beds, KAetvoTn^yos, on which his tools are carved (CIG 2135). 

L. i. in^jray For the usual mnBTDy 29 2. 5 &c.; see for the 
form 1 17 n. ... JDt?N The full name was prob. compounded 

with ITS?, pK, or fry. 

L! 2. nbjy tnn i. e. r6i? ehn. For Bnn a worker in metal or 

23] Idalion 73 

wood cf. 20 A 13 n. ; and for rfay cf. CIS i 346 3 f>JJ ffay, which 
seems to mean (maker of] chariots of 'wood '; a chariot is figured on 
a stone from Carthage illustrated in Corp. p. 397. The chariot is 
copiously represented in Cyprian art from the beginning of the Graeco- 
Phoenician period. In a private communication M. Clermont- 

Ganneau suggests that . . . if is the fragment of a pr. n., such as 
38 5 &c., the name of the donor of the stele. To read ["pS^ T 
leaves *?yQ without a subj., and the stele without a donor. 

23. Idalion. CIS i 88. Date circ. 386 XG. Louvre. 


in ill] - oaa i 
teo D-/?JD p S^N 2 
p jn 3 

naSoni T -rs&n ifi 4 

. . . . nn iptfi D wy, 5 
p JPK rrcwTW aflnay 6 

On the i [6]th day of the month Pa'aloth, in the 3rd year of 
king Milk-yathon, [king of Kition and] 2 Idalion, son of Ba'al- 
ram: This statue (is that) which R[eshef]- 3 yathon, son of 
'Azrath-ba'al, interpreter of the thrones, gave and set up and 
entirely [renovjated to his lord Melqarth who hears (his) 
voice. 4 This ? . . . and the steps (?) which belong to this 
? . . . , which were commissioned (?), A[don]-sh[amash, so]n 
of Reshef-[yathon], c interpreter of the thrones, commissioned. 
And the ? . . statues on the steps (?) of the ? . . . and ..... 
which were [com] missioned (?), 6 'Abd-pumi and 'Abd-melqarth, 
the two sons of [Ad]on-shamash, son of Reshef-yathon, inter- 
preter of the thrones, commissioned in the 6th year 7 of king 

74 Phoenician [23 

Milk-yathon, king of Kition and [Id]alion, because Melqarth 
heard their voice. May he bless them ! 

This inscr. belongs to the type illustrated by nos. 12-14. 

L. i. QDa See 12 i n. nitya See 20 B 2 n. jjvata Cf. 

24. 25. 30. According to the chronology given by Babelon Pers. 
Achem. cxxvi, Milk-yathon jjgjgned first from B. c. 392 to 388 and 
thejijrom 387 tojy6i (see 149 B 5). His third year will thus be 390. 

lT7. D - iSo247 i ; feb~CF.lST; FinTeT^jn, cf. 38 i. 

46 i. 102 i; 2 Ch. 24 4. 12 (of the temple). 15 8 (of the altar). But 
this and the word following are uncertain. 

L. 3. DD"Dn pta . . . JJTSBn See 15 2 n. hnmty perhaps my 

help t's Baal ; the usual form of the name is i?jO "iTJJ. mpta = 

rnp ^O^fottg- of the city, cf. 20 3 &c. 36 i and 3 2 n. This title 
belonged to Ba'al of Tyre, and came to be used as a pr. name; 

tnus 36 x nx ^ fiip^ P* 1 ^- In the Gk - form of the latter inscr - 
the equivalent ofmpi>Di> is HPAKAEI APXHrETEI. By the Greeks 

Melqarth was identified with Herakles, as we learn also from Philo 
of Byblus, Fr. Hist. Gr. iii 568, MeXxafyos 6 /cat 'HpcucA^. From 
-pyre the cult of Melqarth spread to Cyprus (as this inscr. and 29 and 

, ~ x , 

the Cyprian names D1I3JJ, D"l3 testify), and to Egypt, Carthage, 
and other places ; see Baethgen Beitr. 20 f. Melqarth is not mentioned 
in the O. T., but the worship of the Tyrian Ba'al introduced into N. Israel 
by Jezebel was most likely offered to him. X?IDB> i. e. prob. 9$. 

L. 4. Further objects dedicated to the deity. Tpan IpS has been 
rendered ' curavit hanc curam ' ; but this rendering of IpQOH, while 
it agrees with that of IpS (cf. Ezr. 1 2), does not suit no^DHI and 
the stairs (?). Accordingly Cl.-Ganneau explains the word from Eze. 
43 21, where it is ordered to burn the sin-offering JV2H *lpQO3 
The mtfqad, then, was some place adjoining the temple, 

1 (i) Although this Ba'al-ram was the father of king Milk-yathon, he is not given 
the title of king either here or in 24 i ; we may conclude, therefore, that he never 
was king, (a) In the bilingual inscr. CIS i 89 our prince (piN) Bctal-ram^son of 
'Abd-milk, dedicates a statue in the reign of Milk-yathon. This Ba'al-ram is prob. 
to be distinguished from (i). The Cypriote version gives 6 fdvaf as the equivalent 
of piN, a title which belonged to princes of the Cyprian royal house, cf. Aristotle 
ap. Harpocration ol n\v viol rod /3aat\fajs itoi ol dS(\(pol KoXovvrai ava/crts, at 
5 aSeXcpai a2 -ywaiKes avaaaai Fr. Hist. Gr. ii 166; also Clearchus ap. Athen. 
Deipnos. ib. ii 311. (3) Another Ba'al-ram was king of Kition and Idalion, as his 
coins testify, about B. c. 396, just before Milk-yathon ; but his name has not so far 
been read with certainty on any inscr. ; in Idal. 7 i ['I'joj'wa not [an] 1 )^; is prob. 
the right reading. See Babelon Pers. Ach&tn. cxxvi-cxxx. 

24] Idalion 75 

but outside the sanctuary ; one of the gates of the city was near it, 
Neh. 3 31. There is nothing, however, in this inscr. to determine 
exactly what is meant by npaon; but it prob. had something to do 
with the statue referred to in 1. 2, perhaps the pedestal (so Lidzb. 
158 n. i). nDi>Dn The meaning of this word is also doubtful. 

It may be steps, from <v/?7D to lift up, cast up; hence DpD ladder 
Gen. 28 12. ipD> The word is uncertain; it may be Hofal pf. 

plur. as in 1. 5. PBtWlK 1. 6, only here; cf. tSWOJJ CIS i 116 

2 (=HAIOAnPOC). 117 2. B>DE>DpD (name of a city) Lidzb. 316. 
Shamash was the sun-god; cf. in Old Aram. tJW 61 2 &c. 62 22. 
64 9 ; in Ethiop. ODD. 

L. 5. npai 3 plur. ; the subject is 'Abd-pumi and 'Abd-Melqarth 1. 6. 
A fresh dedication is mentioned here. 

L. 6. 'OEfny Only found here; for iCB see 12 i n. p fe>K 

i. e. *?.? V.^. The constr. st. occurs again in 36 2 p 'ft?, and the abs. 
in 12 3 DJ5?K (see .). The sixth year of Milk-yathon was prob. 

B.C. 386, unless the reckoning started from 387 when he became 
king a second time according to Babelon's chronology (above). 

L. 7. The formula of blessing resembles that in 36 3 f. For suff. in 
D^p see 5 add. note. 

24. Idalion. CIS i 90. Date 391 B.C. Brit. Mus., Cyprus 
Room no. 289. 

p VtNi TO iSs jrvrka / jrv E'N IK pn j?|Vip i 


This plating of gold (is that) which king Milk-yathon, 
king of Kition and Idalion, son of Ba'al-ram, gave to his god 
Reshef of Mukl in Idalion, in the month Bui, in the 2nd year 
of his reign over Kition and Idalion, because he heard (his) 
voice : may he bless ! 

This inscr. belongs to the same type as 25 and 26. 

L. i. ypID i. e. Vg^O, again in Idal. 7 3 n[t?ru y]piO (Euting Siiz.- 
ber. PrT Akad. (1887)422). The -s/Vpl = beat out thin, of metals, 
e.g. Jer. 10 9 Vj^O ^03. Ex. 39 3. Num. 17 3. Talm B. Sheqalimgb 

76 Phoenician [25 

2HT 'ypl. The word here prob. denotes the gold-plating of the image 
(^OD) of the god, cf. ayoX/wt f-rrixpvo-ov, Herod, ii 182, and Is. 40 19. 
If ypTO_meant^$oo;/_or_2w/_^ beaten gold (Corp.), the inscr. would 
have been written on the bowl itself, as 11, not on a stone 
tablet. pn See 3 4 n. tr&ya . . Jivafo See 23 i. a . 

L. 2. ^1K3 !>3 si 55 '"' Cf - 25 J f - 2 "7 5- CIS i. 94 4 f. i>3D is prob. 
the name of a city, see 20 A 13 n. ; and f>3D Pjtjn = TO> 'ATroXojyt TU> 
CIS i 89 (Cypriote), 'A/AvxAds being a dialectical form of the 

Classical 'A/nj/cXaios. The Phoenicians usuallyjried to give the names 
of^foreign deities a form familiar to themselves ; thus ' Reshef of 
Mukl^ was their_wayjof representing Apollo of Amyclae in Lacedae- 
mon. For C)En see 12 3 n. ; this and the following inscr. show that 
he was specially honoured at Idalion. The prep, in ^INU implies 
that the cult of the deity was transplanted from its native home ; 
similarly D^Kl DOPJO 39 i. 3^33 int? 64 2. 92 3. 99 2. In 45 
i. 55 i, however, this appears not to be the case. ^2 See 5 

i n. i^rb i.e. *5j"?? Inf. with suff. 3 m. .sing., as in 26 2. 

25. Idalion. CIS i 91. Brit. Mus., Cyprus Room no. 225. 

p S 

This statue (is that) which king Milk-yathon, king of Kition 
and [Idalion, son of Ba'al-ram], gave [to his god] Reshef of 
Mukl. With his ? I conquered those who came out and 
their allies .... 

The general type of this inscr. resembles that of 24 and 26. 

L. i. i>DD Cf. 13 2 n. 

L. 2. ^3 5]En Cf. 24 2 n. nn3 i.e.flPlW or nnjM. The pri- 

mary meaning of nV3 is shine, as appears from Aram, usage, e.g. 
Apoc. 15 6 IkjLtlT Jof )Jfco raiment fine, shining. From this comes 


the derived meaning be illusirious, triumph, conquer, e.g. Midr. 
Rab. JEkah 1 n nnan HS31 (Qal), Targ. Jon. Num. 16 14 n}rw 
Jinn: (Pael), Dan. 6 4 HSHnp (Ethp.); JiiJ ^/<?rj/ Jud. 15 18, 
wnxa Targ. Jer. Ex. 14 14. 25; in the O.T. cf. the late passages 

27] Idalion 77 

Lam. 3 1 8. i Ch. 29 u : Driver Samuel 98 f. flN Prep, as in 4 

8. 5 4 &c., here prob. with the aid of. ^D The reading is un- 

certain and the meaning unknown. The first letter looks like a D, 
possibly a X, the second appears to be a 3. The Corp. reads HD 
his counsel (i.e. Reshef-yathon's), and quotes in illustration Ps. 25 
1 4 &c. ; this is very doubtful. DXtfTl those who came forth i. e. 

to battle; for N^ in this sense cf. i S. 8 20. 2 S. 11 i. DJITjn 

Cf. 5 add. note. The reference appears to be to some historical occa- 
sion, perhaps a rebellion or political revolution. 

26. Idalion. CIS i 92. Date 354 B. c. 

p bn*n TO [^a jrvas -]ba jiv B>N TK 

The son of king Milk-yathon was Pumi-yathon (B.C. 361-312), 
see 12. 13. 149 B 6. The missing portions of the inscr. are restored 
after 24 and 25. 

L. 2. T"O m 11 The name of this month occurs again in the 
NPun. inscr. 55 5. *M? )DB> ruea Cf. 2 K. 24 12 

27. Idalion. CIS-i 93. B. c. 254. Brit. Mus., Cyprus Room 

no. 239. 

ni \in in 

[. . . . Dp 

DWDTK D^SJa *nD &*h \ III 111"^ /^Aiy MH ^ 2 



Phoenician <? -\ v 

hy m p 
p pw&pK 
p E>K TOT JM p 

On the 7th day of the month Hiyyar in the 3ist year 
of the lord of kings Ptolemy son of Ptolemy . . . . , 2 which 
is the 57th year of the men of Kition, the Kanephoros of 
Arsinoe Philadelphos (being) Amath-osir, daughter of Mk . . . , 
3 son of ' Abd-sasom, son of Gad-'ath : These statues (are 
those) which Bath-shalom, daughter of Mar-yehai, son of 
Eshmun-adon, set up 4 for her grandsons Eshmun-adon and 
Shallum and 'Abd-reshef, the three sons of Mar-yehai, son of 
Eshmun-adon, son of Nahmai, 6 son of Gallab, (being) the 
vow which their father Mar-yehai had vowed during his 
life-time to their lord Reshef of Mukl : may he bless them ! 

L. i. QD'Q See 12 i . "TH again in 31 d. 45 5, perhaps 

identical with the Aram. *i/, "V*N Targ. Jon. Ex. 12 39, Hebr. VI, the 
second month, April-May. D:&B pN See 5 18 n. D^D^TlS 

i.e. Ptolemy ii Philadelphus, 285-247 B. c. The missing word at the 
end of the line is prob. fp'VpB. Cf. 10 6 f. and 29 4 ff. 

L. 2. nt? Nil CJ>N i. e. ri?f K'n "?K. Note the pron. after the relat., 
a construction which occurs several times in_Hjbx. Ju chiefly_.before an 
adj. or ptcp., e.g.. Gen. 9 3 *'n tffil ^B&JDt. 20 20. Hag. 1 9 &c. ; in 

31 7J33 wrn KVVp ; in Arab., e. g. Quran 43 51 ^#1 y &8\ lii this 
who is a contemptible person ; the same is found in Ethiopic. See 
Driver Tenses 199 obs., Samuel 64. For nt? = JW sing. cf. 6 
i n. TO 1^6 The era of the people of Kition began in 311 

B. c. In the previous year Pumi-yathon (12 i n.) was put to death by 
Ptolemy i Soter, king of Egypt, and this brought the native dynasty to 
an end. For the threefold indication of date cf. 29 4 f. D"lS33=Kav77- 
<opos Basket-bearer, a title given to the virgins who carried the sacred 
baskets in the processions of Athene, Demeter, and Dionysos at 
Athens. In the cult of the Ptolemies, who were treated with divine 
honours (cf. 28 2-4, 29 5 ff.), the office of the Kanephoros was one of 
such dignity that in Egypt (and in Cyprus too) the year was indicated by 

27] Idalion 79 

her name ; for this there is evidence from papyri, from the bilingual 
inscr. of Canopus (238 B.C.) 1. 2 Kavr]<f)6pov 'Aptrtvoiys ^iXaSeX^ou 
Mevexparcta? r^s 4>tXa/t/xovo9 (Michel no. 551) exactly as here, and 
from the Rosetta Stone 1. 5 Kavr]<f)6pov 'A/xrivd??? 3>iA.a8cA.<ov 'A/aeias 
njs Aioyo/ovs (CIG 4697), &c., in all cases, be it noted, in connexion 
with Arsinoe' and not with other Ptolemaic queens. From this inscr. 
it appears that the cult of the Ptolemies, with the Kav^opta of Arsinoe, 
was established in Cyprus. The name of the Kanephoros, Amath- 
Osir, is Egyptian (cf. "iDK*12y 14 2), but she was certainly a Phoe- 
nician by race. f|ini>3 D3D1N (genitive) Arsinoe Phtladelphus, the 
sister-consort of Ptolemy ii ; the pair were worshipped as gods, cf. 
D'HN }i>N 0eoi dSeX^ot 10 7. 

L. 3. DDD"Dy See 16 i n. nxna Baethgen explains as Fortune 

of'Ath(e) ; cf. DOtJTl 13 59 C z and the Pun. name Giddeneme in Plaut. 
Poen. = Dy3 13 CIS i 383 i, the Palm, wnj Vog. 84 3, and the Hebr. 
i>X^a Num. 13 10 ; for the deity ny, nny, Nfiy see 112 4 n. Noldeke, 
however, considersjhat the formj)rob. =jiyi3, jjUla. ; cf. >t|^4, iclj4- 
&c.,~zbMG xlii 471. i>Kn Cf. 5 22. JMB^ IfiL 3 sing, 

fern.; JprJhe_&niissk>n_Qfjhe_fem. ending cf. 3 add, note i, and 56 i 
K3P. s nnp See 19 3 n. 

L. 4. i>y on behalf of, cf. CIS i 178 DJ3 i>y . . . T^JO 1*W. 171 6 

nipijonny i?y aa ^y nxo [0133]. ya p See 3 i n. p is plur. 

constr. ; ""ja sing, with suff. 3 sing. fern. Elsewhere this suff. is n^ e. g. 
nrUBDP 3 6 ; in Pun, x', e.j.j6g_CIS i 371 6. or if. e. ft. yS>p Carth. 
l?2~^&c. D^ Cf728 3 T *DrU Cf. CIS i 94 4 pttUDBtt 

^om p. 

L. 5. n^3 See 20 A 1 2 . 113 p As in Arab., the copulative 

verb p is used with the perf. to express a pluperfect, e.g. '^L, ^S he 
had set out'. Wright A r. Gr? ii 3 (c), Konig Syntax 122, 
Noldeke Sem. Spr. 26. This is the only instance of the idiom so far 
known in Phoen. The father had registered his vow for the benefit 
of his three sons, but he did not live to carry it out; so this was 
done by their grandmother. The inscrr. CIS i 381-383 are perhaps 
to be understood in a somewhat similar way; thus 381 2 b [jn]* 
[N'ON m]j C?N T r>3nn i. e. the son gave this gift which his father had 
vowed; so apparently 382 [l]^JO TH n[lj] Nlj/l"^ V* and 383 
}JI3 "113 ... DyiTl [m], the first-named carries out the vow which the 
second had made. D3J1K . . D32N See 5 add. note. m during 
his life-time, cf. 16 2 rQD^> during my life-time. i?3O W\ See 

24 2 n. 

8o Phoenician [28 

28. Larnax Lapethos. CIS i 95. Date circ. end of iv cent. B. c. 

i/xx Nuqj 

l )8acrtXe<us 


p Djn 3 
npq Bn 4 

To 'Anath, the strength of life, and to the lord of kings 
Ptolemy, Ba'al-shillem, son of Sesmai, consecrated this altar. 
To good luck ! 

This bilingual inscn is written on a rock outside the village of 
Larnax Lapethos, near the ancient city of Lapgthos on the N. coast 
of the island. 

L. i. tvy The goddess 'Anath is met with again in Idal. 7 3 
(Euting Sitz.-ber. Berl. Ak. (1887) 420 ff.). Her cult goes back to 
very early times in Syria and Palestine, and has left traces in the 
names of the old Canaanite towns 'Anathoth (Josh. 21 18 &c.), 
Beth-'anath (Josh. 19 38 &c.), Beth-'anoth (Josh. 15 59), which were 
the seats of her worship. The father of Shamgar was called 'Anath 
(Jud. 5 6) *. Most likely the goddess came originally from Babylonia, 
where Anatum was the consort of Anu (cf. "^^. 2 K. 17 31): 
Jastrow ReL of Bab. and Assyr. 153, Cheyne Ency. Bill. s. v. 
Anath. At the same time it is curious that the Canaanites should 
have adopted Anatum and not the far more prominent Anu; 
possibly the resemblance between Anatum and njy may be only 

1 Perhaps shortened from raynaj>; in any case an unbecoming name for an 
Israelite. But it is possible that Shamgar was not a ' minor judge,' but a foreign 
oppressor of Israel (ray pi is read by Cheyne 1. c. in Jud. 5 6) ; the name 'Anath, 
like Shamgar and Sisera, will then be purely foreign. See MOOTC Judges 143. 

28] Larnax Lapethos 81 

accidental; E. Meyer, ZDMG (1877) xxxi 717 ff., and Zimmern, 
KA T* 353, doubt the identification. From Syria the worship of 'Anath 
was introduced into Egypt, prob. by the Chetas (E^fi), and her name 
appears on the monuments from the i8th dynasty downwards. She 
was a war-goddess, and was represented helmeted and fully armed ; 
see the monument in the Brit. Mus., Egypt. Saloon no. 191, illus- 
trated in W. Max Miiller Asien u. JEur. 313. Perhaps it was as a 
war-goddess that 'Anath becomes Athene in the Gk. version of this 
inscr. ; and the similarity of the two names in sound no doubt assisted 
the identification (cf. 24 2 n.). Thus DTl W ruy^'A^va Swrcipa; for 
D'H TV cf. Ps. 27 i. 28 8, and 57 i D'H Tl. 

L. 2. Data IN For Data pK 5 18 n. C^DS A local variety 

(cf. 29 4 if.) of the usual form D'C^flS 27 i &c. ; here Ptolemy i 
Soter (B.C. 323-285). According to Diodorus Sic. xix 79, Praxippos 
king of Lapethos, along with other Cyprian princes, declared for 
Antigonus in the struggles of the Diadochoi. Seleucus as the ally 
of Ptolemy i laid siege to Kerynia and Lapethos; later on, in 312, 
Ptolemy himself landed in Cyprus, put Pumi-yathon king of Kition 
to death (12 i .), and then seized the person of Praxippos, thus 
bringing to an end the dynasty of Lapethos. The inscr. must have been 
written not long after Ptolemy's victory. The Gk. here is difficult to 
translate. The Corp. suggests an ellipse of viicy in 1. 2, thus : * Athenae- 
victoriae et (victoriae) regis Ptolemaei.' Schroder, 156 ., takes the 
KO.L of 1. 2 as belonging to the preceding word, ' and to the Victory of 
king Ptolemy.' The second explanation is, perhaps, preferable. For 
the cult of the Ptolemies, who in Egypt were associated with the 
ancient gods of the country, cf. 27 2 n. 

L. 3. D^JO i. e. Baal requites (Piel), CIS i 338 3 ; cf. 
35 i. 55 i, and D^ 27 4. The Gk. has npa&'Srj/xos. On a Gk. 
inscr. from the same -place one n/m^t'Sr/fios is ap^tepcv? TOV vaov 
ILxmSoivos TOV Aapi/axaibu (Waddington 2779). ""ODD This name 

is found in i Ch. 2 40 ^?Dp (LXX 2o<ro/u, Luc Sao-a/xet', Vulg. 
Sisamoi) borne by a man of Judah descended from an Egyptian ances- 
tor ; it evidently has some connexion with the god ODD, see 16 i . 
Cl.-Gan. thinks that the name in full was [TlJ^ODD Sasom-yehai, thus 
accounting for the final <l/ . The Gk. HpaiSrjp.os ^'oyxaos admits of no 
clear explanation; perhaps 2'aytaos=2r/Aaros (adj.), the *' in 'ODD 
being treated as the gentilic ending. It is difficult to believe that 
SeV/xaos could have been written for 2e<r/xaov. 

L. 4. Enp^Ifil perf., cf. nenp" 1 29 9. 14 and JOB 11 13 2 n. For the 
dedication of an altar cf. 3 4 and 40 i nBTIJ 'D. 12 2. 29 10 (plur.). 





34. nx Usually JVN as sign of accus., but cf. 3 3. 7 ; Cl.-Gan., 

however, reads riKHp i sing. 

L. 5. DJH irD^ /0 good luck f, a formula invoking a blessing ; here at 
the end of the inscr., as in CIS i 89, where the Cypriote version has 
rvxai dyetfoT. The formula occurs more often at the beginning, e. g. 
29 i DW ^BID, and the frequent a-yaOy nxa i n Gk. inscrr. ; cf. the 
Rabbinic 13 f vcb i. e. 3lt3 bfch- 'JP Aram. N?JP is a star of fortune or 
fate; the plur. Tfb*= signs of the Zodiac 2 K 23 5, rfrljD Job 38 32. 
In Arab. ^UI plur. of Jjll is used of the stations of the moon, e. g. 
Quran 105 ' ^ * s He who ordained . . . the moon for a light jjll^ sJIK 
a</ appointed her stations.' Prob. ?TO is a loan-word from Assyr. 
manzaltu-=. i station,' 'abode (of God).' 

29. Larnax Lapethos 2 or Narnaka. iii-ii cent. B. c. 
Discovered 1893. 


p p 


jnai m 

p mwjna p 3 

JJi "OK ^ 7>6 

D ......... D 


ti*h DJ/? nan JTK 5 

p p ^ 

pt6 n in 

nSys s 

29] Larnax Lapethos or Narnaka 83 

ripW? ^ ?N ptf 1 ? nnarai Dy nap nSwa . n>nn riaon 

* **- *^- 

. *, 

wron nrintf DTM o n m % 

p oy npfi ntpW? 

. ' Good fortune ! 2 This statue ? ? Yathan-ba'al governor of 
the district, son of Ger-'ashtart governor of the district, son 

of 'Abd-'a[shtart] SR, 3 son of Ger-'ashtart, son of 

Shallum ?RML, (is that) which I set up for myself in the 

sanctuary of Melqarth, s M, for my name, 4 on 

the new-moon of Zebah-siSsim, which is in the nth year 
of the lord of kings Ptolemy, son of the lord of kings Ptolemy, 
5 which is the 33rd year of the people of Lapethos, and the 
priest to the lord of kings (being) 'Abd-'ashtart, son of Ger- 
'ashtart 6 governor of the district . . . RML. And in the month 
MP C , which is in the 4th year of the lord of kings Ptolemy, 
son of the lord of kings 7 Ptolemy, in the life-time of my 
father, I placed in the sanctuary of Melqarth the MSPN of 
my father in bronze. And in the month 8 Pa'aloth, which is 
in the 5th year of the lord of kings Ptolemy, son of the lord 
of kings Ptolemy, in the life-time 9 of my father, I gave and 
consecrated many (?) animals in the border of the country of 
Narnaka to the lord who is mine, Melqarth ; 10 ? ? the animals 
? ? ? ? and altars to the lord who is mine, Melqarth, u for my 
life and for the life of my seed, day by day, and to the legitimate 
offspring ? and to my lord (?) 12 on the new-moons and on the 
full-moons, month by month, for ever as aforetime (?), and 
? of bronze 13 . . . ? and a yoke of oxen (?) which is part of 

the offering of my grace. And I have made upon u ? ? 

G 2 



84 Phoenician [29 

in silver, (by) weight 100 and i (talents ?), and I consecrated 
(it) to the lord 15 [who is mine, Melqa]rth ; ? and good be to 
me and to my seed, and may Melqarth remember me ...... ? ? 

L. i. DJtt *?VK> For DJJ3 i>TO (28 5 n.), a local peculiarity of pro- 
nunciation, of which other instances occur in this inscr., e. g. B^D^ns 
for DnD^JlB, possibly niDD for n"!D 1. 13, PTPO3K for 'B3 1. 3 &c. As 
a rule this expression is in the dat., but the nom. is jound in a 
Gk. inscr. from the neighbourhood of Pergamum, T-VX*? ayaOrj (Michel 

L. 2. *jjx&? Possibly the last three letters may be the ist pers. 
pron.; Cl.-Gan., fit. ii 2 i, reads 13N B> DT tao this statue is mine, (yea) 
mine, Falhan-ba'al. He assumes DT to be a unique form of the 
demonstr. pron., and finds it twice again in 1. 10; B> he takes as 
the rel. with sufF. of ist pron. ="6 1K>K, and "pK as added for emphasis 
after the suff. in B> (cf. in Hebr. ityn ^ '3 x S. 25 24 &c.). These 
are serious assumptions, especially the forms Dt and V. The suff. ' is 
nearly always written in this inscr., and the rel. here is inconvenient 
before B>K in 1. 3. pK 31 Cf. x^papx 7 ? 5 - The omce prob. dated 

from the establishment of the autonomy of Lapethos. mntJ'Snj 

See 17 2 n. 46 2. The line prob. should be completed with 

IDDnay }3 pK 31]. 

L. 3. fb& Cf. 27 4. tal . . . Here and in 1. 6 Berger, Rev. 

d'assyr. (1895) Hi 76, reads 7D11p, taking it as the name of a place, 
Cape Krommyon, the NW. point of Cyprus. Cl.-Gan. reads ta"O1D, as 
a title of the flN 31. In the latter case, the first three letters recall the 
IIpa- in the names Ilpa^tS^os 28, Hpa^iTTTros 28 2 n., Ilpa^avSpos 
Strabo 582 3 ed. Mull., the founder of Lapethos all names con- 
nected with this part of the island. nWtD 11 Cf. 16 2. BHpD3K 

Apparently 3N for 3, but in 1. 7 we find B>1p3; cf. H3N 1. 7 for 
Tl3 1. 8. For nipta see 23 3 n. A Gk. inscr. which mentions 

Poseidon Larnakios has been found on the same spot (p. 8 1 supr.) ; 
hence it is prob. that the^jG^s.jegard^LMelgarth as a marine deity 
and identified him with Poseidon. The missing letters may be 

restored D[^y 1JJ DW 13JD a good memorial/or ever. 

L. 4. For the date reckoned by the jmiversal, logaly-and-eeelesias- 
tical systems_f^Luke 3 i f. KHH3 i. e. on the first day of the 

month; see 20 A 2 n. For the name of the month see 14 i n. B^D/Tia 
See 28 2 n. There is nothing to determine with certainty which Ptolemy 
is referred to here ; see note on 1. 1 2 below. 

29] Larnax Lapethos or Narnaka 85 

L. 5. non is the plur. of NH 5 n. 22. 42 17, the plur. being used 
because the number of the years is given, contrast 27 2 t?N 
Ivii nt? n ; nJ5? must be plur. too, like DID' before dates 12 i n. 
As non agrees with JiJfc?, the form was evidently used for both 
genders. 6a!> Cl.-Gan. t?a|j. On coins of Sidqi-milk, king of 

Lapethos (circ. 449-420 B.C.), the name of the city is t33^, 149 B 7; 
in Gk. it is written Aa7n/0os, AdtTraflos, Aa7ri0os, AT^-T^IS. When the 
era of Lapethos began is uncertain; see below on 1. 12. }m 

priest i. e. of the deified Ptolemy ; cf. the reckoning of the year by the 
name of the Kanephoros of Arsinoe' at Idalion, 27 2. The latter 
inscr. also illustrates the threefold synchronism here. 

L. 6. VBD Cf. 6 I. 

L. 7. 3N TON i. e. *? ".D2, but TQ 1. 8 ; see 1. 3 n. t?lp3K. T\W 
i. e. FIB* Ifil perf. i sing, of TW, / set. }Bfc?D Meaning unknown. 

If t?=t?==D, we may compare nJSDD ceiling, covering 36; but this 
does not suggest any suitable sense. The context requires not the 
overlaying of an image but an image itself. m*31 The third 

section of inscr. begins here. 

L. 8. rbyz See 20 B 2 n. 

L. 9. JW i. e. JyDJ. JVJJ? JVn Perhaps many animals (Lidzb.); 

JVJt? then will=ri s 3't?, the common Aram, word for many (**W, &^?'fc?), 
e.g. Palm. 121 5. 147 i 4. 6, used poetically in later Hebr., e.g. Job 
8 7. Ps. 73 12 (nat?). Job 8 ii &c. (XJ5?). Cl.-Gan. renders stray 
animals, i.e. n 4 ^ (in form like nn'a p s . 128 3 &c.) from rut?, used to 
supply the daily and monthly sacrifices. "1B> ^3J i. e. "nb> ^a 

cf. 619. 20. *JJ13 Narnaka = Aapva^ near Lapethos, cf. 

Nicosia = Leucosia. ^ t?X pN7 A more solemn and emphatic 
expression than l| yiN7; contrast ""JIN^?) 1. n. 

L. 10. Owing to the condition of the stone, the text and meaning of 
the first half of the line are quite uncertain. None of the restorations 
are satisfactory. Cl.-Gan. reads nrnrioi or np nbya or rpnn rm roan 

and takes the general sense to be and I made over the produce of these 
animals to the service of (lit. as serving, ptcp. fern.) this QMT, and 
sacrificed (Pual ptcp.) to Melqarlh. But the Qal of 315?, though 
occasionally used in Hebr. with a trans, sense (e.g. JTQE? 315? and 
Ps. 85 5. Is. 52 8 &c.), could hardly be used of rendering or applying 
a gift ; if HN3=nN13n it must mean produce of the earth, not offspring 
of cattle. Landau improves on this by reading n^JD for rf?ys, and the 
offerings of this foundation (? ?) and the altars to Melqarth (JBeitr. 0. 
Allertumsk. d. Or. ii 47). Berger's reading DJ? HDpn a rising of the 
people has little probability. 

86 Phoenician [29 

L. ii. ""jnt TI 7yi "H ?y The formula which occurs frequently in the 
Palm, inscrr. is very similar, e.g. TTU3 ni MVn 7y 135 4. 137 2. &c. ; 
cf. 70 4. 95 2. D 11 ID D 11 day by day as m* ID ITV /raow/A y 

wow/A in the next line. TDisprob. the same as the Hebr. "'IJO lit. out 
of the abundance of, hence as often as, e. g. I S. 7 16 njBtt nJB> 'ID. 

Is. 66 23 irDBa nat? noi wrro cnn "?. p*rc no^i Apparently 

and to the legitimate offspring ; for this fig. sense of nOV shoot cf. Jer. 
23 5 pH niDV *in^> TlDpm and 33 15. pltf here may be either an 
adj. P^J? or more likely a noun P"}*. nyiKTl inPK7i As they stand 

these words are untranslateable. See note below. 

L. 12. DKDairi DB>[*ir0] The words thus restored and read prob. 
mean on the new-moons and on the full-moons i. e. at the beginning and 
the middle of the month; cf. Ps. 81 4 Dl^ iiD33 1BW BHrtt Wpn 
W3H. D^3 Perhaps as formerly, cf. Jer. 30 20. Lam. 621. 

M. Clermont-Ganneau (I.e.) makes a brilliant suggestion as to 
the meaning of the obscure expression in 1. n intJ>K7l p*J H!0^ 
"D1K71. His argument is as follows : (i) The 7 in these words 
must have a different meaning from i>y in the same line, i. e. these 
words must denote not those for whose benefit (i>y) Yathan-ba'al 
made his offering, but those to whom religious service is due, like 
mptai> . . plN^ in 11. 9. 10. (2) In the case of the great god Melqarth 
the sacrifice is to be offered daily (D ^ D 1 *), but in the second case 
fortnightly, every month ('131 DBHrQ). There is, therefore, a difference 
of dignity between the objects of religious service. (3) The words 
IDnNh intJ'Nh do not suggest any names of gods ; but they may 
represent the names of some members of the Ptolemaic dynasty to 
whom divine honours were paid (27 2 n.), and the provision of the 
fortnightly sacrifice to them is in accordance with the Egyptian custom 
of celebrating a solemnity in honour of the reigning monarch on 
a fixed day over a month, called in Gk. and Rom. times ' the king's 
day.' The similarity of the letters in Phoen. makes it possible to read 
"inBK^ for intTX^I, supposing a mason's error of 1 for 1 (though this 
is perhaps hardly necessary) ; and if a similar error of D for 3 may 
be admitted in the foil, word, we have the reading JTN7l. Thus the 
whole phrase will mean And to the legitimate offspring (lit. shoot of 
righteousness) of Cleopatra and to my lord. Two sets of historical 
conditions may be found to account for this remarkable and significant 
expression, (a) The inscr. may belong to the period when Ptolemy vii 
(vi) Philometor was engaged in a bitter struggle for power with his 
brother, afterwards Ptolemy ix (vii) Euergetes ii or Physkon, a struggle 

29] Larnax Lapethos or Narnaka 87 

which considerably affected Cyprus 1 . Their mother Cleopatra, the wife 
of Ptolemy v Epiphanes, was regent for her eldest son from 181 to 
her death in 174. Yathan-ba'al thus protests his loyalty to the claims 
of the eldest son, the legitimate offspring of Cleopatra and his lawful 
sovereign (^1x7), Ptolemy vii (vi). The nth year of this king will give 
171-170 as the date of the inscr., and 203 B.C. as the era of Lapethos. 
(3) A later period offers an even more suitable occasion. After the death 
of Ptolemy ix (vii) Euergetes ii or Physkon, his wife and niece Cleopatra 
iii attempted to secure the succession for her younger son Alexander, 
but the people refused to acknowledge him. Thereupon she sent him 
for safety to Cyprus, and had him appointed independent king of the 
island (B. c. 114). Later on, his elder brother Ptolemy x (viii) Soter ii 
or Lathyros was expelled by an insurrection at Alexandria instigated 
by his mother, and took refuge in Cyprus (B. c. 107). The situation in 
Cyprus at this period must have been embarrassing enough, especially 
for public officials like the pN 21 at Lapethos ; and it may well be 
that political prudence suggested to Yathan-ba'al the equivocal ex- 
pression to the legitimate offspring of Cleopatra and to my lord. In this 
casethejjth yeajLofPtolemy will be 107-106, and the era of Lapethos 
willbegin with 1398.0. Cl.-Gan.'s correction and historical elucida- 
tion of the text are, of course, only conjectural ; but the conjecture is 
a most suggestive one, and it is sufficiently supported to make it 

L. 12. ntynin ninnol might mean and from the bronze doors; for 
the construction see 3 4 n. The first word, however, is uncertain. 
Cl.-Gan. reads i_nJ^n=8eXTo/0/<?/, and takes D^pj with this sentence; 
but his attempt to make sense of the passage is unsuccessful. 

L. 13. At the beginning of the line Cl.-Ganneau restores ron[3 K>x] 
which I have written. The next words he takes to be Ip2 rnom and 
I have nailed on the wall, comparing the Hebr. ""ODD nail., Arab. J^ 
(prob. a loan-word from Aram., Frankel Aram. Fremdw. 89). Lidzb. 
reads '3 rn!DD1=">E$ ""???! an ^ & yoke of oxen, which agrees better 
with the donation of sacrificial animals in 1. 9 f. *JH nn3D p 

Perhaps part of the offerings of my grace, the prep. JD being written 
p before another D, see 5 3 n. Cl.-Ganneau takes p B>N as= 

1 Thus Polybius, enlarging on Ptolemy's clemency towards his brother and rival, 
says tirtira, Sofas tKntotiv a.vb rrjs dfXW wwd TdSf\<pov, T& p\v irpoirw, iv 
1 A\(av5pti<} \al3wv KCLT' avrov Kaipbv ofwKo^fOVfjLtvov, dfJH'r}ffiKaicrjrov firot^aar^ 
T^V dfiapriav furd 8J ravra, itaXw (iri0ov\evaavTOS ry Ktnrptp, tevpios ffv6pfvos iv 

TOV aufuiros a/x a2 TT}S ^v^Tjs avrov, roaovrov &nia\( TOV 
v, ware ai Suptds vpofftOrjKe K.T.\. xl 12. 

88 Phoenician [30 

>$ on which (is) the offering. For nriiD see 7 in. 
Pf. i sing. The fourth section of the inscr. begins here the dedication 
of some metal object. 

L. 14. The first part of the line cannot be understood. f|D33 

of silver like JlBTM of bronze in 1. 7. PpBtD will then be in apposition 
to the following word denoting weight, Driver Tenses 192 (i); cf. 

40 i ns Dntsij i>p>e>D rwru rare. The text has 13, but this is 

a corn or fluid measure. It is possible that 13 is an abbreviation for 
133 talent, CIS i 171 2. 4; but the value of 102 talents of silver by 
the Attic standard would amount to over 2480 of our money, too 
large a sum to be likely. However, we do not know the value of Phoen. 
weights and money sufficiently well to make us reject this explanation 

L. 15. npa Meaning unknown; profit has been suggested, from 
Aram. pBJ go forth, but this is very doubtful. p3D^=T!?p. For 

the suff. cf. 4 7 JMin. 

L. 1 6. The last words give no suitable sense. 

30. Tamassos. Date 363 B.C. Brit. Mus., Cyprus Room no. 252. 

p BHW:I p 

r^ p an 3 
Ti n* 1 ?** 4 

Cypriote : 

to na ti ri a ta ne to nu-e to ke ne 
ka se o ne te ke ne ma na se se 
o no me ni o ne - to i ti o i 
to i a pe i lo ni -to i e le i 
ta i i tu ka i 

so] Tamassos 89 

i. e. in Greek : 

T6> a[v}SpL<i[v}rav To(VJ vv 

ove0'r)Ki> Mavacrfjs 


rat e[VJ rv^at 

This statue (is that) which Menahem, son of Ben-hodesh, 
son of Menahem, son of 'Araq, gave and set up to his lord 
Reshef of Eliyath, in the month Ethanim in the thirtieth 
year, 30, of king Milk-yathon, king of Kition and Idalion, 
because he heard (his) voice : may he bless ! 

This inscr. was found in 1885 on the site of the ancient Tamassos, 
between Lapethos and Idalion. A sanctuary of Apollo has been 
discovered (1889) outside the town, and recent excavations at 
Frangissa, some 3 miles to the west, have revealed another sanctuary 
of the same god; Myres Cypr. Mus. Catal. 12. The inscr. may be 
compared with 12 and 13 from Kition, and with 23-26 from 

L. 2. Droo Cf. 21 2 ; Cypr. ma-na-se-se, perhaps for ma-na-he-se 
(Menahem) or m'-na-se-se^Mvao-fas, the nearest Gk. equivalent for 
the Phoen. Menahem; Cl.-Gan. Rec. i 186 f. tnrm See 17 3 n. 

L. 3. p"iy Perhaps P"}i? like p"}|t &c. This pr. n. possibly may be 
connected with the^ancient jrnoen. clan "'p/iyn Gen. 10 17. i Ch. 1 15, 

i. e. the men of "Ap^o; (Jos. Ant. \ 6 2), atTthe foot of Lebanon, still 
caTled_Teira^,-r2 mT~NT~of Tripoli. See further Schrader COT 
104; Tell-el-Amarna letters 78 12. 

L. 4. n^K CIKH^ Cypr. TWI 'ATreiXwi rSt 'EXeiVai Apollo of Helos, 
either HelosinTLacedaemon or a Cyprianjcity of the^ame name. 
Hesychius, Lexicon s. v. Zeus in Cyprus, quotes several forms which 
resemble 'EXcirou here, thus EtX^t: Zcvs ev KvVpo). *E\a0vs: Aios 
lepov fv KvTrpai &c. In Tarn. 2 4 f. DnNI^K l&n= Cypr. 'A7rd[X]Xa)vi rait 
'AXao-worai, a Phoen. transcription of what is prob. the name of 
another Gk. town. In the bilingual inscr. CIS i 89 a third desig- 
nation of the god^occurs, i?3D PJBH Cypr. TW 'ATroAow TW ' 
Apollo o/Amyclae; see 12 3 n. 24 2 n. Dint* See 20 A i n. 

L. 5. jrvata See 23 i n. 

Phoenician [31 

81. Abydos. CIS i 102. Circ. iv cent. In situ. 

I am Pa'ala-ubast, son of Sed-yathon, son of Ger-sed, 
the Tyrian, dwelling here (?), in On of Egypt, after the 
departure (? ?) of Bod-MNQSTH, the man of On (?). 

I am Ba'al-[yahon], son of MNQSTH . . . 


I am Magon, son of Bodo, . Hefes-ba'al . . . 


I am 'Abd-ubast, son of Sed-yathon 2, in the month 


These inscrr. are a selection from those found on the walls of the 
temple of Osiris at Abydos (Egypt). Like the inscrr. on the colossus 
at Ipsambul (CIS i 111-113), and on the rocks beside the caravan- 
routes in the Sinaitic peninsula (103-109), they give the names, and 
occasionally the designations, of travellers. 

31] Abydos 91 

a. L. i. nD2K^J?S Bast has made; for Bast see d and 20 B 6 ., 
and for the compound name with 7JJB cf. mntJ > y?yD in the inscr. 
discovered at Memphis in 1900, given below 1 , hysbyl NPun. 94 2, 
on coins from Byblus (149 B 9) and in i Ch. 8 1 1 ff. ; cf. 
2 S. 2 1 8 &c. 1V-I3 p fJTI* Cf. </ and Itfjrv CIS i 

184 4 f. imy 236 5 &c. IS (< Hebr. T* hunting, ^Jiunter^ is 
clearly the name of a deity, perhaps the god of the chase ; but it is 
found only, in compound pr. nn. 2 The deity^was associated with 
Melqarth and Tanith at Carthage, e. g. mpfomf CIS i 256, rWTO 249. 
It is possible that the originals of the Phoen. gods 'Aypevs and 'AXievs 
mentioned by Philo of Bybl., Fr. Hist. Gr. iii 566, were }"ttfl *TC i. e. 
Hunter and Fisher. The name of the city px is perhaps related to 
that of the god "IV, who is supposed by some to be the Phoen. Posei- 
don; see Cl.-Gan. fit. i 154. For nru cf. mptem 17 2 n. ; Lidzb., 

however, reads 1XT3. *3T 3tJ* Derenbourg's rendering (Rev. 

d'Assyr. i 93), I dwell, c rushed (with grief), is most improbable. "OThas 
been taken as a demonstrative adv., here, cf. Aram. "H?!, l> 3 > ;} ille; but 
in Phoen. the demonstr. is T, not *l. The reading ^31 is possible ; this 
may be an adv. of place, cf. \siot, and see 4 4 #., where according to 
Hoffmann ns is a demonstr. particle. (c*> 

L. 2. D1VD }N3 On, Egyp. An, = Heliopolis in Lower Egypt ; cf. 
Gen. 41 45 (LXX 'HAw TrdXcws). Eze. 30 17 ; it was celebrated for 
the worship of the sun-god, Ra. mt3B2 Possibly after the depar- 

ture, i. e. the decease, ofB. IBS has the sense depart, escape, e. g. I S. 1 9 
10, and in post-bibl. Hebr. frequently occurs, in the Nifal, with the 
meaning depart out of this life, e.g. Talm. Berakoth 17 a 

robma p toa p nabmay p mnwrtjKj "p [H]:TD' [i] roson i 
TD Drt^i rnrww nte DM miM D 1 ?^ 1 ? 'nn 1 ? ^:nntDrri[ by ... nlatenay p a 
mrrawn D:O ni mnwbyET woician toasai no^ay '5[a nw n]' -p\y .J^M 3 

DIM jai n:b jyb D ; ni jn c 1 ? jn[i] 4 

i.e. 'This erection I erected, I Pa'ala-'ashtart &c., 2 son of 'Abd-malkath, 
..... to my mistress, the mighty god Isis, the god 'Ashtart, and to the (other) 
gods who s are (here?). May they bless [him and his] sons, 'Abd-osir &c., 
and their mother Hanni-'ashtart, * and give them favour and life in the eyes of 
the gods and the sons of men.' In 1. 2 Lidzb. suggests '3">M3 IQTO rri *n on account 
of the protection of my journey, supposing that -J^N: = -jbno ; miM thvh see 33 6 n. ; 
1. 3 to perhaps the fragment of an adv., like the Hebr. Din , nubn ; the restoration 
':[a nw vijn* is uncertain; 1. 4 cf. 3 10 n. Re~p. i nos. I. 58; Lidzb. Eph. 
i 153. 

a The names 8^/wy Ca Tynan. Michel 424) and "Aifwos fgen.) in Gr. inscrr. 
may be the one a translation of is, the other a transcription of i!naP ; Cl.-Gan. 
Rec. i 187-192. 

9 2 Phoenician [31 

}D 210 DB>3. The commemoration of the dead was customary 
at the temple of Osiris; but this explanation of mtDS3 cannot be 
regarded as certain. The reading of the word following is doubtful ; 
the Corp. gives mpJCmy ; Derenbourg 1. c., Lidzb. nvpJOia, cf. nvp: 
in b. For . 3 . n the Corp. restores ^NH the man of On ; Renan 

OliKit, a gentilic noun, taking on from the end of 1. i. 

b. . n . ^yi i. e. prob. jro^ja, cf. ^jnar? 46 z and ^>ynjn. . . . nv nxp:e> 
So Lidzb. The first word is uncertain and its etymology unknown ; 
Derenbourg regards it as = nvp3D12 in a, and reads the next word 
as a gentilic form 'jnn or enn. Corp. [D]nmp Menqarth (i. e. 
Melqarth^ protects \ cf. ''Orr perhaps =rPDrr may Yah protect i Ch. 7 2 ; 
Arab. ^-- 

f. pD Cf. 33 2 &c., a common Phoen. name. Nni See 12 

3 n. f'yaxan pleasure of Bdal\ the name of another 

person. .QJD may contain the name ep Memphis, Eze. 30 13, 

<?/" ^/" ^Sp. It is doubtful whether the full form was <aJD, for this 
would require the art., as nxn in a. 

< L. i. For the two pr. nn. cf. a. The text followed is that of 
Derenbourg l.c. 

L. 2. The meaning of the first group of letters is unknown. For 
Tn m cf. 27 i . 

32] Athens 95 


32. Athens. CIS i 115. Perhaps iv cent. B. c. Athens. 
AiTurarpos ' 

p . 
wnajn p nWajn ^K JI*OB % 

ava)TT(ov avxaera> ei/coVa 

l Sey trpwp (e 

yap el^0po\ct)v rdfta OtXcov cnropdcrai' 
aXXa <^)tXot T rjfJLwav /cat /xot KTepLcrav rd^ov 
ovg 0e\oi> <tXecjv, teoa? a,7ro 

^ retSe x#oz> 

I am SM., son of 'Abd-'ashtart, an Ashqelonite. (This is 
that) which I D'om-sillah, son of D'om-hanno, a Sidonian, 
set up. 

This bilingual inscr. is written on a gravestone now preserved in 
the KevrpiKov MOVO-CLOV in Athens. Underneath the Phoen. lines is 
carved a representation of the incident alluded to in the Gk. verses 
below. A corpse lies upon a bier ; on the left a lion is leaping up to 
devour the body, on the right is a human figure with the prow of 
a ship in the place of the head and shoulders; it seems to be 
defending the corpse from the lion. The scene is perhaps intended for 
an allegory ; the lion representing the god of the underworld eager to 
snatch the body, the prow or 'holy ship' (apparently personified) 
being possibly connected with funeral rites, which protect the dead 
from violation. See Wolters in Mitth. Arch. Instituts, Athenische Abth. 
xiii (1888) 310 ff. On account of the form of the Gk. letters the 
Corp. dates the inscr. in the second cent. B. c., Lidzb. in the fourth (?). 

L. i. *]3N In this inscr. both the person commemorated and the 
donor of the memorial speak in the first person ; see 16 in. . DB> 
There appears to be the fragment of a letter after D; but the full 
name cannot now be read. The Gk. equivalent is 'AKTHraT/jov, a name 
specially common in the family of Herod. 

- t Phoenician [33 

L. 2. wnojn p rioyn Ao/xo-oXw? AO/MIVW; for the deity DJH see 

8 4 . rteyn cf. rtaijyn 7 2; sunoyi cf. Njn^yn 39 if. In the 

latter name, N3H seems to be the Perf. of pn with the stiff, of 3rd m. 
sing. This form of the verbal suff. is usual in NPun., e g. N^ya 57 1 1, 
WO, NNBB> (=NyDB>) &c. ; it occurs also earlier, in Pun., e.g. 
40 2. Cf. the nominal suff. in X in the frequent N^p. 

33. Piraeus. Date 96 B. c. Louvre. 

dr -o on pe zyh \iiu-' wn 
-ran rasa jn D^K ro ^ un N^J ^N j^a p 

m -ran nN p 3 nn^S ; oarni pn n^v 3 

T njn n 


u wabjrn jy D^N nn nsnp wn pn ra*& n^y DS 5 

T nnxo nSy a^ 6 
un jn 3 d^-wn jn; t j J? 7 
wji)-n nnro s 

" * a * 4/t 
To Kotvov rwv StSwi/tcuv Ato7ret^(^)v S 

On the 4th day of the Marzeah (?), in the I5th year of the 
people of Sidon, the community of the Sidonians resolved in 
assembly : to crown 2 Shama'-ba'al, son of Magon, who (has 
been) president of the corporation in charge of the temple 
and the building of the temple court, 3 with a golden crown 
of 20 drachmae sterling, because he built the court of the 
temple and did all 4 the service (?) he was charged with : 


that the men who are our presidents in charge of the temple 
write this (our) intention upon a golden stele, and set it up 
in the portico of the temple before men's eyes : that the 


corporation be designated as surety (for it). For this stele 
let them bring 20 drachmae sterling of the money of the god 
the Ba'al of Sidon : 7 thereby the Sidonians shall know that the 

33] Piraeus 95 

corporation knows how to requite the men who have done 
8 service before the corporation. 

The Sidonian colony, settled at the port of Athens, is referred to 
or implied in 34. 35. CIS i 116 "Oixn . . . roni3J?i>, prob. also in 32. 
It was no doubt a community of merchants and ship-masters, main- 
taining in the land of their adoption the religion and organization 
of their native city (see 34. 35). This inscr. shows, however, that 
they had adapted themselves to the Greek civilization in the_midst 
of which they lived ; in characteristic Greek fashion they vote a crown 
and monument to a deserving officer, and they record their resolution 
in the recognized forms used in Greek inscrr. from the fifth cent, down- 
wards. In fact, this inscr. almost seems to be a translation from 
a"Greek original ; see CIA ii 1 b=Michel 80; CIA ii 589= M 145 ; 
CIA ii 603 = M 968; CIA ii 621 = M 984. 

L. i. ntlD Generally taken to be the name of a month, but the un- 
paralleled omission of PIT before it is noticeable. Cl.-Gan. suggests that 
it was the name of the annual np>D=a solemn festival, perhaps lasting 
five days (/fo. ii 390 n. ^344); see42i6. nB>3See6i. Dyi? 
|1 The era of Sidon began when the city became autonomous in 1 1 1 B.C. 
This will give 96 B.C. as the date of the inscr., 9 years before Athens 
was taken by Sulla 1 . Dfl Pf. 3 m. sing., lit. be complete, here has 

decided, resolved. The verb governs the infins. 10J77 1. i and 3na? 
1. 4, prob. also 11337 1. 5. D'JIX 13 must have some such meaning 

as the community of the Sidonians. In Hebr. D^? denotes parts of the 
body i.e. members (Job 18 13), or parts of a vine i.e. branches (Eze. 
17 6). In Phoen. the sing. 13 is used to describe a worshipper as 
a member of his deity, as in the pr. nn. mni?jn3, mp7D13, or a 
stranger as a member of a household ; see 6 2 n. It is but an extension 
of this usage when 13 is applied not to an individual but to a com- 
munity ; the Sidonian jnerotKot at the Piraeus could describe themselves 
as D'OIX 13 the Sidonian protected aliens (Lidzb. 134 n.). G. Hoff- 
mann, Uber einige Phb'n. Inschr. 5 f., takes 13 as a prep. H3 lit. for the 
satisfaction of, for ; but this does not admit of a satisfactory construction 
for DJ1, nor does it give a natural explanation of 13 in pr. nn. A Gk. 
inscr. from Delos illustrates this part of the text; 17 (rwoSos rSv 
Tupiwi/ e/A7ro/owv KCU vavK\r)p(av ore^avot IlaTptova K.T.A. CIG 2271 = 
M 998. nBDK33 The Nif. ptcp. of PJDK used as a noun, gathering, 

1 Kohler, CIA ii Suppl. 1335 b, thinks that the Gk. form of this inscr. is much ' 
older, about the second half of the third cent. B.C. ; in which case the inscr. must be ; '' 
dated from some Sidonian era now lost to us. If the dynasty of Eshmun-'azar ceased 
in 275 B. c. (p. 38), the era may have started then : Meyer Ency. Bibl. 3763. 

96 Phoenician [33 

assembly ; it corresponds to the Gk. epigraphical formula cv ret dyopai 
TCI Kvpiai CIA ii 585 = M 152. -IBJ& Followed by a double accus. 

as in Ps. 86. 103 4. The corresponding Gk. phrase is a-refavuxrai 
(avrov) \pv(rtt)i crTf(f>a.v<ai airo . . . 8paxjJiG>v apfrrjs eve/fa, e. g. CIA iv 2 
169 b=M 105 and often. 

L. 2. byiyw i. e. j&z'a/ fo<zr,r. The Gk. equivalent bunrcidrp i. e. 
obeying Zeus is founded on a misunderstanding of the Phoen. NB>3 
i. e. NT? chief, cf. myn WlM Ex. 1622. Josh. 9 15 &c. His term of 
office had elapsed, and he now receives from his late colleagues this 
expression of their gratitude. 13 is etymologically connected with 

the Hebr. ""13 nation, Aram. Jo^, Sabaean 13 community, cf. Job 30 5 
^tjniP IjTftt they are driven far from folk, where 13 should be pointed 13, 
unless ^ia be read; in Gk. inscrr. TO KoivoV. tb$ ro Cf. 5 15-18 

D3^N m, and see 1. 6 n. For ' 'n $>y cf. DEHpCPl ^J? 46 i w. H33D 
A verbal noun, building} in Hebr. n33D = structure Eze. 40 2. 

L. 3. DJSTn The prep, is 2 of material; cf. 2 Ch. 9 18 (3HD). 
Ex. 38 8. DJ3"n is prob. an error for DJD3T1 1. 6. In both places 
DJCOm must be taken to represent drachmae ; for in Gk. inscrr. 
of this class the sums voted are given in Spax/W (i. e. silver drachmae), 
a larger sum for the crown and a smaller one for the stele. In this 
inscr., however, the sum specified in both cases is the same ; and as 20 
silver drachmae would be too small an amount either for the rntsy 
pn or for the pn H2XD, we must take WB3T1 to be gold drachmae. 
A gold drachma represented about gs. id., a. silver drachma about 
9|</. Hoffmann 1. c. renders pn 1. 5 not gold but decision ; he is 
therefore compelled to take D331T 1. 3 as gold drachmae and D3O3VF 
1. 6 as silver drachmae ; but this is unnecessary and unnatural. On 
account of the form DJ31T, Meyer, Entstehung d. Judenthums 196 f., 
understands darics to be meant; darics, however, do not occur in 
Gk. inscrr. in this connexion, and it is Gk. usage (above) which is 
closely followed here. The fact that D3C3T1 in this case is the Phoen. 
\ form of SpaxfJMt throws a valuable light on the disputed meaning of rt 
1 Q^pJTlJn_^zn_2_69._^Neh. 7 70-72 and of ^bnn.K in i Ch. 29 7. |j 
E&827 1 . Both words "are generally translated darics (R.T.}7 but 
this inscr. shows that 0^10311 was the recognized Semitic transcription 
i, as Lucian knew, for in the passages quoted he invariably 

1 The form D'-JDnix is open to suspicion. In i Ch. 29 7 in 'i is prob. a gloss, 
for the gold offering has been mentioned just before ; in Ezr. (LXX 2 Esdr.) 827 
D3Q3Vl is the better reading, testified by LXX A oSovSpaxnowftv, and prob. implied 
by the reading of B oSovxanavetp. In the biblical passages '~\ refers not to money but 
to weight ; a Spaxtf among the Gks. was one-hundredth part of a pva. 

33] Piraeus 97 

renders 8pax/ia. Moreover, the form U'3D3YT corresponds with 
Spaxpu and not with Sapcucot. See Kennedy, art. Moneyjn Hastings' 
DicL^lht^EibJejnjtZi. rinD? 1. 6. The contextTrequires the 

meaning of full weight, standard current coin. The most plausible 
etymology of the word is that given by Hoffmann. He connects 
it with nno wipe off, and supposes that it was used in the first place of 
corn-measures, ' to wipe off into the measure ' i. e. ' to fill up to the 
full weight' In the Babyl. dialect of the Talmud the Ethpaal of nno 
is used in the sense approved, e. g. Shabbalh 61 b TlOJVKI ih3J TlCJVK 
yep the man (i.e. the physician) is approved and the amulet is approved", 
similarly nnOID JTDp a tested amulet ib. 61 a. In Syr. vwil is used of 
testing a weight or measure, e. g. Epiphanius de Mensur. et Pond, in 
Vet. Test, ab Origene recens. fragm. ed. Lagarde p. 48, 1. 32; p. 58, 

1. 67; p. 51, 1. 7 N^prinoi NTicinnD Npnnm spin T3 na (cited by 

Hoffmann). Hence T\rxb will mean by the tested weight, of full weight ; 
the prep, is f> of norm or standard, 

L. 4. Thy B>K which was incumbent upon him ; for f>y in this sense 
cf. Num. 7 9 oni?y &npn rmy. Ezr. 10 4. 12. i Ch. 9 27 &c. The 
construction of the words which follow is not very clear. In 1. 8 niBt3 
is certainly a noun, service, from mtP to minister, and possibly it may 
be a noun here, all the service which was laid upon him ; so Lidzb. 
In such a sentence the natural order would be B>X mB>D(n) b% IVK 
Thy, but as $>3 in Hebr. often stands before a relative clause con- 
taining a verb, which is strictly its genitive (e. g. nB>y "IK'S ^3 fitf Gen. 
1 31), so here the relative clause 'D 'f6y t?K, though it contains a 
noun, may be regarded as the genitive after i?3. It must be admitted, 
however, that this is not easy grammar. Hoffmann takes mt^D as an 
infin. with JD i. e. rPBtD, governing T nyi JVN because (he) administered 
this . . . ; but the infin. would require a suffix in this case, e. g. 
Is. 48 4. If mB>D be a -verb, it is better to take it as a ptcp. i. e. 
dependent on the suffix in ^r6y, while he administered this . . . , an 
imitation of Gk. idiom, but cf. i K. 14 6 HK2 n^n ^1p and Ps. 
69 4 (?). T ny"l n^N The word ftyi may be explained in two 

ways, (i) It may come from the Aram. Nyi to be favourably disposed 
towards a person (in Targ. Klip, Bibl. Aram. TO?1 Ezr. 5 17. 7 18) = 
Arab, ^j^ to be pleased, satisfied zutth= Hebr. nXT ; and we may render 
this (our) good pleasure. It is not necessary, however, to assume such 
a strong Aramaism here ; for (2) nyi may come from the same root 
as the Arab, ^jy to watch, regard, be mindful of= Syr. Jbkf to observe, 
concern oneself with (UI^>,' meditation, thought; Targ. W] desire, 
Ps. 107 30) = Hebr. nyi, cf. Ps. 37 3. Pr. 15 14. Hos. 12 2 (?) 


98 Phoenician [33 

and rflJH in Qoh. 1 14 &c. Hence njn may be rendered intention^ 
wish, either governed by the preceding TTWQ, or placed for emphasis 
before its verb ana? *. To connect '"i with anab is in accordance with 
the Gk. formula avaypaufrai roSf TO i/o^ioyta, e.g. CIA ii 311 = M 124, 
CIA ii 176=M 109 and often, but it involves an unusual construction 
for mtJUO . . i>a (supr.). DCHNn anai> The infin. is governed by DD 1. i 
and DDIKn is its subject. Its object must be understood, ' this decree,' 
if T njn n'K be taken with JV1PD. ' 'a !>y f? DNB>3 i. e. the present 

curators of the temple. These officials may be compared with the 
vecoirotai in Asiatic sanctuaries, e. g. CIG 2656=M 453 (Halicarnassus), 
M 835 (ib.), CIG 2671 = M 462 (lasus). 

L. 5. pn na^D a pillar of gold, i. e. prob. a gilded stele, cf. 24 i . 
On the Gk. inscrr. it is always eV or^Aei XiOtvet, e.g. CIA ii 613 = 
M 977 and often ; but here, contrary to Gk. practice, the same amount 
is voted both for the stele and the crown, and as the latter is specified 
as golden (1. 3), so the stele is to be golden (or prob. gilded) too. It 
is true that we do not hear of a gilded n3D elsewhere, but such an 
object is not impossible in itself, and the language of the inscr. seems 
to demand it. Hoffmann takes pn as= decision, decree (cf. pin Joel 
4 14. nriro Is. 10 23 &c.), and as the object of aroi>. If pn does 
not mean gold it is simpler to give it the primary meaning of engraving, 
and to take it as the genit. after naD, a stele of engraving i. e. an 
inscribed stele (cf. 84.5 ?). WD 1 ^ Ifil impf. 3 plur. with suff. 

3 fern. sing. i. e. JK3CT1. nany portico^ see 3 6 n. It corresponds 

to the Trpocrrwiov (CIA ii 613=M 977) or open pillared hall at the 
entrance of the temple. The custom was to place these monuments 

ev Tok iepfoi TOV Oeov M 977, or Trpio ro\> vaov M 982, Or ev TUH 
M 546, eV TCI avXei TOU ic/oov M 985, ev TOK eTrioravri 7rpom;A.aH TWI TOT) 
re/icvovs M 476 &c. t?N ]$=&* ^j ; for the accus. instead 

of the prep, h cf. D^N H3B 42 13. 43 8. The corresponding Gk. 
phrase is ev Tut eVw^aveoraTaH TOV Icpov TOTTWI M 992, or eV ieptat ait 
av avrots fauvyrat M 468. aiy 13 niDP to designate the corpora- 

tion as surety (for it). riJ3$> Piel inf., governed prob. by DD 1. i, and 
followed by two accusatives, rua lit. give a title or cognomen as in 
Aram. U, Arab. .J$, Hebr. Is. 45 4; so in a general sense to 

1 The above characterization of the root ^.. = L^ = mn is based upon 
Earth's study in Wttrzeluntersuchungen (1902) 46 ff. He suggests that the primi- 
tive meaning was to keep (sheep}. It must be noted, however, that the origin of the 
sense which V nyi has in Ps. 37 3 &c. is far from clear. Besides the two roots 
above, Earth distinguishes a third, viz.jJ^ (l'y) to bind together , attach, whence Hebr. 
jn friend. . 

33] Piraeus 99 

designate. The infin. of f)3 to be is p!> 10 10, not l\xh, for which there 
is no analogy in l'y verbs". 

L. 6. my A noun, prob. of participial form, surety. In Hebr. the 
vb. 3"iy be surety for is followed by the accus. (Gen. 43 9. 44 32. Ps. 
119 122), once by i> (Pr. 6 i); so it is better to take T rQtfD f6y as 
dependent, not on 2"iy, but on the verb which follows; and this is 
more in accordance with the Gk. formula Ets 8f TTJV avaypa<j>rjv rfc 
o-nyXijs Sowai ... M 1 18 and often. }NB" i. e. JNJj^, the subj. being 
the members of the corporation. For NB>3 in the sense of bringing 
(an offering) cf. in Pun. CIS i 411 3 ppKTiy KIM PK, and Ps. 96 8. 
i Ch. 16 29 ; hence nNE>D payment, tax 42 3. 43 i &c. *)DM The 

prep. 3=Gk. faro : it is not 3_ of material as in DMVO I. 3. tbtt 

pv5jD This is a clear instance of the plur. of ~$K being used to 
denote god, like the Heb. DTl^K; we may conclude that D7K 11. 2. 
5 is also sing, in meaning. Cf. 35 2 ^313 D^K. 59 A 4 BTpn D^N, 
and the inscr. lately found at Memphis D^N DN nTIK tbtb Ta"6 
mnipy (p. 91 . i), where oi>N is connected with a female deity, and even 
with a fern. adj. ; the plur. QJ1N is used similarly, 49 3 n. In the follow- 
ing cases, tbx n 42 13. 43 8, Q^iay 9 i f., tf?VOno CIS i 194 
I f. (cf. ^wnD 406 3), D^X 3^3 257 4 &c., D^N nN 378 3, the sing, 
meaning is most probable. Contrast the use o{jxbti_gods ; see 3 ion. 
The plur. D^N denotes a more abstract conception than the sing. $>N, 
godhead as distinct from god: it sums up the various characteristics 
of the particular ^N (Hoffm.) ; cf. the abstract plurals Q'3pT, DmyJ, 
D"P1 (Ges. 124 d). Forjheja^al of Sidon see 5 18. The order to 
defray the cost out of the temple treasury finds several parallels in the 
Gk. insciT., e. g. rav Sc yevop-evav 8airavav es rav avaypa^av Teuravra) rol 
vaTTolai O.TTO Toiv vrrapxovTiDv rots OCOL<S ^p^/wiTwv M 1003 J eis 8f TTJV 
a.vaypa<f>r)V 7^9 (mrjXrjs SOTCD 6 a.p\(av 'ASct/Aawos A Spa^/xas e/c T^S 
TrpotrdSou TWV rov Oeov .^pr/fjuiTtav M 968. 

L. 7. pi> accordingly. jn^ i. e. JT. ' n>K OB^n 

For the two accusatives after aM^ cf. i S. 24 20. Pr. 13 21. 
equivalent^ return, xapiras o^mg^ cf. Num. 18 21. 31 D^3g *)?n; n 
Aram, the verb has the meanm^ujts/fafeQit. change), e.g. Julian Ap. 
ed. Hoffm. 105 25 .? o*aa^ja, and the frequent *l?n instead of. 

L. 8. mti'D Here a noun, service, cf. Trao-av Xfirovpytav KOL vmipttriav 
cKTfTeXfKora CIG 2786. }S HN i.e. V.? J"IN lit. w/M //^ presence, 

before', HN is the prep, with, cf. Gen. 19 27. i S. 2 18 flN mB> 
nirT 1 ^32 &c. The last two lines correspond closely with the 

Gk. inscrr., e. g. OTTWS av eiScicrt iravres, on eTrioravrai UeipaieLS 
d^ias aTToSiSdvai rots <^iXori/iov/ivois cts aurovs M 145 and often. 

H a 

ioo Phoenician [34 

34. Piraeus. CIS i 118. Date prob. ii-i cent. B. c. Piraeus. 

p - toSG?n jn^jn p Bnnn nr T 

This altar (is that) which Ben-hodesh, son of Ba'al-yathon 
the judge, son of 'Abd-eshmun the sealer, erected to Askun- 
adar. May he bless ! 

ram Cf. 3 4. 12 2. 28 4. ro' Ifil pf< of rw = Hebr. D'|n 

a K. 17 29; in Gk. dyalctwu. enrua See 17 3. BBB>n 

i. e. the head of the Phoenician colonyjttjhe Piraeus, corresponding to 
our ' consul,' not suffete in the Carthaginian sense, 42 i #. DHfin 

Either a maker of seats, or an official who seals. pDK No doubt 

the same as {3D, the deity who appears in the pr. nn. 2ctyYowta0a)v= 
JTV^D Hadr. 8 (Euting Carth., Anhang Taf. 6), pDiajJ CIS i 112 a. 
pD"ia 46. pom 52 4 f. The name was pronounced Sakun, as the form 
pDN implies, or Sakkun (Secchun CIL viii &099), and means ' one 
who cares for' (cf. Assyr. sakdnu, Tell-el-Am. 179 38. 180 13 &c.), 
the ' friend ' or ' helper ' of men ; cf. the sense of pD in Hebr., profit, 
benefit, e.g. Job 15 3. 22 2. 34 9 &c. and I K. 1 2. 4. Sakun was 
the Phoen. counterpart to the Gk. Hermes (Schroder 197 .); the 
two Gk. inscrr. found near to this, one containing a dedication to 
Hermes, the other to Aa o-om/pi, apparently refer to this altar. IIK 
is prob. an epithet, glorious 5 9 n.; cf. the pr. nn. SynniS CIS i 157 
i &c., ita-VlK on a coin of Byblus, Babelon Pers. Ach. 1354, IlKEn 
the name of a town, Rusadir, also on coins (Lidzb. 370). There is 
not sufficient evidence that mx was the name of a deity. 

35. Piraeus. CIS i 119. Prob. iii cent. B. c. Piraeus. 

we* m nrre tvyst nn MSDK 
thx mna 

I am Asepta, daughter of Eshmun-shillem, a Sidonian. 
(This is that) which Yathan-bel, son of Eshmun-silleh, chief- 
priest of the god Nergal, set up to me. 

35] Piraeus 101 

For this form of insQr^in which the deceased speaks in the first 
person^and the nionument is set up hy some one else, cf. 32. 

L. i. riDDN Perhaps the fern, of ^DN, with a segholate termination 
flDDN, pronounced J|ggg,jtsjthe_transcription shows. rf>B>JDB>K 

Cf. otabyn 28 3 n. In the Gk. "Eo-u/io-eAi^ov the reduplication of the 
intensive stem (D^P) is not marked, cf. Ao/wraXws and Ao/wtvoi 32 ; but 
BaA(nAAi7x= T^y? 38 6 > BalsiUec CIL viii 1249. rUIX i. e. ntfi*. 
For the omission of the art. cf. >>$&$, riy 32. 

L. 2. !>3:)JV=i>y:i3JV (?) ; the IMS frequently dropped in NPun. gr. nn., 
e. g. ^33n NPun.JS2 3. ^"in? 1 * ib. 13 i f. ..^flHtUb. 102 2. Perhaps, 

HtUb. 10 

however, ttlsjheJiabyl ^/, nnt the Phoen. haLj_cf. bai^y CIS i 287. 
and brti below. ni'XJDB'N See 7 2 . wro 3T dpxpevs, cf. 45 8 
(Carthage), a title almost equivalent to a pr. n., and therefore apparently 
DJPDin is not in the constr. st. before the following gen. ; see Konig 
Syntax 285 h. The usage is, however, hardly paralleled elsewhere; 
it may bejdue partly tn . rar^lftsgnpsg^ and partly th tfp iinrnnsrinns 
recollection of the title dpxtcp^s in current Gk. speech. Contrast the 
constructioninDBB'i'Snt? fna CIS i 379, and p^y ^ }TD Gen. 
14 1 8. i>n3 n^N Cf. prahn n^N 33 6 . It is remarkable to 

find the Assyr. god Nergal (see 2 K. 17 30 and Zimmern KAT* 414), 
the god of battle^ and pestilence and the dead, worshipped by 
Phoenicians at the Pjraeus. The Phoen. colony there was evidently 
eclectic inits tastes ; in 34 the worship of pDN is referred to ; and in the 
pr. nn. we find devotees of the Arabian (?) D'om (32), the Babylonian 
Shamash and Bej^jndjhe Carthaginian Tanith (CIS i 116 




36. Malta. CIS i 122. Date ii cent. B. c. Louvre. 

TX hyz mpfctfc p-rxS i 

-o noamy T^V a 

p nto^^D^ p \v 3 

D51!l* D^p 4 

Atowcrios /cat ^apairitov ol 

To our lord Melqarth, the Ba'al of Tyre, which thy servant 
'Abd-osir and his brother Osir-shamar, the two sons of Osir- 
shamar, son of 'Abd-osir, vowed, because he heard their voice. 
May he bless them ! 

This inscr. is repeated in the same words on two pedestals, one 
at Valetta, the other in the Louvre, each supporting a small pillar. 
The two pillars dedicated to Melqarth (Herakles) recall the <rn}Acu Svo 
which Herodotus saw in the temple of Herakles at Tyre (ii 44); cf. 
also Philo Byb., who says that at Tyre dvtepoio-ai 8e Svo on/Xas irvpl *<" 
TrvcvfjMTi, Kal irpooTcwifo-eu, Fr. Hist. Gr. iii 566. The letters of this 
inscr. resemble the Tyrian and Sidonian type. 

L. i. "IV i?ja mptai> See 23 3.; similarly in Sabaean inscrr., 
D1K ^y3 HpD^N 'Ilmaqqah, lord of Awwam' CIS iv 126 16, cf. 155 5. 

240 5. D-m? ^n nn n^Nn IGO 3 &c. WID i>yn ->nny 276 4. 

3 JO1 140 2 f.; and see 3 2 w. With the Gk. equivalent, 'HpaxXei 
i, cf. an inscr. from Delos, dated at the beginning of the second 
cent. B.C., where the crwoSos TWJ/ TuptW e/xTrdpwv /cai vavKAiypwv use a 
similar designation of Herakles, apxrjyov T^S Trar/atSos inrdpxpvTo<s (CIG 
2271 = M 998). 

37] Malta 103 

L. 2. noKiay "pay The same words in CIS i 9 ; for "1DK13JJ see 
14 2 n. The Gk." equivalent is Atovvo-ios, implying that Osiris was 
regarded as the counterpart of Atowo-os. The Gk. name of "iDljnDK 
was SapaTTiW; in this case Osiris is confused with Serapis (= Osiris- 
Apis), in Aram, written 'an **ID1K 72 (from Memphis). It is said that 
about 1 80 B.C., in the time of Ptolemy Philometor, the name of Serapis 
was first accepted for Osiris (CIG 2753 n.). 

L. 3. p JB> i. e. '33 V.f ; see 23 6 n. 

37. Malta. CIS i 123 a. Date uncertain. Malta. 

D 3 



Pillar of Milk-Ba'al, which Nahum placed to Ba'al-hamman 
(the) lord, because he heard the voice of his words. 

The letters are of an archaic type; the W and W] 11. i. 3. 5 (but 
4| 1. 4) resemble the forms in 1. 11. 41. Lidzbarski (p. 177) considers 
that this points to a date before the sixth cent. ; but in an isolated 
colony the writing may have kept a rude and undeveloped character, 
and therefore furnishes no sure criterion of early date. 

L. i. 3V3 cippus or pillar, cf. Gen. 19 26 r6o 1^3. The word 
occurs in the companion inscr. CIS i 123 b IDND^ID 2X3, in 39 
02*3, 147 [<]l[2n] h\> ytX> 3 . . . |n *?yJ? n&& fe^O affl (Sardinia), 
194 and 380 ^yo^D 'j (Carthage), i?y3:^ID 7 J pn *?]} pK^ (Hadru- 
metum 9, Euting Carth. Anhang T. 6) ; in Old Aram. 61 1. 14. 62 i. 
20 (with Dt?) ; and in Sabaean, e. g. Mordtmann u. Mtiller Sab. Denkm, 
95. The word is identical with the Arab. \^AJ> pi. i^U3l, an idol- 
stone to which worship was paid, e.g. Qur. v 92; see Wellhausen 

IO4 Punic [37 

Reste Arab. Heident. 101 f. The 23 in Phoen. was something of this 
kind, here a pillar of Milk-Ba'al, whose name occurs after 23 in 
each of the examples just given (except 39) l ; it is thus distinguished 
from rQVD, which as a rule is a funeral monument. ^jnsta A deity 
formed out of the attributes of Milk and Ba'al in combination, cf. 
CIS i 123b, mntfjota 10 37*. ; the Palm. ^33^D 112 4 
Malagbelus, is a different name. It is curious that the 
pillar of one deity should be dedicated to another; but Milk-ba'al 
and Ba'al-hamman were prob. only different aspects of the same god. 
L. 2. DB> Cf. Gen. 28 22. 2 K. 21 7. Jer. 7 30. 

L. 4. pn ^ya In the formula }n i>y:& pa6i ^sn IB n:r6 nn-6 

this title of Ba'al occurs more than 2000 times on the votive tablets 
from Carthage ; see also the inscr. quoted above on 1. 1. It corresponds 
to Hammoni J(ovi) o(ptimo) m(aximo) on a Lat. inscr. from Mauretania 
Caesariensis, CIL viii 9018. pr6 is found alone in CIS i 404. 405, 
prob. for }n by& ; cf. pmay NPun. 67 (Schroder p. 271), "A/^/AOWOS 
Jos. c, Ap. i 17. The signification of the title is uncertain, but fDH 
is prob. a derivative of Dpn be hot, whence HSPI heat, sun Is. 24 23. 
Ps. 197. Analogy is in favour of taking }Dn as a noun in the genit. ; 
but it can hardly be the name of a place, for the deity of Hammon 
(}n i>X) is Milk-'ashtart (CIS i 8) or 'Ashtart (1Q 4), nor a ' sun- 
pillar,' for the O. T. tJ^BPl are best explained as images of Ba'al- 
hamman 2 . Hence, as no suitable meaning can be obtained from 
a genit. noun, it is probable that pn is an adj., the glowing Ba'al, 
cf. WHO ^JO the healing B. (CIS i 41), the article which Hebr. would 
require being dispensed with in Phpen. (see 3 2 n.}. The title, thus 
explained, does not necessarily imply that Ba'al was regarded as a 
sun-god a doubtful hypothesis (see Robertson Smith, art. Baal in 
Ency. Bibl^, but it describes him as the god of fertilizing warmth, an 
attribute which is quite in accordance with his usual character. pN 
is in a very unusual position; cf. NPun. 31 tb$ )n *?$&. 

L. 6. nm 5>p Cf. Dt. 5 25. Dan. 10 9. nai i.e. 0)^1, following 
the Hebr. form; or possibly ^If!, after the Aram. 
Wright Comp. Gr. 159. Cf. 'np 42 5. 

1 Cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Ni'<ri/3iy . . . "S^naivft St, wy (prjat *'X(W, N&n/Sts rets ffr^Aas, 
ws 5 Ovp&vios, Vffftfiis, (prja't, arjpaivfi TTJ ^otv'iKcav <f>cnvy Xidoi ffvyKfiiifvoi KCU 
avfupopTfToi Fr, Hist. Gr. iv 526. 

8 In the Palm, inscr. 136 we find a won dedicated to ten the sun-god. Bnt 
this instance can hardly decide the original meaning of the ancient D':nn of 
the O. T. The 'Appawtu of the Phoen. temples, mentioned by Philo Byb. as 
inscribed airoKpv<f>ois ypanpaffi (Fr. Hist. Gr. iii 564), were probably 

38] Malta (Gaulus-Gozo) 105 

38. Malta (Gaulus^Gozo). CIS i 132. iii-ii cent. Malta. 

JVK hto & 

na enpa 3 

* p IPTK nany TJK i nya 4 

p ppanay p Dpar p bss? 5 

p wn p ^&6jn nai 6 

* p oSp p *6a 7 

%D^ 8 

The people of Gaulus made and renovated the three (?) . . . 2 the 
sanctuary of the temple of Sadam-ba'al, and the sa[nctuary . . . 
3 the sanctuary of the temple of 'Ashtart, and the sanctu[ary 
... 4 in the time of (our) l(ord) of noble worth (?), Arish, son of 
Ya'el . . . 5 judge (?), son of Zibaqam, son of 'Abd-eshmun, son 
of Ya'e[l . . . 6 sacrificer Ba'al-ghillek, son of Hanno, son of 
'Abd-eshmu[n . . . 7 BL', son of KLM, son of Ya'azor, keeper of 
the quarry . . . .? (of) the people of Gaulus. 

The inscr., though found at Malta, was prob. carried there from the 
neighbouring island of Gaulus, now Gozo. The writing is clear and 
well formed, and Carthaginian in character. The date of the inscr. is 
uncertain, because we do not know the era, prob. referred to in the 
missing portion of 1. f, from which the independence of Qaulus was 
reckoned. The date can hardly be later than 150 B.C., and may be 

L. i. enn See 23 2 n. J>13 DJ? Plebs Gaulitana, CIL x 7508 f. 
713 was pronounced with a diphthong ; in Gk. TavSos. &t? As 

the stone is broken off at this point, and it is uncertain how much of 
the lines is missing, we cannot tell what t^B* refers to, or whether the 
word is complete. There are four, not three, sanctuaries mentioned 
in 11. 2-3. 

L. 2. BHpB The inner sanctuary of the temple (fO, cf. 5 15 f.) ; cf. 
29 3. 7. Eze. 48 21. Jer. 51 51. ^V3DTV is generally taken as 

io6 Punic 

likeness of Baal, cf. i>y3 }Q 48 i &c., byi DB> 5 18, a 
goddess known to the Greeks as 2oAa/j,/}<d or 2aXa/*/?as, in Lat. 
Salambo, and identified with Aphrodite x , who had a temple in Gaulus, 
the remains of which still exist. For D*l = D^X cf. FaSSos = Gaulus, 
e.g. Strabo p. 230 ed. Mull. There is more probability, however, in 
the view of Hoffmann (Z<4 xi 244 f.) that ohf was a male deity whose 
name appears in the inscrr. from Te'ma 69 3 ff. 7O 3, perhaps 
the deity of the planet Saturn, kakkubu Salmu 'the dark' (J^), 
Delitzsch Assyr. HWB. 569. Hoffmann considers that D?X was 
associated with the sun-god among Phoenicians, and only by Greeks 
identified with 'Ashtart-Aphrodite. Possibly . ;4=>, a village near 
Edessa, contains the name of the deity, P. Smith Thes. col. 3410. 

L. 4. 1 ny3 Cf. 42 i. 1 is an abbreviation of 31 or p"i; cf. inn in 
CIS i 229-235 and pN 31 29 2. 6. The reference here, as in the 
case of the other officials mentioned in 11. 5 ? 6. 7, is not to a definite 
year named after the chief magistrate ( . . . DtDSt? D5JQ 40 2 .), but 
to the period (ny) when these persons were engaged in the active 
duties of their office; so Lidzb. 113 . roiy TIN Meaning 

uncertain. In 69. 10 6 UK = great, powerful ; roiy has been ex- 
plained by the Hebr. '=1'$ a "valuation paid for a commuted vow or due, 
Lev. 27 2 ff . ; hence roiy TIN is taken by the Corp. to denote chief of 
the faxes, or assessments, a revenue officer, or ' superintendent of public 
works/ cf. Aram, and Rabb. '"^ly magistracy (Wright ZZWG xxviii 
143). But 1TN is not a suitable word to be used as a noun for chief; and 
JIDiy may be taken as a gen. of quality, in a figurative sense, of noble 
worth ; for the construction cf. rO pONI 13^ D3n Job 9 4. riDN1 1DH 31 
Ex. 34 6 &c. It must be admitted, however, that an expression of 
this kind is not customary in Phoen. inscrr. Note that D3iy is fern., 
while in Hebr. "py is mas., and not used in the plural. tJHN 

See 21 1 n. bw is a divine name, as appears from i>ysiw Altib. 2 2 2 . 

Etymologically it may be identified with the Arab. JJ1I lit. asylum 


from Jlj, take refuge, the god of the Arab tribe Bakr-Wail ; Well- 
hausen Reste Arab. Heidentums 64. This name occurs in Nabat. and 
Sin. as a pr. n. in the form ital and n^N1,e.g. CIS ii 214 2. 80 i. 90 2. 
105, and often ; in Gk. inscrr. from Hauran OuaeXos &c. Wadd. 2496 3 ; 

fw i) 'A(f>po5irrj irapcL Ba^vXaivtot;, Hesych. Lex. s. v. ; ^Sa\ 
[^] . . . JT/>ipx eTa ' Ofn^ovaa rbv "ASa^f, JLtym. magn. ; Salambonem omni planctu 
et jactatione syriaci cultus exhibuit (Heliogabalus), Lamprid. vit. Heliog. vii in 
Scr. Hist. Aug. 

* Berger/,4 ix (1887) 466 ff. 

* In Polybius 'l6\aos; the treaty between Hannibal and Philip was ratified 

38] Malta (Gaulus-Gczo) 107 

in Himyar. btfl CIS iv 159 n. ; cf. also the name of a N. Arabian 
king Ya'lu on Asarhaddon's cylinder, col. iii 19, Schrader COT 25. 
208. On Edessene coins (163-167 A.D.)^|O is the name of a king 
of Edessa; CIS ii p. 179. Perhaps the O.T. iw is to be explained 
in this way, though the above names belong to Arab, rather than 
to Hebr. See Rob. Smith Kinship 194. 301 ; Gray Hebr. Pr. Names 
153 ; Driver Studio. BibL i 5 n. 

L. 5. t3SB> Either another official (the) judge, supposing that 1. 4 
contained son of . . . the, or a pr. n. Shafat, common in N. 
Africa. DpTT The name occurs in Punic and Neo-Punic, e. g. 

CIS i 251. 423 &c. and 22 2 n.; perhaps it is of Libyan or Numidian, 
rather than Phoen. origin, and equivalent to Syphax (on coins PQD). 
The rest of the line prob. ran and in the time of . . . the. 

L. 6. m? The chief officiating priest, iepoOvrrj? CIG 5752 = Mich. 
554, a Maltese inscr. circa 210 B.C. For the year, or period, dated 
by the name of this official cf. 55 5 ram ^3 HP (from Alti- 
burus). li>B>i>y3 Transcribed BaAo-iAAifo balsillec CIL viii 1249 ; 

see 35 i n. The significance of 1^B>, found also in the name 
Je>K CIS i 50 i. 197 4, is obscure. It is not probable that 
= rbv, for n is a soft guttural in Phoen., and therefore not 
interchangeable with f; see 40 i n. Cl.-Gan. explains "ji>B> by 
the vulgar Arab. dJL., which in the dialect of Algiers = save, deliver, 
Rec. \ 165 f. Kin 39 2 and often; perhaps shortened from 

byzm or wrfe. 

L. 7. oi>3 . . N^3 d. A. These names belong either to the genealogy 
of rOT(n), or to another official whose name stood in the missing part 
of 1. 6. iry Short for ijjn-irjP. no^ Qal ptcp., manager, 

overseer, eTri/ieATpnfc ; the third, or, if BBB> = judge 1. 5, the fourth 
official named. 3VnD The form of the noun points to the meaning 

quarry; cf. D3Xn 2 4., 6. i K. 5 29. It is conjectured that the 

end of the line furnished the date from which the i?l2 By (cf. 9 5 f. 
27 2 &c.) reckoned their independence. The date is unknown ; but 
in the second Punic war Malta, and presumably Gaulus too, severed 
its connexion with Carthage, Livy xxi 51. 

kvavriov 8a.ifj.ovos Kapx'jSoviW /tat 'HpaK\tovs /cat 'loXacu vii 9. 2 ; cf. also Diod. 
Sic. iv 29. Perhaps the pr. nn. lalnoati CIL viii 280, lolitana ib. 9341, Iolitan(us) 
ib. 9767 contain the name of the god; Nold. ZDMG xlii 471. 

io8 Punic [39 


39. Caralis (Cagliari). CIS i 139. iii-ii cent. B.C. Cagliari. 
JD Tfl fc?N II DJ&? DDtini D3SH DWN1 DfiPyJ? pN 1 ? i 

p D&yaopK p wn p nVw3 wnf? 2 

* ' ' r 

P 3 

To the lord Ba'a(l)-shamem in the Isle of Hawks : (these 
are the) pillars and two a ? which Ba'al-hanno, (son) of 
Bod-melqarth, son of Hanno, son of Eshmun-'amas, son of 
Mahar-ba'al, son of Athash, vowed. 

L. i. Dt?JQ i.e. DDBjn, see 9 in. For the quiescence of 
cf. in Nab. popja CIS ii 163, fDPJQ^ ib. 176, in Palm, wn 112 2 ., 
and in Pun. fcunjn CIS i 869 2, 'Awi/Ja-s=^y:un, Bomilcar=mpi>n^sn, 
n"lp7D &c.; see Schroder 100. The construction DDB>y3;> 
as in 24 2 . DVJ 1| K= c Iep<>ca)v 1^0-05, mentioned by Ptole- 
maeus in his description of the islands round Sardinia, Geogr. iii 3, 
ed. Mull. p. 387 ; in the LXX ie'pa is the usual rendering of p, 
e.g. Lev. 11 16 b. Dt. 14 14 a. Job 39 26. The Phoen. name is 
preserved by Pliny, Habet (Sardinia) et a Gorditano promontorio duas 
insulas, quae vocantur Herculis : a Sulcensi, Enosin : a Caralitano, 
Ficariam, Hist. Nat. iii 13. The island is now called San 
Pietro. D3W See 37 i . DB13rfi Meaning obscure ; but 

1 evidently objects connected with the cult of the deity. In Hebr. BJPi 
^\. means to embalm, but this gives no suitable sense here. Renan (in 
Corp.) explains the word by the Gk. x^vcura, used in the LXX for 
molten images, niSDp, e. g. i K. 14 9 A 0covs Irepous x a)Vvr< * > 

L. 2. turta 47, cf. wnmpta, wnojn 82 2 . mp^rnp 

The rel. B> is here used, like i>B> in late Hebr. and 1 in Aram., to 
express the genitival relation, in this case instead of p ; cf. 41 2 f. 
nB> en- For P elsewhere in Phoen. see 40 i ? 41 3. 52. CIS i 
133 ni?DO p htt'W (see 04 i .). 315 DHCP p BHN. 316 BHK 
mptannjtt?. 317 (similarly). 379 DO^yntT }rl3. It is worth noticing 
that the form K'N occurs along with t? in many of these inscrr. referred 
to; see 45 4 n. DDJHOK'N Eshmun carries, cf. DDyha CIS i 

169, and iTDDJ? 2 Ch. 17 16; see 5 6n. bysvm A common 

40] Pauli Gerrei (Santuiaci) 109 

Pun. name, in Gk. Me'p/3oA.os a Tynan king, Jos. c. Ap. i 21. 

is generally explained as gift, Hebr. "inb the purchase price of a wife, 

Gen. 34 12 &c.; this explanation, however, is not convincing. 

40. Pauli G-errei (Santuiaci). CIS i 143. ii cent. B.C. 
Turin Mus. 

Cleon salari(us) soc(iorum) s(ervus) Aescolapio Merre 
donum dedit lubens merito merente. 

to) Myppr) avdOepa. fiufjibv ecmycre KXeav 6 
d\o)j> /caret ir/aocrray/xa. 

wru nnrfc mwb JMW& 

n p piwrojn raban 

To the lord Eshmun Merre : the altar of bronze, in weight 
a hundred 100 pounds, which Cleon of HSGM, who is over the 
salt-mines (?), vowed ; he heard his voice (and) healed him. 
In the year of the suffetes Himilkath and 'Abd-eshmun, son 
of Himilk. 

L. i. }Dt?K> See 5 17 n. There is a mineral spring near to the 
place where the inscr. was found. HIND A title of Eshmun, 

explained by Noldeke as the Piel ptcp. (TIWD (note the doubled 2nd 
radical in the transcriptions merre, p.rjpprj) of mtf wander, travel, with 
the meaning leader, guide, cf. Eth. wargha lead', ZDMG xlii 472. 
Lidzbarski, p. 305, suggests the Ifil ptcp. of HV), cf. Hebr. i S. 16 23 
^KB>b nm. Job 32 20 ; in Aram. (Ethpa.) alleviatus est, e. g. 2 Mace. 
13 11 = dvcu/<T;xeo-0ai, convaluit a inorlo ; so niND he who alleviates, 
healer, a suitable epithet for Eshmun-Aesculapius. In this case, how- 
ever, the N is difficult to account for, unless it be merely euphonic. 
Hoffmann, ZA xi 238, takes IT1ND Merre as a diminutive of mpta, 
which sometimes takes the form of ID, HD, Map/cu, Mapvas &c.; see 
19 3 n. The Corp. regards mND as=-pND scil. D*n, but in Phoen. 
n is not a strong guttural, as appears from the transcriptions n"IKD 

no Punic [41 

merre, fD^on himiko, imilco, *]tann otmilc, ^ynin hannibal &c.; see 
38 6. On the whole the first explanation seems to be the most 
plausible. rOTD See 28 4 n. i>pB See 29 14 n. tn&i> 

Plur. of the Gk. weight Atrpa. The form of the symbol for i oo 

may be contrasted with that in 9 4f. 29 14. 42 6. pi>3S = 

Cleon, with K prosthetic, as often in foreign names ; Wright Comp. 
Gr. 45 f. DJDnt? The W is perhaps the rel. particle introducing the 
genit., either son of (see 39 2 #.), or possibly servant of (so Corp.). 
The significance of D3DH is unknown ; it may be a (Sardinian) pr. n., 
or the title of an office ; possibly a transliteration of servus sociorum, 
Hoffmann 1. c. Cf. 59 B 4. nr6D2 B>K 6 CTTI TWV dXGv, who is 

over the salt mines, though strictly this requires ?y instead of 3 ; the 
Corp. therefore renders who is in the salt business. JVJ^DD must be a 
dialectical form of nr6D ; for 'D cf. avno 38 7. 

L. 2. NJJp i. e. top ; for the form of suff. cf. 48 5 and often. 
Pf. 3 sing.m. with suff.=taB1 ; cf. JO-QD 48 5 and often. The 
is here treated as n'?, the * of the root being retained before the suff., 
as occasionally in Hebr., e.g. W3n i K. 20 35. *n\D Hab. 3 2, more 
frequently in the pausal forms ^DH Dt. 32 37. W1N. Job 16 22 (Ges. 
75 u, mm). DBBl? ntT3 For the year reckoned by the suffetes cf. 

42 i n. (Marseilles-Carthage). CIS i 170 (Carthage). 45 5 f. (ib.). 
46 i (ib.). 55 5 f. (Altiburus). "J^nn . . . IT^On For "(IN, see 

11 n., and 1. i n. above. It has been proposed to read |3 as "'P.?, 
making the suffetes brothers, and providing both with a brief genealogy ; 
but this is improbable and unnecessary (see 45 5). The inscr. dates 
from after the first Punic war, when Sardinia was severed from 
Carthage and passed under the rule of Rome. The suffetes, therefore, 
were not Carthaginian ; they belonged prob. to Caralis (39), the chief 
city in the neighbourhood. The form of the Latin letters is said 
to point to a date about 180 B.C. 

41. Nora (Pula). CIS i 144. ? vi cent. Cagliari. 

41] Nora (Pula) 1 1 1 




Pillar of Rosh, (son) of Nagid, who (dwelt) in Sardinia ; 
Milk-(ya)thon, son of Rosh, son of Nagid, (the) Liphsite, 
completed it (?), (even that) which (was required) for setting 
it up. 

The character is of an archaic type, which perhaps points to a date 
not later than the sixth cent. (Lidzb. 177) ; cf. 37 n. The ancient form 
of n, X> occurs here. 

L. 2. &n Perhaps = tWl. In Gen. 46 21 this pr. n. is cor- 
rupt. TO W See 39 2 n. 

L. 3. TO Prob. a pr. n.; so in Aram. CIS ii 112 (?TO). 

L. 4. plBQ Nn&? It is uncommon to find the dwelling-place 
mentioned; cf. 31 a nnso JN3 W 3B*. Euting &. Inschr. 551 

L. 5. niD^B> Piel pf. 3 sing. mas. The n 7 is possibly the suif. 3 sing. 
fern., anticipating the object in the relat. clause ; to refer it to fOXD 
makes the construction more difficult. The subject of the vb. is 
jnai'D 1. 6 f. cb& complete, perhaps with the thought of fulfilling 
a vow. 

L. 6. N2V3^ appears to be the inf. with suff. 3 sing. fern, of 2V3 ; 
cf. Old Aram. 61 10 3W$>, Nab. 99 2 3V3 pf., also in Palm. }rai?D 

For jrpata 12 2 &c. 

L. 9. 'Dsh A gentilic form of the name of a city (unknown). 

1 1 2 Punic [42 

42. Marseilles. CIS i 165. Circ. iv cent. B. c. Marseilles Museum. 

DBWI M]JD B>M nn[^n ny]a [. . .^ya na i 
pB>M]-ia p njivn p DStrn ^yap&n i] ny 

[D:na]rYi ^^?n p pBwa p ou^n a 

D^fc? DK Mjnx DK fe ^Ma 3 

-qp T n^^an p n^y D 1 ? p* ^aii 
myn p nSx^i mxp njnxni 4 

DM [nyjX DM *M!l DM MBDIBMl IDHttato 1 ? ^T t^M 

[hy th p* ^aai 'inMi ni]n n^an ^D^ Dina 
njnxa -*nw Q^^ni MM ^pjyo ^M^ T 

nnw D]y3ni DiS^ni nnyn pi 
n nr I hpw tps Din? fe rb& DM njn^ DM ^ ?jn DM Sn^ 7 

[mxp T riM^an p n^y D 1 ? |p njnxai nnMa 
nan ^yaS iM^n nnMi oayfini oa^ni rnyn p ftan s 
D^ DM nyi^ DM ^a SM anva DM M-i^a DM n^Ma 9 
Sy D 1 ? p* njnxai nnMa] . . *IT n^ 1 ?^ yai ^oa mnaf? 

myn |ai n^cn n-wp ? nw^an p [n 10 

nan] ^yaS iMcrn 
yan t)Da ttnsb n?n DM ^v^ DM j>]^a D^ p DM paw n&pa n 

[nan Sya 1 ? ^M]^n pi nnMa n nr n^Sjr 
spa DJnaS p^ nar DM -re nar DM n^-rp naip DM ns* S[yj 12 


mxp Dinab p D^M n^u Day* ^M nyra 

42] Marseilles 113 

nat ^a 

nar baa 15 

nar B>K D&-JK s\ tx nn& ai nss? ai mtb b^ 16 

nit ^y ntra nDn D&n 17 
rD Sp] is 
p Sp^n i nj; nn^an ^ B^N d^n 

p Sp^m n 19 
pa nx^x: np ^ pa ba 20 
. . a nx jn ^a^x sy nar bya ^u 21 

Temple of Ba'al-[ ]. Tafriff of pay]ments e[rected by the 
overseers of payjments in the time of [the lord Hilles-Jba'al 
the suffete, son of Bod-tanith, son of Bod-[eshmun, and of 
Hilles-ba'al] 2 the suffete, son of Bod-eshmun, son of Hilles- 
ba'al, and their colleagues]. 

3 For an ox, whole-offering or prayer-offering (?) or whole 
thank-offering, the priests shall have ten 10 silver (shekels) 
for each ; and for a whole-offering they shall have, besides 
this payment, f[lesh weighing three hundred 300 (shekels)] ; 
4 and for a prayer-offering (?), the ? and the ? ; but the skin 
and the ? and the feet and the rest of the flesh shall belong 
to the person offering the sacrifice. 

5 For a calf whose horns are wanting (?) ?, or for a hart, 
whole offering or pray[er]-offering (?) or whole thank-offering, 
the priests shall have five [5] silver (shekels) [for each ; and 
for a whole-offering they shall have, besid]es this payment, 
flesh weighing a hundred and fifty 150 (shekels);, and for 
a prayer-offering (?) the ? and the ? ; but the skin and ? and 
the fe[et and the rest of the flesh shall belong to the person 
offering the sacrifice]. 

7 For a ram or for a goat, a whole-offering or a prayer- 
offering (?) or a whole thank-offering, the prie'us shall have 

H4 Punic [42 

i silver shekel z zars for each ; and for a prayer-offering (?) 
they shall h[ave, besides this payment, the ? ] 8 and the ? ; 
but the skin and the ? and the feet and the rest of the flesh 
shall belong to the person offering the sacrifice. 

9 For a lamb or for a kid or for the young of a (?) hart, 
a whole-offering or a prayer-offering (?) or a whole thank- 
offering, the priests (shall have) three quarters of a silver 
(shekel) . . zars [for each, and for a prayer-offering (?) they 
shall have, besides] 10 this payment, the ? and the ? ; but the 
skin and the ? and the feet and the rest of the flesh shall 
belong to the person offering [the sacrifice]. 

11 For a bird, domestic (?) or wild (?), a whole thank-offering 
or a ? or a ?, the priests (shall have) three quarters of a silver 
(shekel) 2 zars for each ; but the fle[sh shall belong to the 
person offering the sacrifice]. 

12 For a bird (?) or sacred first-fruits or sacrifice of game (?) 
or sacrifice of oil, the priests (shall have) 10 silver a\gordhs (?)] 
for each .... 

13 In every prayer-offering (?), which is carried before the 
gods, the priests shall have the ? and the ? ; and for a prayer- 
offering (?).... 

14 For a cake, for milk and for fat and for every sacrifice which 
a man is disposed to sacrifice for a meal-offering, . . . shall . . . 

15 For every sacrifice which a man may sacrifice who is poor 
in cattle or in birds, the priests shall have nothing [of them]. 

16 Every mizrah and every ? and every religious guild, 
and all men who shall sacrifice . . . . , 17 such men (shall give) 
a payment for each sacrifice, according as is set down in the 
document .... 

18 Every payment which is not set down on this table shall 
be given according to the document which [. . . the overseers 
of payments drew up in the time of the lord Hilles-ba'al, son 


of Bod-tanjith, and of Hilles-ba'al, son of Bod-eshmun, and 
their colleagues. 

20 Every priest who shall receive a payment other (?) than 
that which is^set down on this tablet, shall be fin[ed . . .]. 

42] Marseilles 115 

21 Every person offering a sacrifice, who shall not give . . . 
for the payment which . . . . 1 . 

The stone, though found at Marseilles, must have come originally 
from the quarries near Carthage, as its geological formation shows. | jjlv 
In style and contents the inscr. closely resembles the group 43. 44. 
CIS i 1 70, which belongs to Carthage ; so it is probable, but not 
certain, that the stone was already inscribed before it travelled to 

L. i. |>y2 J13 The Corp. conjectures }SV after *>y3, cf. Jjnrny CIS i 
265. jam 108. nnx[>Dn nyn] Cf. 43 i. CIS i in 7. The 

missing parts of the inscr. may be restored from 43, and from other 
lines of the inscr. itself. The context shows that njn= tariff, but the 
etymology is doubtful. The word may be explained by the Arab, cb 

make a covenant, stipulate, IJjUL contract for buying or selling, x*3 
buying or selling, and the meaning be agreement] or the meaning 
demand m-ay be obtained from the Arab. ( Jo,, Aram. NJD seek. nnNB>D 
= Hebr. HNb'p dues, taxes, 2 Ch. 24 6. 9. Eze. 20 40. K3D 43 i, 

usually of setting up a statue on a pedestal (13 2 n.), or fixing a pillar 
in the ground (16 2 &c.). 'on $>y B> 'Nil Cf. 46 i. 33 2. 

65 5. 1 ny Cf. CIS i 170 i and 38 4. te^n i. e. B. 

delivers (piel); cf. )6roOBtt CIS i 168 2. $fja 777 5 &c. BB527I 

Even if the inscr. did not come originally from Carthage, it gives us 
some information about the Carthaginian constitution, for the colony at 
Marseilles would be organized on the model of the mother-state, (i) At 
the head of the state in Carthage were two su/etes (11. 1-2. 18-19) or 
chief magistrates ; cf. 45 5. 6. 46 i (?). CIS i 170 i. 179 6 f. 196 4 f. 
By Gk. and Lat. writers they are called /?ao-iAeis and reges, and they 
are generally given as two, being compared with the Roman consuls 2 . 
Similarly in Lat. inscrr. from N. African cities two are named, CIL viii 
797. 5306 ; in the NPun. inscrr. from Altiburus and Maktar there are 
three, 55 5 f. 59B4ff. (2) The suffetes give their names to the 
period (ny CIS i 170, cf. 38 4), or more usually to the year (n&? 46 i, 

1 The above translation is based upon that given by Dr. Driver in Authority 
and Archaeology 77 f. 

2 Livy xxx 7 5 Senatum itaque snfetes, quod velnt consulare imperium apud eos 
erat, vocaverunt. Nepos Hann. vii 4 Ut enim Romae consules, sic Carthagine 
quotannis annui bini reges creabantur. In historical narratives, it is true, one 
' king ' is generally mentioned ; but perhaps one was often away on distant duties, 
or one of the two may have been in some sense inferior to the other. At any rate, 
the comparison with the consuls is decisive. 

i a 

n6 Punic [42 

cf. 40 2), during which they held office. As the expression DDSK> 

suggests, the appointment was an annual one (see 45 5 .) * ; the 

series of votive tablets, CIS i 199-228, were dedicated by suffetes 

prob. during their year of office. These tablets show that although 

the office was not hereditary, yet it tended to become associated with 

a limited number of families, of long-descended and honourable race 2 . 

(3) The name t3DB> implies that the office was magisterial, not 

hierarchical; thus in 45 8 the 'chief priest' is mentioned beside 

the suffetes ; cf. 55 6 f. (4) Connected with the two chief magistrates 

were the D"On colleagues, who formed their council (11. 2. 19, cf. 55 4 

and D^IHM I3n 149 C). Whether these colleagues correspond to the 

yepova-ta of 100 (or 104), the 'centum judices/ or to the executive 

committee of 30 chosen from the 100, we cannot tell. It may be 

assumed that the two suffetes presided over this senate (but see 

45 6 n.) ; they certainly summoned it and conducted its business 3 . 

(5) The office and title of suffete were characteristic of Carthage 

and of the Carth. colonies. In the latter, of course, the suffetes would 

not have the same importance, and prob. not exactly the same 

functions, as in the mother-state ; they would be little more than 

local magistrates. They are met with in Sardinia 40, Sicily CIS i 135, 

Malta ib. 124, Altiburus 55, and in a number of N. African cities, 

CIL viii 7. 765. 797. 5306. 10525. The title Judices, given to 

governors or petty kings in Spain and Sardinia (Cagliari) in the 

Middle Ages, may be a survival from Punic times ; see Ducange 

S. v. At the Piraeus there was a B25?, but prob. not in the Carth. 

sense, 34 ., and cf. 8 3 n. 17 2. The chief of a Phoen. city in 

Phoenicia itself, or in Cyprus, was called not t3SB> but "jta, e.g. 3 i. 

4 i. 5 i. 12 2 &c. 

1 Nepos L c. ; Zonaras, Anna!, viii 8 rbv ycip fiaffiXta eavroTs K\rjffiv injaiov 
apX*) s <&*' O\IK eirl xpoviy SwaffTfia irpovfiaXXovro. Aristotle, /W. ii II, in his 
parallel with the Spartan kings, who ruled for life, does not notice this point 
of difference ; perhaps he did not believe in it. Cicero, Rep. ii 23, seems to imply 
that the Carth. reges were elected for life (' perpetua potestas '). 

1 From any family of full civic rights, not, as in Sparta, from one family and by 
hereditary dignity, Aristotle 1. c. ; but the text is uncertain. 

s E.g. Polybius iii 33 3. Beside the ypovaia, Polyb. mentions the ffvytcXrjros, 
x 18 i ; xxxvi 2 6. The latter was probably a general assembly of the people 
(vi 51 6), who took a real share in the government, Arist. 1. c. The yepovala of 
Arist. is perhaps to be identified with the cfvyxXrjros of Polyb. ; see Henderson 
Journ. Phil, xxiv (1896) 119 ff. Under special circumstances a military command 
seems to have been bestowed upon a suffete by decree of the senate, but this was 
exceptional ; the flaffiXtia. and the arparrjyia are distinguished by Arist. The word 
is in itself ambiguous j for the 104 were also called judices. 

42] Marseilles 117 

LI. 3-14. A Table of Sacrifices and Dues. It appears that the 
sacrificial institutions of the Phoenicians had a good deal in common 
with those of the Hebrews, and gave expression to the same general 
religious ideas. Thus the chief types of sacrifice in both systems are 
analogous, the whole-offering, the thank-offering, the meal-offering. 
The Hebr. nsttn and DB>K sin- and guilt-offering, however, are absent, 
unless something of the kind was intended by the obscure nyi, which 
is doubtful. The materials of sacrifice are generally alike, but in some 
respects the details differ: the Hebrews sacrificed domestic animals 
only, but the Phoenicians offered as well deer (^N), young (?) deer 
(^N Titf), wild-birds (? pf), game (IX), and included milk (2^n) and 
fat (ni>n) in the nnJO. It is to be noticed that in this inscr. oxen, 
sheep and goats, birds, produce are mentioned in the same order as in 
Lev. 1-2. Certain parts of the sacrifice are assigned to the priests and 
to the worshipper, as in Lev. 6 19. 7 8. 15-19. 31-34. Dt. 18 3. 4 &c. ; 
while the relief allowed to the poor man (1. 15) may be illustrated by 
Lev. 57.11. 128. 142i (Kin in DN). The resemblance, however, 
between the two systems is a general one. Many of the sacrificial 
terms in Phoenician are obscure in meaning, and those which are 
identical with the Hebr. (e. g. ^3, D^) may have denoted different 
things ; at any rate they acquired different shades of meaning in the 
course of their separate history. See Driver Authority and Archaeology 
78 f. 

L. 3. cpK3 The prep, here is beth of reference ; cf. the use of ^j 
in Arab. (Wright Ar. Gr? ii 55 c); there is no exact parallel in 
Hebr. c^X ox, as in Assyr. alpu ; in Hebr. the word is rare, and only 
used in the plur., e.g. Pr. 14 4. Is. 30 24. Ps. 8 8. Dt. 7 13. 28 
4 ff. y?3 43 5 prob. = byS holocaust, a word which in Hebr. 

hardly belongs to the ordinary terminology of sacrifice. It is used as a 
descriptive synonym of r6iy, Dt. 33 10. i S. 7 9. Ps. 51 21; twice 
of the priests' nn3IO, Lev. 6 15 f. ; and figuratively in Dt. 13 17. 
Among the Phoenicians 7?3 was apparently the equivalent of the O.T. 
r6iy. It was not wholly burned upon the altar 1 , because part of the 
flesh was assigned to the priests. ON ... ON See 5 7 n. nyix 

43 4 f. may be connected with the same root as the Eth. &o>0: 
(yw) cry out, invoke, hence nyi was perhaps a sacrifice accompanied 
by prayer; it is highly precarious to make the Ethiopic root corre- 
spond to n}S, S?F, as Wright does, Comp. Gr. 60. The Eth. 9*0: 

1 Cf. Ex. 20 24, which orders the nbiy to be slaughtered (PTOV;) upon the 
altar, but says nothing about its being wholly burned upon it ; Rob. Smith If el. 
of Sent. 358 . 

1 1 8 Punic [42 

whence "} ut P(^Ci sacrifice, is again prob. a different root. D7B> 

773 may be rendered ' a D7B> qf(\. e. accompanying) a 773 ' or ' a whole 
D7B>.' It is probably incorrect to regard the '3 'B> as a third kind of 
sacrifice, for in the second part of each direction only the 773 and 
the DJMV are repeated. This implies that two, and not three, distinct 
species of sacrifice are contemplated, in which case the '3 V 
will be a subordinate kind of 773. Robertson Smith regards it 
as an ordinary sacrifice accompanying a 773, Rel. of Sem. 219 n. 
It must remain uncertain what exactly the '3 V was. The word D7B> 
is of course the same as the Hebr. for thank- or peace-offering. P)D3~ 
rrwy For the order cf. a S. 24 24. Neh. 615. i Ch. 22 13 ; ep3 is 
in apposition to D^pt? understood, cf. Gen. 20 1 6. 37 28 &c., and 
nominative to p" 1 which must be supplied before DJH37 ; see Driver 
Tenses 192 (i), Konig Syntax 314 h. The money payments to 
the priests may be illustrated by CIL vi 820 pro sanguine . . et 
corium . . si holocaustum XX. }Q D7JJ lit. over, here over and 

above, besides ; similarly perhaps Ex. 20 3 ^3 ?y. ' 't? 7pt?D ->NB> 
lit. flesh, a weight 0/300 (shekels) ; see Driver 1. c. ; 7pB>IO is in apposi- 
tion to INK', and prob. in the constr. state, as in i Ch. 21 25 
niND B>B> 7j5Kto; for tf7pt? understood after 7pt?O cf. Num. 7 13 ff. 
The restoration is based on 1. 6, the amount for an ox would be 
double of that for a calf. For 1NP = Hebr. -|Ba see 3 4 n. 

L. 4. H7VM mp 43 8 evidently certain parts of the victim assigned 
to the worshipper, as the 1NB> was to the priests. The practice is 
illustrated by Lev. 7 15-19. 19 6 &c., and by a Gk. inscr. from 
Miletus (end of the fourth cent. B. c.) Xapfidvciv 8c ra Scp/xara /cat ra 
aXXa ycpea' r)v cv Ovrjrai, Xanj/crai yXwcrcrav, fcr<f>vv, Scwreav, wpiyv K.T.\. 
Michel 726. The meaning of nhw fllVp is unknown, rmp has 
been rendered cuttings, prosecta, from *ivp cut', D7X* may be con- 
nected with the root J^j, and the Hebr. friTifX joints. The breast 
and right shoulder were the perquisites of the priests in the Levitical 
law, Lev. 7 31 f. }31 11. 6. 8. 10 f. 43 4 bis. 5. Here we have 

an instance of the waw conversive in Phoen. It is used with the 
perfect to introduce the predicate, as it is in Hebr. (Driver Tenses 
122. 123 a), i. when the subject follows the verb and intervenes 
between it and the clause introduced by 7 (mtn 7JD7) ; if the subject 
does not intervene the simple imperfect occurs, D7 p* 11. 3. 7. 
DJH37 p^ 13. 15 : ii. when the subject precedes the verb, the sentence 
having commenced with the casus pendens, 1. 18 }rm . . . tPN nSBTD 73. 
43 n. 1. 20 twyjl . . . B>N }H3 73. So far as is known at present, the 
idiom is found only in the small group of related inscrr., 42. 43 and 

42] Marseilles 119 

CIS i 170 (rest.). The sister idiom, the imperfect with waw conver- 
sive, has not been discovered in Phoenician; D33QD1 5 19 cannot 
safely be taken as an instance. The normal tense for continuing 
a narrative of finished acts is the perf. with weak waw, e. g. N3Q' I 1 flT 1 
13 2 &c. enm byQ 38 i. 46 i ; and this construction occurs where 
in Hebr. the impf. with strong waw would be natural, e.g. 3 8. 5 16. 
17 'J3B*! . . p3. 23 5 npfll. 29 13. 14. 33 3. The material is very 
limited both in extent and character, but, so far as it goes, it suggests 
the conclusion that the waw conversive was not used in ordinary 
Phoen. speech and writing. Yet it was not entirely unknown, and 
the few instances of its occurrence with the perf., preserved in the 
Carthaginian dialect, are perhaps survivals of what was once more 
common. The later biblical and post-biblical Hebr. shows that there 
was a tendency to drop the use of the waw conv., and that at last 
it was abandoned altogether. The same thing may have happened 
in Phoen., though it is not likely that at any period the idiom 
reached such a full development in Phoen. as in Hebrew. myn 

43 2 f., i. e. niyn. In Hebr. "iiy is mas. with a fern, ending in the 
plur. The npyn liy is given to the priests in Lev. 7 8 ; in the case 
of the sin-offering it was burned, Ex. 29 14. Lev. 8 17. Num. 
19 5. Date In 43 4 and CIS i 170 2 Date**, 1 fatty parts, cf. 

jc^xa*. (only in the glossaries) the fat of the hinder parts of birds. 
In i K. 7 28 f. CPapB' may = cross-bars, ribs-, the exact meaning is 
obscure. DlDyDH CIS i 170 2 ; see 3 4 n. nnx prob. == 

Hebr. mriK ; see 10 9 n. mm bya 43 2 f., lit. owner of the 

sacrifice ; for ^>JD as a noun of relation cf. 45 9 tinn ^>JD, and in 
Hebr. Gen. 37 19 WD^On '3. 2 K. 1 8. Gen. 14 13 JVO ^3. 2 S. 
1 6 &c. 

L. 5. 'np i.e. OyTTB; see 37 6 n. nDn3Di> \\i.yet in want, 

cf. Dt. 15 8. Jud. 18 jo &c. ; for the accumulated preps, see 16 2 n. 
(of time). This is simpler than to take D^ as = fa, an isolated 
example of this form of the sing. suff. (Konig Lehrg. ii 446 
n. 2). KBOU3K3 is obviously a foreign word, Gk. or Berber. Its 

meaning is unknown. The Corp. suggests dro/xT/ros for drfiTpros not 
castrated. iN Perhaps ?JK hart rather than ^K ram, because 

the latter belongs to the class specified further on, 1. 7. The sacrifice 
of wild animals is surprising, but it seems to be implied in this Table 
(p. 117). The restoration of the number is based on 1. 3. 

L. 6. f'pK'D 1NB> See 1. 3 n. For the form of the symbol for 

100 see 40 i n. 

L. 7. ?T i. e. ??* ram ; in the O.T. only of the ram's-horn trumpet 

1 20 Punic [42 

and of the 'year of the ram('s horn),' Ex. 19 13. Josh. 6 5. Lev. 
25 13 &c. IT 43 7 a small coin, less than the quarter of 

a shekel 1. n. The Hebr. 1J border moulding Ex. 25 n ff., lit. 'that 
which presses, binds/ Aram. JtF necklace, KTf crown, may possibly 
be connected; the >v/T)T=lit. press down. 

L. 9. IDK lamb, Aram. )*>/* "^K, Palm. NnBK (plur.) 147 ii a 41, 
Arab. tl\. from the Aram., Frankel Ar. Fremdw. 107 f. N13 = 

Hebr. nj. ^N 31V 43 5. 31V = Aram. JiijX sheep, Noldeke 

ZDMG xl (1886) 737; cf. pr. n. M1V CIS i 380 4. The context 
refers to the young of sheep and goats, so 31V is prob. the young of 
deer, ?*X 1. 5. A gazelle could be sacrificed by heathen Arabs, but 
only as a poor substitute for a sheep ; Wellhausen Reste Ar, Heid- 
enth. 115. 

L. ii. 1SV3 Cf. Lev. 1 14 epyn J. f>V DN pa 43 7 meaning 

very uncertain. pJK is rendered enclosure, cf. |3, 11^ &c., \/ pj j#r- 
round, protect ; so &r<& of enclosure i. e. domestic birds, px may = p 
zwVjg', Jer. 48 9 (Ptext), Targ. ptf'V Dt. 14 9. 10. Ps. 139 9 &c., 
Sam. Targ. Gen. 15 9 f1V = iw2 ; so perhaps birds of wing, i.e. wild 
birds. According to Athenaeus ix 47 the quail was offered to the 
Tyrian Baal 1 . The Hebrews as a rule offered doves and pigeons for 
the r6iy (Lev. 114 cf.Gen. 15 9 JE), and nxBH (Lev. 126. 8), or 'birds,' 
of a kind not specified (Vulg. passeres), for purification from leprosy 
(Lev. 14 4). rim, P|VB> Two species of sacrifice; but of what 

nature is unknown. 5jK> cannot be explained by Is. 54 8 (see Duhm 
or Marti in loc.) ; possibly Dtn may have been a sacrifice in connexion 
with auspices, ntn, mm vision, cf. Is. 28 15. 1 8 (perhaps of a vision 
by necromancy). See Rob. Smith Rel. of Sem. 202. 

L. 12. 1BV by The repetition of 1SV and the change of preposi- 
tion are to be noted ; contrast 43 7-8. Perhaps 1DV here means some 
other kind of bird than 1BV 1. 1 1 or it may = I^SV he-goat, Ezr. 8 35. 
Dan. 8 5 &c.; or the words ON 1SV may be due to a sculptor's 
error. ntJHp n1p 43 9. 44 3 = Hebr. nwi, D l| 1133 Lev. 2 

12 f. Num. 18 12 and Dt. 18 4 &c. IV 43 9 = Hebr. TV 

hunting Gen. 10 9, game Gen. 25 28, we food Josh. 9 5. 14. Neh. 13 
15. The latter may be intended here. JDK> H3f 43 9. n3T, properly 

1 So far as date goes, there is no reason why the common domestic fowl should 
not have been sanctified at Carthage. It was first introduced into W. Asia by the 
Persians, too late to be included in the sacrificial lists of Lev. 1 ; but it may have 
reached N. Africa by the fourth or third cent. Egyptian wall-paintings represent 
only ducks and geese among domesticated poultry (Peters New World \\\\ 36). 122, 
in Phoen. 'birds for sacrifice,' has a wider sense than in Hebr. and Aram.; cf. Vt 

42] Marseilles 121 

slaughter, has here the general sense of offering. For oil with the 
first-fruits see Lev. 2 14 ff. ; in the Jewish system it was mingled with 
flour for the nruo, but not offered separately, Lev. 2 4-6. 
Cf. i S. 2 36 *|M TFfQvfe LXX 6ftoXov apyvpiov. The agwvzA (= 
Targ. i S. 2 36) was perhaps the same as the gerah, the 2Oth part 
of a shekel Ex. 30 13 &c., identified by Targ. and Talm. with the 

NVO obol, oySoXo's LXX. inNnb Cf. iDnoao^ 1. 5 . 

L. 13. DCy 43 8, Nif. impf., see 6 6 . D^N J1JS 43 8 i.e. 

D'nijK JE&. For ota see 33 6 n. 

L. 14. 63 44 2. 7 lit. 7z!r^ offering in connexion with the itTOD, 
so cakes or flour mixed with oil, as in the Hebr. nmD, Ex. 29 2. 
Lev. 2 4. 7 10 &c. 3^>n . . n^n i.e. ^bn . . nbn # . . / a /. 

Neither of these formed an element in the Hebr. meal-offering ; the 
fat was sacrificed (Ex. 23 1 8 JE) and burned (i S. 2 15 f. Lev. 3 3 ff. 
&c.) ; milk was not offered at all. Among the Arabs milk was poured 
as a libation: Wellhausen supr. 114; Rob. Smith supr. 203. In 
43 i o only a^ri occurs. rOT^ D1X K>K A striking case of similarity 

with Hebr. idiom, e.g. Hos. 9 13. Is. 10 32 &c.; Driver Tenses 204. 
This construction, in which the inf. with ^ forms the sole predicate, 
is freely used in later Hebr., e.g. Aboth 4 22 DTlDni 
]fb D"nm nvnr6 ; cf. the Syriac usage after fc-^. e. g. ^00^ 
^wfe. v>.\ .> they can give nothing: Stade Morg. Forsch. 194; 
Noldeke Syr. Gr.* 216. nruM 43 10 the 1 as in i?bl 1. 3, 

njnw l. 4 &c. 

L. 15. NJp ^ 43 6, cf. 45 2. 46 i; for ^ see note above p. 117. 
NJpO is an accus. of limitation, poor in respect of cattle, like nDViri J3DDH 
Is. 40 20. ta3ra 5^5 2 S. 15 32. After verbs of fullness and want the 
accus. is usual in Hebr.; Ewald Synt. 281 b 2. 284 c. [ D3 ] 

From 43 6 ; see 5 add. note. 

L. 1 6. The regulations here pass from individuals (DIN 1. 14. H 
1. 15) to classes of men (D-|N i?3 1. 16. nn DCnNn 1. 17); hence 
it is prob. that the difficult words '1J1 miD are to be interpreted as 
collectives. mfO may be connected with the Hebr. mTN lit. one 
arising (r\~\i)from the soil, so native, 'a free tribesman,' here a clan, 
society of freemen, cf. 55 4, where PQfDn DJ"Drrt is to be read 'ni 

mron, and 59 A i w3 PN . . mron. 16 nnron nn. nsB' be- 
longs to the same root as the Hebr. nnafcW, and may be rendered 
family. D^K nn?D Prob. a festal gathering in honour of the gods, 

Oiao-os; cf. the Athenian sacred symposia. The VYlH apparently means 
cry aloud, and the noun nrp is used in Hebr. of noisy revelry (Am. 
6 7) or grief (Jer. 16 5, LXX 0urov), and in Rabbinic of a banquet, 

122 Punic [42 

esp. one in honour of a false god 1 ; perhaps nPD in 33 i may denote 
the period of the annual o-vo-o-m'a. An interesting parallel to the 
nflD n3 of Jer. 16 5 (though the sense is different) has been found 
recently in the mosaic of MSdeba ; a place called Br/To/xapo-ea -f/ K<U 
Mcuou/xas 2 is mentioned on the E. of the Dead Sea, no doubt a 
transcription of 'D '3, and the scene of licentious festivals ; Cl.-Gan. 
Rec. iv 276. 339-345 = PEFQS (1901) 239. 369. 372 f. The word 
occurs also in Palm., NnPD ^3 members of the thiasus 14O A 2. 

L. 17. m3 See 5 19 n. mcb. ntJ> 43 n, ptcp. pass., cf. 

in Hebr. .HD circumcised, ntw i S. 21 10; Konig Lehrg. i 445. 

L. 1 8. bl'K 1. 21. 43 n a negative compounded of ''N (4 4 n.) and 
i>3 1. 15. DD 1. 20. 43 ii tablet, from DCS expand', in the Talm. 

D=plank, palisade (Schroder 23 n. 3) ; here it is the stone which bears 
the inscription. jnil Nif. pf. 3 sing. mas. of jrp with waw conv. 

(see 1. 4 n.). '"EP according to the tenor of, 7 of norm ; cf. in Hebr. 

Num. 26 54 VHpS 'sh B*K &c. rorD A different document from 

the DS bearing the inscription. The remainder of the line is restored 
from 1. i. 

L. 20. }H3 Meaning unknown ; 2 is prob. the prep., with fl cf. 
the Arab. ^\'$ turn aside', so }H2 perhaps in deviation from,"&&\\ Light 
from the East 253. t?3yj1 Nif. perf. with waw conv. (see 1. 4 n.); 

cf.Ex. 21 22 E. Dt. 22 19. 

L. 21. ^B An error for i>3. n Usually JVK ; see 3 3 n. *?y 
above, beyond; cf. Ex. 16 5. In 1. 3 }2 r6y. 

1 A good illustration is found in Siphre ed. Friedmann 47 b ; the context speaks 
of the daughters of Moab tempting the apostate Israelites on 1 ? nixoyS vwi rwnnNi 
D^OWI Dnb D'NTip rm DTnno ; Midr. Rab. Esther 4 m yni ain \onpon nu 
pn'no nciri id 1 (of Ahasuerus). 

1 Lit. M AOJ of the Marzeafy (i. e. orgiastic festival) which is also the Majumas- 
feast. The Gk. word Mcuotvs occurs several times in the Midrashim as oovp a 
great feast, so called after the feast held by the pagan inhabitants of the city 
Majuma in Syria ; Levy NHWB iii 99. It has been suggested that Betomarsea- 
Majumas was the traditional scene of the event recorded in Num. 25 i ff. ; Rev. Bibl. 
xi (1902) 150. For nno see further Berger Grande inscr. dtdic. a Maktar (1899) 
1 6 ff.; Lidzb. Eph. i 47. 343 f. 

43] Carthage 123 


43. Carthage. CIS i 167. iv-iii cent. B. c. Brit. Mus., Semitic 
Room no. 490. 

by &x DB>MPI] *o& B>M nnMt?&n njn i 

?ynb rmni ojrob rn[yn pi nyra taw obbs *)b*o] 2 

ram bynb mam wrab my[n pi riyi* DM abbs b:y:i] 3 


p ab p* bn wpo hi npr ^x n^T a] 6 

nn by n IT s|oa pen [DM paa -isxa] 7 

rvnxp pab p Db ros DDy ^[M njnx bna] s 

bjn TX nnr bjn n^np [nznp b^ by] 9 

DIM E>M nnr ba] bjn nmz nnr bjn abn byp bba by] 10 

. . . mtb 

Tariff of payments erected by [the overseers of payments]. 

2 [For an ox, whole-offerings or prayer-offering (?), the skin 
shall go] to the priests, but the ? shall belong to the person 
offering the sacrifice. 

3 [For a calf, whole-offerings or prayer-offering (?), the skin 
shall go] to the priests, but the ? shall belong to the person 
offering the sacrifice ...... 

4 [For a ram or for a goat, whole-offerings or] prayer- 

124 Punic [43 

offering (?), the skin of the goats shall go to the priests, but 

the ? [and the feet] shall go 

6 [For a lamb or for a kid or for] the young (?) of a hart, 
whole-offerings or prayer-offering (?), the skin shall go to the 

6 [For every sacrifice which one may sacrifice who is poor 
in cattle, nothing of them shall go to the priest. 

7 [For a bird, a domestic (?) or] for a wild (?) one, 2 silver 
zars for each. 

8 [For every prayer-offering (?) wh]ich is carried before the 
gods there goes to the priest the ? and [the ? . . . . 

9 [For all] sacred [first-fruits], and for a sacrifice of game (?) 
and for a sacrifice of oil .... 

10 [For a cake and] for milk and for a sacrifice for a meal- 
offering, and for [every sacrifice which a man is disposed to 
sacrifice .... 

11 [Every payment which] is not set down on this table 
shall be give[n .... 

The lacunae are supplied from 42, which this inscr. closely resembles. 
An excellent facsimile is given by Ball, Light from the East, opp. p. 250. 

L. i. See 42 i. 

L. 2. See 42 3 f. In contrast to 42 the 7?3 D?E> is not mentioned 
here ; and, instead of a money payment, the skin, which in 42 goes to 
the worshipper, is assigned to the priests, cf. Lev. 7 8. man 1. 3 

some part of the victim, ? cuttings, cf. the Arab. JI^ cut up, T cut out. 

L. 3. See 42 5 f. 

L. 4. See 42 7 f. nyitf 42 2. pi 42 4. Kbv So 

CIS i 170 2 ; cf. 42 4. 

L. 5. See 42 9 f. B5&3 Plur.; in 42 always ^3. 

L. 6. See 42 15. 

L. 7. See 42 ii. f]D3 In apposition to ni (42 7), cf. i Ch. 

22 13 P]ta HMD D-D3 3HT ; see 42 3 n. 

L. 8. See 42 13. rU3 An error for JUS. p For the usual 

p or pi. JTWp 42 4. 

L. 9. See 42 12. 

L. 10. See 42 14. nm3 mt i?y An abbreviated form of ct'X 
nm3 rsb DIN. 

L. n. See 42 18. 


44. Carthage. CIS i 166. iv-iii cent. B.C. 


enn N> "is 

. [rnjfcp crta rmna 
. ail n DnSn p nenpn 
finpb p*? ** 
nn roa 1 ? 

nnof? nh ..... 4 


p n . 









The fourth day. 

[cakjes plants of fair fruit, the sacred . . 

first-fruits the sacred, in the chamber, and 

bread, inc[ense] 

* veil (?) upon (?) the sacred, that bread shall be, 


. . . which is fair and rich and figs, fair (and) white, thou 

shalt be careful to fetch . . . 
. . fine linen and a covering and incense, fine frankincense, 

be[low?] seven 

. . . cakes and- first-fruits. The fifth day. 

to set upon (?) the chamber, honey 



? two hundred, and 
. . five 

An obscure and fragmentary list of religious offerings for the days 
of the week, perhaps during the spring festival (JiKHp &c.). It may be I 
compared with the sacrificial calendar from Cos, M. 716-718 (iii cent, j 
B.C.); see Hicks Journ. Hell. St. ix (1888) 323 ff. 

L. i. ^2"iNn D> Cf. Hebr. wn DV Gen. 1 31; Driver Tenses 209. 
L. 2. ^3 See 42 in. m? Prob. = Hebr. D^ shrub Gen. 

126 Punic [44 

2 5 &c. "IB = nB 5 12 ; cf. Lev. 23 40. K 11 1. 5 = Aram. 

^ fitting, fair, Targ. Gen. 39 6 KJpna W. Pesh. Ps. 33 i JuJJ = m*q. 
In Jer. 10 7 nnjO N7 is an Aramaism. enpn 1. 3. ntnpn 1. 4. 

These forms can hardly be verbs in (H)ifil, for the (H)if. of KHp 
in Phoen. is trip 1 " 28 4. They must be adjs. with the art.;' but their 
construction is not apparent. 

L. 3. ncnp See 42 12 . nTin 1. 8 /ft* chamber, i.e. of the 

'temple, like the Hebr. T3T, t^KHpn trip; cf. 47 minn n^ya^ na"6 

and CIS i 124 i "HP! a sepulchral chamber. The Hebr. "nn has 
neither of these special meanings. mt3p Dn^l Either do-wSe'rw?, 
bread (and] incense, or bread of incense (Corp.), incense in the form of 
a wafer, mop lit. ,m0& of offerings made by fire, then the incense- 
offering (Ex. 30 8), and then, as here, the material used in this offering 

(Lev. 10 i &c.). The word occurs again in CIS i 334 JTlBpK 13O 
the seller of incense. Various substances used for incense are mentioned 
in Sabaean inscrr.; see Mordtmann u. Miiller ab. Inschr. 78. 81 f. 

L. 4. JV1D Meaning uncertain; P-fl^p curtain, veil=. Hebr. njpQ 
Ex. 34 34 P. r6y Perhaps prep, upon \. 8. The rendering of 

the Corp. upper chamber, i.e. npy (Dan. 6 n) = "'vy., is not pro- 
bable. DKHpn 1. 2 n. 42 12 . The adj. here is fern., sing, 
or plur. 

L. 5. no fat, v'nno, whence Hebr. DO (plur. only) Is. 617. Ps. 66 
15. In Talm. NpV? is used figuratively of choice flour. pn Per- 

haps = Arab. j^J, Hebr. nJNJI. White figs are mentioned in Jer. 
Talm. Terumoth 43 a nmnt? D^Wl. npK'n nnpi? For this use of 

the inf. with h cf. Is. 5 2 mt?y^ Ip^l ; Driver 7w 207. The inf. 
of np? takes the same form in Phoen. as in Hebr.; for other parts 
of the vb. cf. 20 B 7 npi>. 42 20 np\ Ipt? lit. watch, be wakeful, Jer. 
1 12. 31 27 &c. 

L. 6. pa byssus, fine Egyptian linen, written />/<w because a foreign 
word. In Hebr. the word is met with only in late literature ; its origin 
is uncertain. ND3O Ace. to Corp.=HD3O (cf. NJpO=fUpO 42 15) 

covering ; cf. ij^$ the covering of the Ka'aba at Mekka. nn 

Possibly to be completed [n]nn. nja^> AtySavos, so called from its 

white appearance. For np*7 cf. Lev. 16 12 HpT D^OD nitap. . O3 

is restored by Corp. tnoa priests, 55 7 and (Aram.) 64 i. 69 23 

L. 8. Ttth i. e. HW. The significance of the prep, n^y is not clear 
in this context. HS3 ?= Hebr. JlBb Pr. 24 13. 

L. 9. DJa may mean among them 5 9; '200 .sww' for sacrifice (!) 
could not be mentioned in this way. 

45] Carthage 127 

45. Carthage, iii-ii cent. B. c. Discovered 1898. Carthage Mus. 

hi M Dtnn DBHpa pihi wr ^ rnwyS raif? i 
hi hnn pnn rate ^TI hx wnpaa KM n wnm 2 
wnpDn DJ?ND:I wa ^ ^1 3 


n ^r\h rrwn nan PM ^N wnpw nnn n 1 ?^ n^ firK 4 
... 1 jvipbo"tty DD)^ -i*n rrra& canjnt njn WITK 5 
. . jp pa p mp^D-oy mi by^n p wro bs^ DDS^ 6 
. . . nay p ^TMnajn cfcttbwn p p^p p ^ay p jn 7 
:n bs^ p ^nniy Din^ mi n-n nnpbai^ | s 
p D^n Dnaay nn hy?\ D3na m ^B^ 9 

To the ladies 'Ashtart and Tanith in Lebanon. New 
sanctuaries as well as all that . . . built (?) . . 2 and the 
sculptures which are in these sanctuaries and ? the gold- 
work, and ? all vessels wh[ich ? 3 and ? all vessels in ? 
these sanctuaries, and ? the ? which is over against 
[these] sanctuaries . . . . 4 which approaches the ? of these 
sanctuaries ; as also the fence enclosing (?) that hill . . . . 6 the 
greatest of them even to the least of them : from the month 
Hiyyar, the suffetes (being) 'Abd-melqarth and . . . . 6 . the 
suffetes (being) Shafat and Hanno, son of Idniba'al, and the 
Rab (being) 'Abd-melqarth, son of Magon, so[n . . . Ba'al- 
yalthon, son of 'Abd-lai, son of Ba'al-yathon, son of Eshmun- 


pilles, and ' Abd-arish, son of e Abd- . . . [so]n of 'Abd-melqarth 
the Rab, and the chief-priest (being) 'Azru-ba'al, son of 
Shafat the chief-prie[st . . . Ba'al]- 9 shillek the chief-priest ; 
and the master-workman (was) 'Akboram the surveyor, son 
of Hanni-ba'al. 

L. i. Kr Sing, or plur.; see 3 2 . runl fTffw The 

combination is remarkable. Cl.-Gan., Rec. iii i86ff., considers that 

128 Punic [45 

it points to a mythological connexion between the two goddesses, 
borrowed from the cult of Demeter and Persephone. It is possible 
that Tanith was associated with this cult (47. 48); but 'Ashtart, 
usually identified with Aphrodite (4 i n.), seems at first sight foreign 
to it. 'Ashtart, however, absorbed a great variety of local types, and 
at Carthage she may have assumed the characteristics of Demeter. 
In later times a temple dedicated to Ceres and Proserpine appears to 
have stood on or near the site of these sanctuaries 1 ; but this later 
dedication hardly proves Cl.-Ganneau's view, for it may have been 
^ due merely to a reminiscence of the earlier sanctuaries of 'Ashtart and 
' Tanith. J32?2 Not the Lebanon in Syria, but an eminence in 

Carthage, prob. so called from the white colour of its stone (Lidzb. 
Eph. i 21); cf. the name ACVKOS given to the city of TVVT/S (Tunis) 
in Diod. xx 8. For the place-name with 3 see 24 2 n. tPN bl DD 

Prob.=B'ND (55>N 1CO) + b, cf. B>3 1. 4 and 3 7 n. J3 either f? 

they built or [D]j3 in them. Cl.-Gan., 1. c. 2, adopting the latter, 
continues with nmn mp Dy ^ya, as 38 i. 

L. 2. ryBin Prob. plur., ntoin or n'cnn ; VBin=*/, carve, Aram. 
^Li*, Arab. J^ peel off, in modern usage turn wood. Here prob. the 
meaning is sculptures. ?N See 5 22 n. in Meaning un- 

certain. Cl.-Gan/s translation conjunctim, item, lit. depending, rests 
upon a questionable application of the v'n/n, Arab. 3* hang down. 
Lidzb., I.e., renders with more probability that which is damaged, 
lit. weak, poor, supposing that repairs as well as new buildings are 
commemorated (38. 46) ; this may be the meaning of DOya in 46 i 
ruinous as to its steps ; elsewhere, however, in Phoen. (42 1 5) and in 
Hebr. in is used of persons. nata For roxi>O 20 A 6. pn 

Perhaps trench, cf. pin Dan. 9 25 (Ptext) and pin in Mishnah; so 
HaleVy Rev. SSm. ix (1901) 79 ff. D31D See 4 5 n. 

L. 3. D3TN Meaning unknown ; armoury lit. place of weapons has 
been proposed (Re'p. i 16), connecting the word with fW (-/)IN) imple- 
ments Dt. 23 14; cf. Targ. tfjntf arms in pj'TN JVa quiver Is. 49 2, 
JJL.J weapons (v^pt). But the construction is not evident, and DJ r 
may be the suff. with fNIO (? sense), or a ptcp. plur. D^yn Some 

fixed object in front of }Q ?y (3 5) the temple ; Cl.-Gan. renders steps, 

cf. rriitfy Eze. 40 26. 

L. 4. 81' Sing, or plur. If D^yn is the subj., f6y NT may mean 
comes (up) upon, ascends, cf. Ex. 18 23. 2 Ch. 20 24. nnn Possibly 
connected with fin string together, DTnn strings of beads Cant. 1 10; 
here perhaps the circle round the precincts ; so HaleVy. E'Oa = 

1 Delattre Bull, et mtm. soc. not. des antiquaires de France Iviii (1899) 1-26. 

45] Carthage 129 

1. i, as in 10 9 introducing a further item of the dedication. In 
this inscr. B> is the relat. with the noun, t?K with the predicate ; un 
therefore must be a noun, not a verb. It means perhaps enclosure; 
the V ~\$r\= restrain, gird, in Arab, tx? the wall enclosing the Kaaba, 
Assyr. igaru ( wall.' mot? Perhaps watch-tower, or defence. Lidzb. 
suggests a connexion with "M?&, sj^l thorn-hedge, in which case "tin 
mDBTi will be the/*f<? hedging the sanctuaries. Nfl "in!? i. e. p3^ 

1. i. Cf. 2 Ch. 33 14. After xn Hale'vy proposes [o ^Hp 11 ] />ky have 

L. 5. Diny* njn DJTTK Cf. Jer. 14 3. Jon. 3 5. The suffixes refer 
to the temples and their furnishings. *Vn m l| 3E& during or from 

the month Hiyyar, cf. "raoi* 16 2. IDnoaob 42 5 (Lidzb.); for Tn 
see 27 i . Cl.-Gan. is prob. right in explaining the double mention 
of the reigning suffetes as an indication of a twofold date: 'when 
'Abd-melqarth and . . . were suffetes [the work was begun, and lasted 
to the month . . .] when Shafat and Hanno were suffetes.' The 
suffetes (42 i n.) are mentioned without full genealogies, as in 40 2 n. 
CISi 135 6. 179 6 f. 

L. 6. The * at the beginning is prob. the last letter of the name of 
the month, the missing sentence prob. being in the same form as the 
preceding one. ijyailtf is transcribed Idnibal in 60. The 

constitutional position of the 21 at Carthage is unknown. In 42 i 
(restored from CIS i 170) 1 i. e. 51 is merely a title of the suffete ; 
but in this inscr. 31, who comes after the Dt32B>, is a distinct official ; 
the same must be the case with 31H in CIS i 229-235 &c. An inscr. 
from Tyre, lately discovered, reads nx 21 ^y313y (Cl.-Gan. Rec. ii 
294ff.); but whatever this may have meant at Tyre, it does not 
imply that the Rab was president of the 100 at Carthage (42 i n. 
(4)). May the title have been given to an ex-suffete when his term of 
office was over, or to the members of the executive cabinet of 30 
chosen from the 100? In 7 i f. (Sidon). 29 2. 6 (Cyprus). 38 4 
(Gaulus) the office was that of a district governor. 

L. 7. ^-ay In form resembles the Aram. <l &6nnN=' i r6N-nK the 
mother of Abraham, Baba Bathra 91 a; but the Western and Punic 
'sinay cannot = \-6iO3y (Lidzb.). It may be a Numidian or Berber 
name. BHN*nyi Apparently another official ; his title and the 

name of his colleague prob. stood at the end of 1. 6. BnfcOay 
occurs in CIS i 537. 805, cf. 52 2 KHKny. The prefixed *ny seems 
to imply that EHS was a deity, ?*Aprj<;; for the name tjnx see 21 i. 

L. 8. D3m 31 Cf. 35 2 (Piraeus) ; evidently the office was hereditary. 

L. 9. Pin $>y31 Prob. master of the workmen (coll.), contractor. 


1 30 Punic [46 

As in the foregoing lines the office precedes the name. With !>jn 

cf. rorn i>jn 42 4; tjnn 20 A 13. tnaay i.e. mouse, cf. naay 

CIS i 178. 239 &c. Gen. 36 38 &c. D^QH i. e. D;>sn lit. leveller, 

i. e. surveyor, architect; cf. Lat. librator. The -^0^2= lit. weigh (piel); 
so D^QJOB'N 1. 7 z^z0flz E. weighs; in the O. T. of levelling a path, 
e.g. Ps. 78 50. Is. 26 7. 

46. Carthage. CIS i 175. Brit. Mus., Semitic Room. 

p&n by B>K DG5>Nn rnpy DDys bn T roa&n JVK by 

____ E> n^i p 
. p rnwjmi DSG? p bpiry p bjDw p 

The Decemvirs in charge of the sanctuaries renovated and 
made this slaughter-house (?) ? steps : which was in the year 
of the s[uffetes . . . .] Ger-sakun and Ger-'ashtart, son of 
Yahon-ba'al, son of 'Azru-ba'al, son of Shafat, and Bod- 
'ashtart, son .... 

L. i. ytft KHn Plur. ; cf. 38 i. 23 2. H2I3O Possibly the place 
where animals were slaughtered before they were sacrificed ; cf. the 
title fl3Bn CIS i 237 if. 376. The word occurs in Is. 14 21 
PQtpp. Doya in Possibly ruinous as to (its] steps; see 45 z n. 

The words might mean twice (i. e. D^PV.Q) ruined, G. Hoffmann quot. 
by Lidzb. Eph. \ 22 n. 'n *?y X N 'n Cf. 55 5. 42 i. p &K 

DDa]ti> nt^n Cf. 40 2. The name of the first of the suffetes is lost; 
the second is Ger-'ashtart, and apparently Bod-'ashtart is the third 
(Corp.). But this would be very unusual (42 i n. (i)) ; possibly Bod- 
'ashtart had a different title, given at the end of the line. 

L. 2. pDTJ See 17 2 n. 34 n. ^yaan* Again Euting Carth. 230 

5 f. &c.; usually i>j?3Jn; cf. $>jmry and ^aiTy, in Hebr. fiHB and 

nnn^ynn See 6 3 . 

47. Carthage. CIS i 177. 

p iban bys ^x rmnn nbyn 1 ? ra-fo N 

To the lady Amma, and to the lady, mistress of the inner 
shrine (?) : which HMLR, son of Ba'al-hanno, made. 

48] Carthage 131 

The mention of two goddesses is significant ; see 45 i n. NN is 
evidently the title of a deity worshipped as Mother ', such as Rhea or 
Demeter ; cf. Hesychius Etym. magn. s. v. 'A/i/xas ... /cat ^ MT^P^ 
/cat fj 'Pea, /cat 17 ^rjpffTrjp. Demeter, rather than Rhea, is prob. to be 
looked for here, for the worship of Demeter and Persephone was 
introduced //.era Traces o-e/Avd-nTTos into Carthage from Sicily as a 
reparation for the pillaging of their temple by Himilco during his 
disastrous campaign in 396 B.C.; Diodorus xiv 77. The Carthaginians 
would naturally adapt the new worship to their own religion, and 
it seems likely that the Carth. goddess Tanith (48 i) assumed some of 
the attributes of Demeter ; at any rate she is called mother in CIS i 
195 nan!? ra-& DN^ and 380 nmi> DN^>. Perhaps this accounts for the 
head of Demeter (= Tanith?) figured on the coins of Carthage; see 
Cl.-Gan. j^/. i 149 ff. For the form SON cf. Plaut. Poen. iii 22 ammo, 
= DS ; in 14 3 'Ashtart (?) is called mother. If NN is Demeter, the other 
goddess is prob. Persephone, who was certainly worshipped at 
Carthage ; a characteristic figure of her surmounts the inscr. CIS i 
176, though she is not mentioned by name. The exact meaning 
of minn rvjn is obscure (see 44 3 n.), possibly mistress of the inner 
shrine ; cf. tJHpN pK7 to the god of the sanctuary Costa 3 1 (Lidzb. Eph. i 
39). It is prob. that HTTP! corresponds to the Gk. /xe'yapov adytum= ;my 
cave ; the ' dark inner chamber, found in many temples both among 
the Semites and in Greece, was almost certainly in its origin a cave ' 
(Rob. Smith R. of S. 183); and in the worship of Demeter and 
Persephone the ptyapa had a special significance. The title mj?D 
given to Sed-tanith in CIS i 249 mjHO form D3 "DJJ, though it is 
generally explained as a topographical title Megarensis, may well denote 
the goddess of the sacred cave. For r6y2 see 3 2 n. T>DH Cf. 

rrtan CIS i 597. 787, for ^n, nation ='DTTK 40 2 n.; either an 

error or a peculiarity o'f spelling. NJr6jO See 39 2 n. 

48. Carthage. CIS i 181. Brit. Mus., Semitic Room. 

p ronb rDib i 
pn hy& pfc&i 2 

p mpbfftt Ttt 3 

naban p mifhb 4 

KS-tt* N7p y 5 
K a 

132 Punic [48 

To the lady Tanith, Face of Ba'al, and to the lord Ba'al- 
hamman : which Bod-melqarth, son of 'Abd-melqarth, son of 
Hamilkath, vowed, because he heard his voice: may he 
bless him ! 

More than 2000 votive tablets of this character have been un- 
earthed on the site of ancient Carthage, in the neighbourhood of what 
was once the citadel (Byrsa). The stones are often inscribed with 
symbols of the two deities, and the formula of dedication is in nearly 
all cases the same. Judging from the style of the letters, the earliest 
tablets belong to the same period as the sacrificial tariffs 42-44 ; the 
latest of them must have been inscribed before the destruction of 
Carthage by the Romans in 146 B. c. They cover, therefore, a period 
of about 200 years. 

L. i. TO- See 3 2 n. ; in CIS i 401 ff. pN (possibly by acci- 
dent). fun A female deity, as appears from the title DS which is 

found occasionally (p. 131). The vast number of these tablets proves 
that her worship was popular, though not necessarily predominant, at 
Carthage ; it is to be noted that she always takes precedence of Ba'al- 
hamman in the formula of dedication l ; but we cannot say for certain 
that she was the chief deity of Carthage, the Satjuuv Kapx^SoviW (Polyb. 
vii 9 2). The etymology of the name is unknown ; prob. it is to be 
looked for in Libyan or N. African, rather than in Phoenician. Nor is 
the pronunciation certain ; Tanith is on the whole most likely 2 , but it 
may have been Tun(i)th if Twr/s, the town near Carthage, was named 
after the goddess. Outside Carthage and its dependencies in N. Africa 
she is not found ; the Sidonian called njJVny in an inscr. from Athens 
(CIS i 116) prob. had some connexion with Carthage. Tanith 

is never mentioned alone : in 45 i JJ272 follows, elsewhere 7JO JB. 
The latter title is generally taken to mean the face of Ba'al, a mythic 
phrase perhaps denoting the self-revelation of the divine nature, cf. 
OD Ex. 33 14 and VJQ ^D Is. 63 g; the manifestation of Ba'al, we 
may suppose, came to be regarded as a distinct deity, cf. f>y:i DB> 
5 1 8 . On the other hand, Rob. Smith explains Tanith with the 
Baal face, i. e. the bearded, androgynous goddess, and quotes in 
support the title pX? beside rm^ noticed above (R. of S. 459). 
The combinations Milk-'ashtart, Eshmun-'ashtart, Sed-tanith may 

1 In several insert, from Cirta (Constantine), e.g. those given in Corp. pp. 296 
and 365 and in Lidzb. Eph. i pp. 40 f., Ba'al-hamman comes before Tanith. 

2 Cf. TAINTIAA, said to have been found on a stone at Carthage, Corp. p. 288. 

48] Carthage 133 

imply the same idea *. The character and attributes of Tanith are 

obscure. Some of the symbols on these tablets seem to connect her 
with 'Ashtart, the crescent surmounting the full moon (very common), 
the star, the dove, the dolphin. Two tablets (CIS i 398. 419) show 
the figure of a sheep, which was sacred to 'Ashtart. The commonest 
symbol of all, the triangle crowned by a circle with horns bent out- 
wards, may belong either to Tanith or to Ba'al-hamman ; Rob. Smith 
(1. c.) thinks that the horns are sheep-horns, pointing to 'Ashtart again a . 
We have seen that Tanith is occasionally called Mother, and that she 
was prob. assimilated to Demeter (47 n.) ; but Cl.-Ganneau seems to 
go too far when he alleges, on this ground, that the worship of Tanith 
was of foreign and Sicilian origin (^/. i 149 ff.). Tanith, it is true, 
was rarely used in the composition of pr. names ; nJJTD 42 i. romx 
CIS i 247-249. rumuy ib. 116 are almost all the instances; and she 
has not yet been found in Garth, names transcribed into Gk. and Lat.; 
but this does not necessarily imply that her cult was foreign. The 
evidence, so far as it goes, suggests that Tanith was a native, possibly 
a pre-Carthaginian, deity, who, in the process of religious syncretism, 
so characteristic of the Semitic genius, was identified with various 
goddesses according to circumstances, with 'Ashtart, with Demeter, 
and with Artemis (CIS i 116 romay = 'ApTe/u&opos, from Athens). 
After the overthrow of Carthage, the Romans introduced the worship 
of Juno Coelestis (Virgo Coelestis, Coelestis) into the ruined city ; but 
we do not know that they intended thereby to identify Juno or 
Coelestis with Tanith s ; see 4 i n. 

L. 2. pn bjO Prob. the glowing B., see 37 4 . In these inscrr. he 
is always the TrapeSpos of Tanith. 

L. 5. N31T tib\> For the suff. 3 sing. m. cf. 40 2 . 

1 Meyer, Ency. Bibl. 374,7, after Halevy, explains "an JD as the name of a place, like 
bi:D in Gen. 32 32, ' TNT of Pne-ba'al,' and supports his view by CIS i 380 nnb Db 
Vjn JD ' to the mother, the mistress of Pne-ba'al ' (see p. 131). But the instance of bN'OD 
seems to be too isolated to justify the inference, and analogy favours treating l a?3 JE 
as in appos. to raib, rather than as a genit. On the whole the first explanation given 
above is to be preferred provisionally. 

8 Cf. Sanchuniathon ap. Phil. Bybl. Fr. Hist. Gr. iii 568 K.p6vy Si tfivovro dwo 
'AffTapn;? Ovfartpts lirra TiraviSes (? faviriSfs) f) 'AprtpiSts. The Persian or Babyl. 
'Avatns mentioned by Strabo pp. 439. 456 (codd. Tavdi'Sos). 479 &c. ed. Mull., by 
Berosus Fr. Hist. Gr. ii 498, and other writers, was prob. the Babyl. Anatum 
rather than the Carth. Tanith. 

8 In CIL viii 999 Dianae catl. aug. the Virgo Coelestis is identified with Diana, 
cf. Tanith- Artemis ; in iii 993 Caelesii Augustae et Aesculapio Augusta et genio 
Carthaginis et genio Daciarum, she is distinguished from \hegenius of Carthage, 
if that was Tanith. 

134 Punic [49 

49. Carthage. CIS i 269. Bibl. Nat., Paris. 

ts njn^ nai 1 ? i 
? pn hyzh 2 
na *jn na pw E>K NJ 3 

jnJW?K 4 

n^nnnip cy 5 

Render 11. 2-5 ' which Ba'al-hanno of Sidon, client of his 
lord, client of Eshmun-yathon, vowed. The people of Car- 

Twenty-four inscrr. of this type are given in the Corp., nos. 269- 
287. 288-293. 

L. 2. K3ni>ya As a rule the usual genealogy of the donor is not 
given in these inscrr., except in 271. '3 f. '7. '87. '91, where the father 
is mentioned. It appears that among the Semites, as among the Greeks 
and Romans, a slave was not allowed to have a genealogy, e. g. CIS 
i 236 'a nay, and 'a *nn na, na /reed-man, -woman in Nab. and Palm, 
inscrr. (147 ii b 12 ; p. 250 n. i), cf. Dn lb pK nay Talm. B. Qiddushin 
69 a; the same must have been the case with the ' dependent foreigner' 
(^3nK na) of these inscrr. ; Lidzb. 133 f. 

L. 3. pX t?N Not &K but the relat. B>N, because in four inscrr. 
(273. '9. '80. '81) a woman dedicates the tablet. All the tablets of 
this group are offered by Sidonians, who prob. occupied a subordinate 
position in Carth. households. For na see 6 2 n. >JnN With suff. 
3 sing, m.; in 276. 293 DJn, which must be the honorific plur. (cf. 
D^N 33 6 n.), as only one ' lord ' is mentioned. 

L. 5. The expression ' people of Carthage/ occurring here without 
any verbal connexion, is to be accounted for by the full term ni> 
'p 'y DOJP which is found elsewhere in this group, 270 ff. The meaning 
of the phrase is not certain, but it may be rendered 'let not the 
people of Carthage carry (it, i. e. the stone) away ' for building 
purposes. For the prohibitive D^ cf. 5 21, and for DEy carry cf. 5 6. 
Another explanation is suggested by Cl.-Gan., who renders dreA^s 
i. e. ' free from public burdens/ cf. immunis perpetuus CIL viii 2714, 
taking DDy as pass.; Rec. iii 2. This certainly suits such a case as 
274 new p Dyoi> pX t?N &nriN Bap i. e. ' Shafat the artisan, the 
Sidonian, tax-free (?), the son of Shisifam.' 




rby fry 

spaa ' 
DTK ^ n DN 
?M r 

50. Carthage, iii-ii cent. B. c. Discovered 1899. 

nin nn i 

O ladies Hawwath, Elath, Milkath . . ! 2 1, Masliah, bind 
Am-'ashtart 3 and *MRTH and all who belong to her ; for 
4 she exulted (?) over me in the matter of the money which 
I discharged (??) in full ; 5 or every man who has exulted (?) 
over me 6 in ... of this money, according to ... the lead. 

This inscr., found in the necropolis of Duimes at Carthage in 
1899, is written on a small sheet of lead. It was intended, like the 
Gk. and Roman tabellae devotionis 1 , to be a missive to the gods of 
the underworld, and to act as a spell or imprecation against the 
writer's enemies. These tabellae were rolled up and dropped down 
a tube, which was used also for libations to the dii inferi, into the 
sepulchre below. See Berger CR (1899) 173. 179-186 ; Cl.-Gan. Rec. 
iii 304-319; iv 87-97 ) Lidzb. Eph. i 26-34 (with facsimile); Rep. \ 
no. 1 8. See also Deissmann Bible Studies 273 ff. for a Jewish-Greek 
specimen of the third cent. A. D. 

L. i. nin Cf. O. T. njn Eve, which according to Noldeke and 
Wellhausen (see Oxf. Hebr. Lex. s. v.) meant originally serpent, cf. 
Arab, i^-, a suitable name for the goddess of the underworld, nta 
(see 6O 3 n.) and rota (in pr. nn., e. g. rD^Dn, 'OTay &c.) may be 
the names of infernal deities, forming with Din a triad ; so Cl.-Gan., 
Rec. iv 90, who compares the triple Hecate. Lidzb. takes roi>D r6 
as epithets of nin, goddess, queen, and nai as sing. KroD'tP After 

1 See Wiinsch Defixionum tabellae atticac (1897) in CIA appendix, and Michel 
nos. 1319-1325. The foil, is a specimen : Qtpfviieos irp&s rbv 'Ep/x^v jbv xQ6vu)v Kal 
T^V 'EKO.TIJV \6oviai' KarafieSfaOat' ro\qvt]v, T/TIS tytpfviKcai, KaraSfcu irpds 'Epfifjv 
XOovtiedv KOI ''Exarrfv x&ov'tay KaraStw Kal us OVTOS 6 P6\vfi8os dripo* Kal ^v\p6y, 

OVTOl fKfVOS KOI TCL (KfVOV &TlfJM KOI ifrVXJM fffTM Kal TOIS /MT* (KfVO & Vfpl tflO 

Kal /SoXtvowro, Wiinsch 107 = Michel 1824. Cf. Tacitus Ann. ii 69. 

136 Punic [50 

V a noun ought to follow; so Cl.-Gan. takes "]& as = Hebr. ^03, (this 
is that) which is the libation, the dropping of the tabella into the grave 
being equivalent to a libation. The explanation is forced, but no 
better one has been suggested. The reading N13D 11 (13D=13?), 
favoured by Lidzb., cannot be accepted. 

L. 2. *jnN Probably impf. i sing, from *pn, whence Heb. ?jn 


oppression, Aram. N3Jji, Arab. iXJ chain, bond, corresponding to the Gk. 

KaraSew bind with magic. r6tfD Pr. n. as in CIS i 1171 ; in 

form either Hif. or Piel ptcp. 

L. 3. my Possibly the name of another woman beside Am-'ashtart 
(Berger, Lidzb.), though N^> and why in the foil, clauses are sing. 
Cl.-Gan. takes moj? as an appellative, with some such meaning as 
, as in the Gk. formula KaraSo) TOV Seiva . . . xai TO epyeurn/- 
but in this case we should expect the possessive suffix. N3 

=<3, as in the inscrr. from Cirta, Costa 3 2 (Lidzb. p. 433) &c.; in 
NPun. fl3 and y3 (Schroder p. 264 f.). 

L. 4. svby Hebr. ^rejoice ; so here possibly she exulted over me, 
cf. Ps. 25 2 ^ "a^N fhy^ ta. Or perhaps the meaning may be 
attacked, cf. Arab. u e^e. iii come to blows. Lidzb. renders tormented, 
taking f^jj as = Hebr. pi?K Judg. 16 1 6, with y for K as in NPun. sp33 
tbv nm3K B>K So Cl.-Gan. In the inscr. E>N is written over the line, 
prob. because it was accidentally left out after ^033. The meaning 
I have discharged (nmilN Hif. pf. i sing, of PH3 \\\..flee) is conjectural, 
but not impossible \ Lidzb. reads nc&X nn"O NBD33 by her sorcery 
by the spirits of darkness; P]D3 he supposes to = Hebr. *|EO, and B>K 
he takes up into 1. 3. This is very improbable; the Phoen. D=Hebr. 
fe> not E>. Money matters are frequently the occasion for these 
imprecations in Gk. tabellae. 

L. 5. DN or, cf. 5 7 n. 

L. 6. The line should prob. begin with a noun + 3, ? flTU, following 
the construction '3 Tl^V Nvi>y 1. 4. n?D3 It is not certain 

whether there was a letter between D and n; 1TTO3 42 17 might 
be read, at any rate 3 according to is certain. mayx ^ the 

'libation' of the lead (Cl.-Gan.). 7 N=n art.; the change is prob. due to 
the y following. Lidzb. suggests 'K ^]??*n t**]' 03 as *he lead is moulded ; 
but the Nif. form is improbable. 

1 Cf. Talm. Jer. Git. V 47 a p ir?y rvan m fNi wown p insy rmao DTH 
poibtonrr ' a man tries to discharge himself from an oath, but he does not try to dis- 
charge himself from a payment ' ; Levy NHWB s.v. rna. 

61] Cirta 137 

51. Cirta (Constaniine). Costa 8. 


p rti&n TO &x TO a 
DTD D-iyaa DIX */?& SM p 3 


The inscriptions from Cirta, now Constantine, date from the period 
before the Roman occupation. The writing belongs to the stage of 
transition from the Punic to the Neo-Punic script, and many words 
begin to assume forms which are characteristic of the later language. 
Thus the quiescent letters come into use, but not to such an extent as 
in Neo-Punic, e. g. i>jn jya for '3 ja, 3 = '3 sometimes written N3 
or ro. A preference is shown for strong gutturals, e.g. niDK> beside 
NOfc? and yK>, N3-in3 for N313 \ The form of the suff. 3 m. sing. 
is undecided, thus a^D Costa 18 for vcbo, rp for N^p, N^TD for 
N313. mnpjns is written '{J>y3, and run sometimes TUT) i.e. Tainith 
or T^neth. Specimens of these inscrr. are given in the Corp. p. 365, 
by Berger Actes du n" 1 * congres des Or. (1897) 4, 273-294, and by 
Lidzb. 433 f., Eph. \ 38 ff. In general form they resemble the Carth. 
votive tablets, but differ from them mainly in two respects : the formula 
of dedication is not so stereotyped 2 , Ba'al-hamman generally takes 
precedence of Tanith, and often is named alone ; notices of time and 
place are introduced more frequently. 

L. 3. DIN I^D is evidently the title of a petty king or local 
chieftain; cf. Costa 100 D"iy^3 DIN " pPK*ny p }JO. The year 
of the king's reign is sometimes given, e. g. Costa 1 8 ... 7J?3JnD 

ib. 98 *M? [rot?] DK>ra . . . bynnry ; Villefosse 69 
njai[M] .". . rnnvyra. In some inscrr. DTK i^>o 

is the title, not of the king, but of the deity, e. g. Costa 93 i?yi^ pl6 
D1K ^D jon; Villefosse 69 DJ13 DIW DnN ^D ^O ja 'nh 'n '3^ 'N^; 
cf. Altiburus 2 (/^4 viii t. 9. 467) D[T]N "J^D by3[^> pN^]. The meaning 
of DTK is obscure. It can hardly be 'lord,' a variant of pN, because 

1 Costa 75 rr 1 ^ ntwn* rcnm )[n]o p nabon p 2 [3]fe -n: tc jnn ^a 1 ? pnb. 

2 Note the variations in Costa 31 pn ton 3ipM ^n 1 ? pub ; 16 jnn feab fM pb ; 
33 pan ^i p byib p^ ; 22 to JD nrrt nnbi TIN to 1 ? pub. jX p to, TIN to are 
not different deities, but divine names regarded as equivalents of jon to. Berger 
I.e. 282. 

1 38 Punic [52 

this word occurs previously in the dedication. Perhaps 
"l?. 'king of the land'; so Lidzb. I.e. DfO D"W3 is clearly 

the name of a place, perhaps of Cirta, as the inscrr. come from there, 
or of a city dependent on Cirta ; besides the inscrr. quoted above, cf. 
Costa 17 DfO DIBa jn i?ja!>. A group of 13 inscrr. from Carthage, 
CIS i 294-306, contains the expression in various forms, DfD Diytf3, 
myBQ, DIED, "Jjraa, ntJO &c., used apparently of a native of Cirta (?) 
resident in Carthage, but what the words exactly mean is not known. 
The name D"W possibly=D' l iy^ gates 1 , and may refer to the ravines 
and passes of the hills in the neighbourhood of Cirta, which stood on 
the S. of the range which stretches across the country west of Carthage. 
This country was known to the Romans as the land of the Massylii, 
a Numidian kingdom, one of whose kings, Massinissa, figured pro- 
minently in the Second Punic War (218-201 B. c.), and died (148 B.C.) 
just before the destruction of Carthage. The seat of his kingdom was 
Cirta 2 ; but that the DTK *J^D of these inscrr. was a predecessor of 
his we cannot say. 

L. 4. An interesting variation of the formula occurs in Costa 6 3 f . 
Tin DU D?K] Dp DU tOia vb\> yB> 3 i. e. ' because he heard his 
voice (and) blessed him on a good day, on the day when he blessed ' ; 
cf. Is. 49 8. 

52. Thugga. Brit. Mus., Semitic Room nos. 494-495. 

p p-rcay D:DNE> man a 

n&&3> p p&K p "1&T 3 

PDTI p ^fc 4 
. {OBI TT . . . . vhw - rnTNii 5 
JEW . . hiQb - TB> Dfcnnn 6 

p M ^S p &5K> hrbV D3MP1 7 

1 In a Lat. inscr. of 48-49 A. D. lately excavated at Thugga the sentence occurs : 
huic senatus et plebs ob merita patris omnium portarum sententis ornam(enta) 
sufetis gratis decrevit. Possibly the Pun. iorportae would be Diyc?, as in these inscrr. 
from Cirta. Cl.-Gan. Rec, iii 325 .; Lidzb. Eph. i 53. 

3 Strabo p. 706 ed. Mull. Klprarf iariv kv pfao-faiq, rh Maaav&aaov Kal ruv fffjs 
&aaiXtiov, ir6\ts fixpHeffraTrj KM aTcrvo<r/xt>Tj aXa)s rots irdffi, Kal 
virb Mi/n'^a K.T.X. Polyb. xxxvii 3. 




This inscr. is bilingual, Punic and Berber. It was written on the 
E. side of a mausoleum discovered among the ruins of the ancient 
city of Tucca (Thugga) in Eastern Numidia; see Schrod. 257. The 
Pun. characters closely resemble those of 38. The monument was 
built evidently for a Numidian person of consequence, and the inscr. 
gives the names of the masons, carpenters (?), and iron-founders who 
erected it. 

L. i. )3DNB> mVD For the relat. in this connexion cf. 

the urn of the bones of Y. Lidzb. 435; and in Palm. cf. 141 
fin N"Qp. The use of the relat. B> in this inscr. is remark- 
able; it has quite taken the place of the genit.; see 39 2 n. pDX 
This and the other pr. nn. in the inscr. (exc. in 11. 2. 7) are Berber; 
their pronunciation and significance are unknown. 

L. 2. DJ3NB> DJ3H the builders of the stones, cf. 20 A 4. Three 
chief masons are mentioned in 11. 2-4 and their assistants in 

1. 5. rnntmy . . . sjnxny for mntryny . . . en&nny (45 7). 

L. 4. poll The prefix as in {Dill 55 7. 

L. 5. mmil Prob. for mryni and with the help of, cf. mtNn DN 
14 3 n. (?) . . vbw The first letter is prob. the relat. 

L. 6. Dtnnn the workmen, cf. 20 A 13. "pp Possibly =nyn? of 

wood; cf. St. Aug. on Ps. 123 'quod Punici dicunt lar, non lignum, 
sed quando dubitant'; see Schrod. 19. 

L. 7. i>n:iB> MDJn the metiers, founders, of iron, cf. CIS i 67 4 f. 
and ib. 327 ff. pnn 1D3. V?! Pr. n., as in 55 5. 


The Neo-Punic inscrr. belong to the period extending from the 
destruction of Carthage (146 B.C.) prob. down to the first cent. A. D. 
They come from ancient sites in Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli, countries 
which were formerly under the dominion of Carthage or in alliance 
with her. The change from the Pun. to the NPun. writing began, 
no doubt, in Carthage itself; it was accelerated when the Pun. 
characters were adopted by neighbouring populations of a different 
race (e.g. the Numidians). Outside N. Africa, NPun. inscrr. have 
been found in Sardinia (60) and Sicily (CIS i 134). In appearance 
they are very different from the Punic inscrr. of the preceding age ; 
the character of the writing and language shows how great had been 
the break with the past. So long as Carthage stood, national instinct 
cherished the preservation of the Phoen. mother-tongue; but under 
the domination of Rome there was not the same interest in keeping up 
the old tradition. A more cursive form of writing was adopted for 
greater ease and rapidity. A few letters, like B, D, y, 3, are little 
changed ; 3, 1, 3 are as a rule indistinguishable, being represented by 
mere strokes ; 3, 3, n are generally much alike ; while K, H, n, D, W 
become greatly debased. Thus the reading of these inscrr. is often 
uncertain and difficult, and the difficulty is increased by the arbitrary 
and irregular nature of the spelling. The use of K and y as vowel- 
letters is a characteristic feature, y=<?, and N often 6 or *Z, e. g. nwyB> 
53 2 ; these letters often take the place of n and n, e. g. "Ops 
for 13pn, yiy for Nin 58 7. 3 ; while there seems to have been a 
preference for y over K, e. g. py for pK, yiy for Niy, yjyt3 for NJyt3 58, 
but D1B>K for DlB>y ib. The only inscr. which throws much light on 
contemporary history is that of Micipsa (57). How long the NPun. 
speech lasted is not exactly known; it was spoken by the common 
people in the time of St. Augustine (see Schrb'd. 36) ; but long before 
that Latin had taken its place for purposes of writing. 





53. Tunis. NPun. 123. CIL viii 793. Berlin. 

Dis manib\us\ sacr\um\. Gadaeus Felicis fil\ius~\ plus 

vi^it\ annis LXVI hie sit\us~\ est. 
Secunda Secundi fil\ia\ v\ixit\ a\nnis\ 
Saturio et Gadaeus patri piissimo posuerunt. 

N^pK JJ^Flfi P ^ fi P WBH J 

n]xi^ my 2 

yiy *[n]&?K jnipp ra y 3 

Jifc DPIJJDK 1 ? tfSnS 4 

mprjh . y 5 

jny ^m^^^n^rihn 6 

.. y. ... yn 7 

. . &bn 

Gadai, son of Felix, son of FHI/N Aquila (?), 2 lived sixty 


and six years. And Secunda, daughter of Secunda, his wife, 
lived years. 4 Saturio and Gadai made it, a grave for 

their father deceased (?) . 5 ... 6 ... lived ... 7 ... Saturio . . . 
the grave, in peace. 

L. i. 'y[n]s Restored from the Latin ; cf. the Pun. name H3 CIS 
i 300 5. ata Again CIS i 151 (Sardinia, NPun.). CL-Gan. 

reads D3?S, cf. 54 2 ft. 

L. 2. nN}yB>=rui? plur.; see 6 i n. 

L. 3. yiy Pf. 3 sing. m.=tfin. The number of years is left a blank, 
intended to be filled up after the mother's death. 

L. 4. si>n2=^ya, Euting ZDMG xxix (1875) 235 f. The termina- 
tion of the 3 plur., however, is not usually written, and the N may be 
the suff. 3 sing, m., cf. KTU 55 i. &6ya 57 n. N^QT 4O 2 &c.; the 
suffix will then anticipate the obj. "Op. Dnjy3xi> is apparently a 

unique form for the usual DJ3N^ ; cf. the 3 plur. m. sufF. with the verb 

142 Neo-Punic 

in Mandaic, pn^BKa^ ; Noldeke Mand. Gr. 203. 
ptcp. of m, but the reading is perhaps fD. 

L. 6. Euting 1. c. reads at the beginning K^riD D3nro their house (i.e. 
grave) they made ; but 'jn may be read n. 

54. Tunis. NPun. 66. 

ro wjf?wwi& T p 

p jynwor nt?K rn 2 
:iE> Mm o^naan 3 
map rir p nnn n^y nan 4 

This stone is set up to Ahath-milkath, daughter of Bo'- 
melqarth, wife of Y'S'TH'N, son of She'lidi, the citizen of 
Makta'rim : and she lived sixty and five years. She is laid to 
rest (?) ? under this stone she is buried (?). 

This is one of four inscrr., NPun. 66. 67. 68. 69, which follow 
the same type. They are given by Schrod. 271 f. 

L. i. tUB Qal .ptcp. pass.. ro^nnns Again in NPun. 68 i ; cf. 
the forms nation n, natan, and see 40 2 n. mpi>jn for 'ens ; 

so in Pun., Euting Carth. no. 15, cf. 'D3 NPun. 86 (Schrod. 267). 

L. 2. jynNVy Cf. }J?nDS}> 65 4. According to the facsimile, the 
N here is not quite in the usual form ; it may be 3, in which case 
fyrOtfy will be the same name as JjmatW in NPun. 68 and the bilin- 
gual 69 = IASVCTA in the Lat. transcription. iOliw So NPun. 

69, transcribed SELIDIV (genit.) ; in 59 B 2 f. tfn^D. Cl.-Gan., Rec. 
iii 333 n -> reads W here and t in nt 1. 4 as D. D"wrocn i>jn So in 

NPun. 67. 69. For ^j?3 citizen see 10 3 n. Under the Romans Maktar 
(now j*) appears as Colonia (or civitas) Aelia Aurelia Mactaris or 
Mactaritanorum, cf. CIL viii 677 (as rest.) &c. Maktar is in the 
neighbourhood of Thugga (52), and has yielded a good many NPun. 
inscrr., see 59, and Schrod. 65 f. 

L. 3. '131 Kirn Cf. 53 2. 3. 

L. 4. The words of this line are repeated with unimportant varia- 
tions in each of the inscrr. of this group. Their precise meaning is 
not clear. If the forms JVDp . . . J132V rDJH are verbs, they may be 
pass. perf. 2 sing. fern. It is possible that fDJn may be connected with 



V niJ rest, cf. nnj 16 2 ; the interchange of n with 3, though ques- 
tionable in Phoen. (38 6 .), is less unlikely in NPun. ; Schrod., 203, 
thus renders ihou art laid to rest (^l^ Hof.). rmy in NPun. would 
naturally be a variation of ruiK ; Schrod. suggests that it is a denomi- 
native from pN, thou art covered with a stone (^j^V Pual). Another 
interpretation (Ewald) is thou art shrouded, covered, cf. the Arab. c jo. 
fold or hide in agarment, so *^y^ t:;"X he is dead. This is very uncertain. 
n~Qp is explained as=J!n3i?; but in each case it is doubtful how 
the form is to be taken. nf pN or no Contrast T p 1. i, and 

see p. 26, add. note ii. 

144 Neo-Punic [55 

55. Altiburus (Med&na). NPun. 124. Louvre. 

p E>::D nTpterop KTO &>K v& snarbao pn 

w p mai *j? p 
p im y? p bprrxi JQD p njHjn pw p 

^ rttion Dram xanDib p jNMDjn JjntD^ p oAyn Rtt 1 ? p 
p nan ^ n^ ma rm Qjnpa n^ |aoi rwca paw 

p io.w ^na p inTjri Dir p 
obp y^ *o B^TM p join pn hyzb pa pby^ 103 

To the lord Ba'al-hamman in Altiburus: the vow made 
by * Abd-melqarth KNS, son of KNS >C N . . . 2 Ma'rish, son of 
TBRSN, and STMN, son of YKSLTHN, and MSHB', son of Lil/l, 
and GGM, son of SSl'TH, and 3 M'GM', son of TBRSN, and 
Y'SMZGR, son of SBG, and Idni-ba'al, son of YLL, and GZR, 
son of KNZRMN, and Ma'rish, 4 son of LBU', and z'LGM, son of 
STW'N, and Y'ST'N, son of MSHB', and their colleagues the 
\miz\r\aJi\\ and 6 NSMRN(?), son of 'TH (?), and 'ISFN were 
over the sanctuaries ; in the month KRR, the year of Balal the 
sacrificer, son of . . GT'N, under (?) 6 the suffetes MSHB', son 
of YZRM, and 'Azru-ba'al, son of Barik, and S . KSLN, son of 
z'ZBL, and MBIU the augur, who 7 was over the priests of 
Neitman (?) ; and the priest of Ba'al-hamman (being) WRWSN, 
son of Arish ; because he heard their voice and blessed them. 



Jol (Shershel i) 


68. Jol (Shershel 1). NPun. 130. Louvre. 

rip m rattan n MO rnnanayj w*6 K . . 
fot Sys K>N nnK ruiynS afc6 Spiiy p pp*ray a 
jp Spnnp T^n Sp-iry xhw BWI D'nnS 3 
rrinb 1 ? -lawKi DE>an iw mp 1 ? KEN 4 
KTPKI *ortan . N-iara 5 


The memorial ... to the woman ..... The pillar was set 

up by Rosh, daughter 2 of c Abd-eshmun, son of 'Azru-ba'al, to 
her mother T'WNTH, after that a monument (?) had been made 
3 for the living by her husband * Azru-ba'al . . . Shahar-ba'al, 
son of SQLN (?), * his (?) mother, to minister (?) fifty years in 
the island of Hashbar (?)... prescribed 6 and observed (?).... 

and the island of Dara (?)-. ten (?) 6 ...... she who is laid 

to rest, being eighty years old. 

L. i. 13D See 9 6 n. The word which follows may be tf-Q, but 
no suitable meaning can be found for it. nDJJJ Perhaps the good; 

the foil, letters may be read mno (Derenbourg, Comptes Rendus(\'&*i) 
259 ff., translates intelligent, lit. quick rr^r^)^ mno, or DPID. MB 
Qal pf. 3 sing. fern. n=JVK Cf. 57 3. 60 3 f. JUMO Cf. 

CIS i 159 i=m0 15 i. en Here fern.; in 41 2 the name is 

mas. ny3=ra. 

L. 2. KCK^ = ITON!>; i?ya Qal p f. 3 sing. mas. jyfa 

Perhaps=P*if 2 K. 23 17; but the reading is uncertain. 

L. 3. avfib Apparently =D^ ; c f. njnn^=njnb 57 7. Tiaini>=nn"b 

60 3, for, i.e. among, the living, cf. DTQ H3VO 18 i n. K>xn Subj. 

of by* 1. 2. vb*mffy -\0*. cf. 57 7. 9 f. (mas.). -frn Reading 
and sense doubtful. byi~\f\W it-horn B. seeks ; cf. nnriB> i Ch. 8 

26. }JJ3=p. f?p& Apparently a pr. n., as in NPun. 76 5. 

L. 4. The meaning of this and the foil, lines cannot be made 
out. Neither Euting, ZDMG xxx (1876) 285 f., nor Derenbourg, 
1. c., has anything satisfactory to propose. NDX Apparently = 

tf. me6 ? Piel inf.; mv 1 ? may be read. DKTT'JO, 

like KTPN 1. 5, has been taken as the name of an island ('); cf. 

L a 




39 i. Derenbourg explains "D^n as = 'Eorrcpa, which he sup- 
poses was the name of a small island in the lake Tritonis with a 
temple of Aphrodite upon it, near the harbour of Hesperides in 
Cyrene, mentioned by Strabo p. 710, ed. Mull. FTtfxh for the 

cleansing (Derenb.) ; but this meaning is doubtful. 02033, like 

xnDB>31 1. 5 and nZDPJn 1. 6, appears to be a Nif. form. 

L. 5. Derenb. reads K3p ' J1NT N~IB01 and translates and she is 
kept from seeing the waters of Qana; but DtO is uncertain, and 
Wp ID may=n3pO(Lidzb.). mB>y Meaning doubtful: ten does 

not suit the context. 

L. 6. nMBOn Cf. natttD of the grave, 5 4 n. T\V is sing., 

1. 4 plur.; see 6 i n. 

67. Jol (Shershel 2). Louvre. 

njnn 1 ? . 

. . . aray p 

. . nr 


NOM . . . 
s tfthy 
. r6 n . . 



p JW5^ p 4 

YD ^T 5 
ni 6 
. n 7 



L. i. DN3p K>"Tp>D sanctuary of QN'M', cf. the beginning of 42. 
occurs again in NPun. 2 (Lidzb. 434) DN3p$> fjnn npj ^ya 
l Mdqar the sculptor (?) OTflfi?!? (/Aw) _/br ^AT'^f a</ yi>r his 
brothers (or /z/^?). Berger suggests that DN3p is the Egypt, deity 
Hnum (Inscr. ne'op. de Cherchell (1889) 3 f.); but the opinion of 
Egyptologists is against the identification. DTI TJ the life of 

57] Jol (Shershel 2) 149 

life; cf. BT! ty T\yh 28 I. QS>PD *]!> JTS3D Mikipzan, king \ 

of the Massilians, i. e. of Numidia ; for the pr. n. in J 7 dn see 55 i . 
This can be none other than the Micipsa who appears in the history 
of the Roman occupation of Carthage. He was the third son of 
Massinissa (51 3 .), and succeeded to the kingdom after the pre- 
mature death of his two elder brothers. An illegitimate son of his 
was the notorious Jugurtha (John of Antioch Fr. Hist. Gr. iv 560 ; 
Diod. Sic. xxxiv 35). The seat of his kingdom was Cirta, but he was 
buried at or near Jol 1 , where this inscr. was found; it must have 
been set up shortly after his death in 118 B.C. This reference to 
a historical personage, whose date can be fixed, is unique among the 
NPun. inscrr. at present known. A specimen of Numidian coinage 
of this period, in the British Museum, bears on the obverse the 
letters }D, on the reverse nn, i.e. possibly rD^DOn ftDD Mikipzan 
the king*; so Berger, 1. c. 10, who gives an illustration of the coin. 

L. 2. ^BH Lit. who is to be extolled, an epithet of the king, 
probably Pual ptcp. 7?.^. In Hebr. ^ is used in Hif. to 
howl. 'T 'N nt^D sovereign of broad lands ; IB^D Piel ptcp. 

of -|B, or perhaps from 1"IP. ntfatao = fl^OD prince ; see 

3 2 n. DJJJ 3B*n who devises good; cf. the Gk. title Efyienjs. 

L. 3. The previous clause from JTMB is a casus pendens, resumed 
by N^=i!> : Mikipzan . . . to him Faazam set up this statue. n=rVN 
56 i n. {?N Cf. 60 4, where the Lat. version gives statuam. KKKD 
CIS i 151 2 is apparently the same word; the etymology is un- 
known. N13p his grave. The three letters preceding are vby 
? over him. The erection of a statue (if the rendering be correct) over 
a grave was unusual; Berger compares CIL viii 211 30 statuam posuit 
(over a mausoleum), but notices that the stone which bears the inscr. 
does not look as if it had once formed the base of a statue. 

L. 4. JT3TD Possibly the Pun. form of the name Massinissa, written 
ItfarwtD on coins. D^N Dp'D A title found in CIS i 227. 260-262 &c. 
and in a new Carth. inscr., Re'p. i no. 13 ; it is prob. the equivalent of 
praetor sacrorum, praefectus sacrorum in Lat. inscrr. 

L. 5. In this and the foil, lines only a word here and there can be 
translated. XDn may = NODN which seems to be a pr. n. in 

CIS i 151 3. 

1 The burial-place of the Numidian princes was in the neighbourhood of Jol ; 
Pomponius Mela i 6 30-1 lol ad mare aliquando ignobilis, nunc quia lubae regia fait 
et quod Caesarea vocitatur illustris . . . ultra monumentum commune regiae gentis. 

* Cf. the legend on coins of Juba rotoon 'yav or rotoort we, of Eocchus 
cpi, and of Syphax roboon pED (Berger L c.). 

Neo- Punic [58 

L. 6. Byron rn = o^nan DNI. KD ? = '?. 

during his life-time (Berger) ; but the form is uncertain. 

L. 7. thy ? eternity. nynrft Cf. 56 3 n., 1 for the good pleasure 

which was his ; see 33 4. 

L. 9. xm ? his chief. JM3 Din ^33 ? t&rHa^ a// the life of his 

son (Berger). 

L. 10. Dpron ? the inscriptions, from ppn. 

L. ii. The name of the artist who made it. 

58. Gelma. NPun. 24. Louvre. 

T py i 

y 3 

I 4 

pjp pywa n^ 5 

This stone is set up to SBLTH, daughter of Ma'lal; she lived 
twenty-five years ; wife of MSIK'THN, son (?) of BNRl'L. 

L. i. py=pK, see p. 140. yJVt3=N3yo Qal. ptcp. pass. 

L. 2. r&3B> Perhaps=mr of wheat, Gen. 41 5 ff. yiy=Nin, cf. 


L. 4. K>Dyi D1B'N=tWm D"15^y. 

L. 5. [}]a jnya^tTD So Lidzb.; but Schroder p. 270 reads hnyanyo, 
and shows n in the facsimile, xvii 8. 

L. 6. i>y-m If Schroder's reading is followed, this will be i>yn p. 

59. Maktar. Discovered 1892. 



pD NJI crx nnS t^^ mion i 

nay ^N nyn^ nrnz: o^np njns 2 



1 5 1 

m&y 3 

aioa oat? nnx nNB> &>Tpn nSxS 4 
rmn Sp 02? |n wa -i&n -/?& 5 

Dn-n:i S; 6 

oSy nS . Dn n^on . . . :ha Sao 7 
nyn . . . HDII-INI n^n pap m s 
ax . py Si . ND^ Dn pbx NB^NI 9 
jiv jnwSi jnjn pn ^ 10 






p ^abno 
p ^aabno 20 pSs p 
p Dnsyp 21 nSpoya p 
p Syajna 22 p^oSo p 


p Nfiii 23 
nip p bjainb 24 
. yaia p jn^p 25 
. . p p roDr 26 

an 16 



152 Neo-Punic [69 

viii vii 

p NPp 33 PIN p ^JP 27 

34 ^So p by^nfc 28 

p rnp^^TDy 35 * . .*! p NtDD'JiDN^ 29 

p Dinsyt? 36 N/bfcjny/5 p yj . ^ 30 

p xoyi 37 nSpoyD p ^So 31 

p Wl . . 38 N&?")N p . . . K 32 

x ix 

p Nbyjftn 45 IJDI p Syn^ii 39 
* p jyanT^ 46 ^trSyn p S:3 . DD 40 
p ny^iaiy 47 jn^jo p jyn^D* 41 

p yD^Sy^ 42 

i p SyMni 44 

The mizrak of ... which built sanctuary, courts, 2 also a 
chamber (?) for the holy things, lights (?), these columns (?) 
at the side of (?) 3 a rich cornice (?), for themselves and their 

people (?) who dwell in the land : 4 To the holy god 

6 Milk-ba^ar-miskar, prince of the seas(?), lord of terror. 
6 Upon ... I, Yathan- . . wrote it ... 


12 Names of the mizrah which 13 defrayed the offering. 
14 Read them from top to bottom (?) 15 .... help. 

This and the two following inscrr., B and C, were discovered in 
1892 on the walls of a temple at Maktar (54 2). They were first 
published by Berger MJmoire sur la grande inscription dedicaioire . . . 




a Maktar (1899); they have been treated also by Lidzbarski Eph. \ 
45-52 (1900), by Cl.-Gan. JRec. iii 57 and 3 (1900), and by Hale'vy 
Rev. Se'm. ix (1901) 268-287. The great inscription (A) consists of 
ten columns, and falls into two parts : (i) Coll. i and ii, the dedication 
of the temple and its appurtenances, (2) Coll. iii-x, the names of those 
who took part in the dedication. The writing of this inscr. is, on the 
whole, clear and well preserved ; but the meaning of Coll. i and ii is 
exceedingly obscure. It is noteworthy that the letters 3, 1, "\ are 
written almost in their ancient form. Inscr. A probably belongs to 
an earlier date than B and C. 

L. i. rnnon 11. 12. 16. C i. The word has been met with already 
in 42 1 6. 55 4. From this inscr. it is clear that the mizrah or mazrak 
was some kind of local council or association, in this case consisting 
of 32 members, including a president (mtD 3~\ 1. 16). It was cer- 
tainly a native institution, no doubt tolerated under the Roman domi- 
nation ; Cl.-Gan, suggests that its nearest equivalent in Latin would 
be curia or ordo decurionum, terms which occur in the inscrr. from 
N. Africa, 1. c. 3. In each instance the mizrah is mentioned in 
connexion with some religious act ; so it may have been a religious 
rather than a secular association. fTW-Wt of DRTH, perhaps 

a technical term describing the mizrah, ? of the habitations, cf. Arab. 
*13 house, Is. 38 12. If rm were the name of a place (Lidzb. I.e., cf. 
"1N*1 5 19), we should expect the simple prep. 2 rather than 7 B>N ; 
cf. 24 2 n. rmn Prob. plur. abs. To construe rTOH as a genit. 

after tjnpD would not make good sense ; the two words are to be 
taken curuvSeTws. Cf. nvn 33 2 f. 

L. 2. nans Lidzb. suggests that B = *|K, as tJ>=B>X, and n=n i| N in 
NPun. Then run (cf. p. 337) may =nn j rVwn cells Jer. 37 16, as having 
an arched or curved roof; cf. Aram. Jl'cui vaulted room, */ run = lit. 
bend, curve. Hence DEHp 71311 may mean a vaulted chamber for the 
sacred vessels. nm Perhaps = njno light, window i K. 7 

4 f. As the previous words seem to denote parts of the sanctuary, 

Cl.-Gan. renders nyntP pillars, Hebr. nin^, and ny?N porches, propyla, 
cf. Hebr. D^K. In the case of the last word, however, the rendering 
is made doubtful by the fact that there is a space on the stone before 
and after ?tf (facsimile in Berger 1. c.) ; hence Lidzb. renders nmD 
noy ?N nynB> a place for the auspices (?) of Tat, the god of the community. 
He takes nyn as = run rather than the Egypt. Thoth (Berger), and 

for ny compares CIS i 263 mnpy [K' II N=] ETC noya B>N. 264 oyn B>N 
mp?D m. It may be doubted whether nyn could be substituted for 

154 Neo-Punic [59 

the familiar run. Taking nynt? as = pillars, it is possible that 7K = 
these and noy = beside, Hebr. ntsyp, cf. Ex. 25 27. i K. 7 20. Eze. 
40 1 8. The deity to whom the dedication is made does not appear 
till 1. 4. 

L. 3. DK-ns mDJJ a crown of splendour or a splendid cornice ; cf. 
' cum ornamentis suis ' in Lat. inscrr. from this region. NDyh N^> 

The suffixes may refer to mfDn,/0r themselves and their people, cf. 'ad 
ornandam patriam ' in N. African inscrr., or to noy 7X nyn if these 
words contain the name of a goddess. noiN In this connexion pis 
might be expected. 

L. 4. BH'pn D^ t the holy god = t^lgn DNT^N? ; the god of the 
sanctuary would be tnpnn >K, cf. BHpK }^N^ Costa 31 (Constantine) 
in Eph. i p. 39 ; see 33 6 n. No certain meaning can be given 

to the words which follow. DDK* may = heaven. The last word of the 
line is prob. 31D3. The distinction between D and X (mxn 1. 1. 2 1. 9. 
pn 1. 10) is clear in this inscr. ; see 65 i n. 

L. 5. "OD'D iBn "]ta The name of the deity to whom the sanctuary 
was dedicated. The deity seems to have been a compound one (cf. 
mntyyaJJO 10 3), formed out of Punic and Egyptian elements, Milk- 
heft ar-miskar. The temple of "ODD nan is mentioned in CIS i 253 f. 
IBH is the Egypt, god Hathor, and 1DDD is either an Egypt, word or 
Punic ; see Tin. The epithets of the deity describe him as DC^ JP 
i.e. ruler of the seas or days (IP Jud. 5 3. Ps. 2 2 &c.) and rmn ^jn 
i.e. lord of lerror(s\ A Lat. dedication to Saturn has been found in 
the temple near to this inscr. ; and it is not unlikely that Milk-hatar- 
miskar was a deity with the same character and attributes as Saturn. 
A number of votive steles to Ba'al-hamman, found at Maktar, 
exhibit the fish in various forms, pointing to the worship of a marine 

L. 6. Dm3J i>y ? meaning. After a a letter has been erased on the 
stone. The words which follow may be a remark of the mason: 

TQnya prob. = ^ana ; . . jry (? 'run 11 ) is perhaps a pr. n. nyat?, as 

in 1. n, is separated by a space; its meaning is not apparent. Lidzb. 
suggests B> + J1JD agreement, order ; see 42 i n. 

Column ii is exceedingly obscure. It seems to specify the dedica- 
tion of an image of the god. 

L. 7. The first word is clearly i>DD image, statue ; Cl.-Gan., however, 
suggests that it = $>Nofe> on the left. . . . ilD Cf. the pr. nn. 

beginning with no, TOIO, WnB 19 3 n. The next two words possibly 
= DO TOPI kind, perfect, a description of the god, to which D7y, or 
D^yN, of the world, may also belong. nay is perhaps the first part 

59] Maktar 155 

of a pr. n. ; there seems to be a trace of letters after it in the fac- 
simile. Lidzb. thinks that the particulars of the dedication of the ?DD 
begin here ; Cl.-Gan. reads "uyD ?y on the west. 

L. 8. TV Perhaps a verb, brought down (Ifil) ; pya in the valley ; 
rhn ? = n?n tablets of stone (Ex. 34 i &c.), or planks of wood (Ex. 27 
8 &c.), GI plates of metal (i K. 7 36), in a collective sense. Cl.-Gan. 
takes TV as Qal ptcp., and, following out his view of the general 
sense, thinks that pya TV refers to a part of the temple which 
'descended into the valley.' He makes a new clause begin with 
r6n. nDIHNI ? the same word as the obscure nn 45 4, which is 

some part of a temple. miN nyn. ?='N nyne> (1. 2) splendid 

pillars (?). 

L. 9. Nt5>X1 his or her head, or capital? 

L. 10. Cl.-Gan. reads pin B> my *)n, and supposes that the words 
refer to ' overlaying with gold.' He compares the biblical nan 2 Ch. 
3 5 ff., and my in 3 5. piyT 'n The rendering gold of the daric ; 

cf. DJ3YT (for D3C3 Yl) 33 3, i. e. gold of standard quality, is pro- 
nounced impossible by experts in ancient coinage ; see Lidzb. Eph. 
i 177. 

L. ii. pya . . . p^3 ? we have finished (Piel) . . . we have made; 
Hale'vy renders ' we have finished our work with happiness of heart 
(ph 10K21). By Yathon. Shib'ath.' JrV2 The word n3 house is 

not written with the vowel letter in Pun. nyat? 1. 6 n. 

L. 13. NDI^N Berger explains by the Arab. +j>\ largiri, they paid 
the cost of\ this makes good sense. nniDiin i. e. nmn n^N. 

L. 14. Kip Prob. imperat. D? i.e. nxot? 1. 12; Hal. takes 

D? as=nDp what. NflD X7yD Lit. upwards, downwards (?), NnD ? = 
Hebr. ntSD ; cf. 5 n f. According to Hal. sno = KnKD ; he renders 
the line, ' Read what has been adduced (lit* brought) above.' 

L. 15. n"lD7 Lit. according to the measure (?). mtyo Apparently 
a noun from ity help. 

Columns iv-x. A list of the members of the mizrah, headed 
by the president (1. 16). The names are mostly Numidian; some ; 
are Punic, some Latin. The Latin names, it will be noticed, belong 
to the sons, the native ones to the fathers. This no doubt indi- 
cates that the younger generation was fast becoming latinized, 
a process which has become complete in other NPun. inscrr. from 't*^ 
Maktar, where the Latin names are followed by a Latin genea- 
logy, e. g. Marcus son of Gaius Canuleius, Publius son of Valerius 
Nobilis ; these last belong, therefore, to a later age. With regard to 
the Numidian names, the pronunciation of which is in most cases 

156 Neo-Punic [59 

unknown, the sibilant D is characteristic, and the endings dn and ath ; 
the latter are not sounded in the Latin transcriptions, e. g. Jasuktan= 
Jasucta, Galgusath = Gulussa, &c. In the Punic forms of the Latin 
names a is represented by y, e and o by N ; the ending us becomes N, 
tus is dropped (Berger 36). 

L. 17. 'yaija Cl.-Gan. conjectures Felicus, Felicio, Felidus. 

L. 19. NBnyp = Quar/us; or NDByp = Capita. 

L. 20. jynD 11 ? = Istantius (Algerian). Cl.-Gan. reads ruynD 11 1. 46. 

L. 23. san = Rufus. 

L. 26. fyrODJP Transcribed in Lat. Jasucta (NPun. 69, Schrod. 
p. 272). 

L. 29. KDBVlDin = Restitutus. L. 30. WDBHyD = 

L. 31. rpDy ? Maskulalh, cf. Masculus. 

L. 32. For Ntnx Cl.-Gan. reads QEHX. 

L. 33. Nt^ya ? = Cawj. 

L. 34. 1$ ? = Lucius. riDJ^yj Transcr. Gulussa. 

L. 45. NDyaNT = Rogatus. nJHDn ? /A? priestess. 


lp&n Kp] 

p "[^1 W& p ;j;ni5^ ans a 
p Spjntoi ^n p bpinai x 3 
opan ty pon. 4 
p jyonaw ^rin p 5 
nbp ^6r ........ <DBp p pru^dw 6 

This sanctuary was built here to *Atar-miskar. It was 
built by Ift'an, son of Ifshar, and Barik, son of Selidi', and 
Muttun-ba'al, son of Barik, and Muttun-ba'al, son of Ba'al- 
yathon ? . of the place ; the suffetes being 'Umzgu'ar, son of 
Tat'ai, and Mnds'an, son of Shb'atn, ? and Msigr'an, son of 
Qfsi ........ heard their voice. 

L. i. Km is not distinct in the facsimile. D=T. T3DD lay 

Cf. A 5. 

L. 2. i032 Pf. 3 pi. with suff. ; cf. 52 2. T13 See 55 6 n. 

Selidiv NPun, 69 i (Schrod. p. 272). 

59] Maktar 157 

L. 4. pen Cf. D3Dn 4O i where it is possibly a transliteration of 
sociorum. DQ3B> Three suffetes are mentioned here, as in 

55 6. iyi3TQiy Cf. A 47. 

L. 5. *71DD Berger suggests that this is an ethnic form, meaning 
'a man of Mascula' (in Numidia) CIL viii 2568 &c. ; cf. iJPSJM 60 2. 
32 I &c. 


. . . . DN mian i 

^nnn ^ 3 

The mizrah .... to Gad of the heavens (?) vowed their vow 
which .... his ? to the father of blessing, king (?) .... the 
vow ; his voice helped .... 

L. i. niton A i. DN?=E>N. 

L. 2. DD'n *U Perhaps rather DDBM 13 ; for 13 see 27 3 . DDB>n 
corresponds with the N. African Caelestis. The whole expression 
finds a remarkable parallel in Fortunae Caelestis sacrum CIL viii 6943 
from Cirta (Lidzb.). N113 lyii The first is a verb, the second 

a noun with suff. 3 sing. m. agreeing with niton. 

158 Neo-Punic [eo 

*.. . v -> v ' X 

60. Sulci. CIS i 149. Museum of Cagliari. 

Himilconi Idnibalis . . . quei hanc aedem ex s\_enatus\ 
c\pnsulto\fac\iundam\ coeravit Himilco f\ilius\ statuam 

p Drm p 

by tsnsn 2 

ra-nb n? trrpann rwoab 3 
aw* nt BWbnn w& 4 

Himilkath, son of Idni-ba'al, son of Himilkath ....... to 

build this sanctuary to the lady Elath: his son Himilkath 
dedicated this statue. 

This inscr. probably belongs to the first cent. B. c. ; it is among the 
earliest NPun. inscrr. known. 

L. i. nnn See 40 2 n. jnnK 45 6. 65 3, pronounced 

Idnibal (Lat. transcr.). 

L. 2. The first four words prob. correspond to qui ex senatus 
consulto curavit in the Lat. version; but their exact meaning is 
unknown. NBHKata has a certain resemblance to TOTrapx"*- ^PH 
Prob. Sulcifanus, the man of Sulci, cf. CIL 7518. The final letter 
i is most likely ' ; for the form cf. ^Dlim the man of Lycia CIS i 45, and 
the names T13O Rvdvru)v, TD Kmov. 

L. 3. nS33^ =nU2?, implying some word meaning curavit in 

1. 2. nainb Cf. D*m^=D'f4 56 3 . ; for nan see 3 2 n. rta* 

Cf. 50 i n. CIS i 243. 244 nta |H3 ; in Aram. //<# or Alldt, see in 
Nab. 80 4 . The Phoen. form nta is the fern, of i?N, or perhaps 
rather of }7N ; in the latter case the vowel of the second syllable may 
have been long (Noldeke ZDMG xlii 472) l . 

L. 4. WB looks like the Piel of NJO, cf. ^3 (?) 59 A n. 
The Lat. version shows that this must mean statue ; cf. 57 3. 

1 The identification of nbN with 'EXXwrfo i) Evpajirr) TO ira\aibv (KaXfiro, art oi 
Qoivmts TTJV TlapOevov 'EXAar/av na\ovai Etym. Magn. col. 332 ; 'EAAa>TiV 'Adij^a 
owrw iea\ovfji(vr], tv KopivOy Kat (opr^ 'EAAam'a ib. 333 is rejected by 
Noldeke 1. c. The forms 'EXAam'y, 'EAAam'a are prob. genuine Greek. 

Pel] Zenjirli: Hadad 161 

>* A V-^ X ^^ 

Dp") * '-or rrrrtf Mr * nw w . ........ njnn'K * mn 28 

nib ntttti nm , ^^o 

row n* n>Y * ...... m ' nwn MTIK w 29 

DSD ...... i nbv IK ^7 Dp * TDK -IT 30 


n>TN rsarr? 
nnnN n . . , . i i:m ^n 

- nn^ * k ' iJm Ewa 

, , o^w" t**^ -** X 

nwp ?y ......... i .K3 nry *pni ' mn 32 

I I ~ ~ * 

nnib nr ty nbn IN rrby pnn 34 

I am Panammu, son of QRL, king of Ya'di, who have set 
up this statue to Hadad in my ? 2 There stood by me the 
god (?) Hadad and El and Reshef and Rekub-el and Shamash, 
and Hadad and El 3 and Rekub-el and Shamash gave into 
my hand the sceptre of ? ; and Reshef stood by me ; and 
whatsoever I take 4 in hand . . . and whatsoever I as[k of] 
the gods they give me, and ? ? 5 ...... a land of barley ? 

6 ...... a land of wheat and a land of garlic, 7 and a land 

...... they till the land and vineyards ; 8 there dwel[t] . . . 

of Panammu. Moreover I sat upon the seat of my father, 
and Hadad gave into my hand 9 the sceptre of ? ... sword 
and slander from my father's house. And in my days 
Ya'di (?) ? did both eat and drink. 10 And in my days ? ... to 
establish (?) cities and to establish (?) . , and for the sons of 
villages (?)?.. takes (?) n each (?) ? and Hadad [and] El and 
Rekub-el and Shamash and Arqu-reshef did abundantly (?) 


1 62 Aramaic [61 

give greatness to me, and surety ? 12 with me. And in my 
days ? . ? to the gods, and indeed (?) they receive from my 
hands, and what I ask from the gods they have indeed (?) 
abundantly granted (?) 13 to me, and ? . . QRL, the gods indeed (?), 
and if Hadad gave indeed (?) to . he called me to build, and 
in my ? 14 Had[ad] gave indeed (?) . [to] build ; and I built 
indeed (?), and set up this statue of Hadad, and the place 
of Panammu, son of QRL, king 16 of Ya'di, together with 
a statue;. . Whoever (?) of my sons shall hold the [scept]re, 
and sit upon my seat and grow strong (?) and sacrifice le to 
this Hadad . . . and sacrifice . . . sacrifice to Hadad, and make 
mention of the name of Hadad, or 17 . shall say, May the soul 
of Panammu [ea]t with thee, and may the [s]oul of Panammu 
drin[k] with thee ! shall moreover remember the soul of 
Panammu with 18 [Ha]dad . . this his sacrifice . . may he look 
[fjavourably upon himljj to Hadad and to El and to Rekub-el 
and to Shamash 19 . . . [Pa]nammu . . . this . . . and I made 
the gods dwell in it, and in his ? I reposed (?) 20 . . they have 
given me a seed . . . my son shall hold the sceptre, and sit 
upon my seat as king 21 over Ya'di, and grow strong (?) and 
sacrifice [to this Hadad and rememjber the name of Panammu 
(and) say, May the soul of Panammu eat 22 with Hadad, and 
may the soul of Panammu drink with that Ha[d]ad ... his 
sacrifice let him not look favourably upon it, and whatsoever 
23 he shall ask let not Hadad give him ; and let Hadad pour 
out wrath upon him . . . suffer him not to eat, in anger, 24 and 
withhold sleep from him by night, and terror (?) ? to him . . . 
kinsman (?) . my friend (?) put to death (?) . 25 shall hold the 
sceptre in Ya'd[i], and shall sit upon my seat and reig[n . 
and pu]t his hand to the sword . or 26 . . . ? let him not slay 
either in anger or by ... put to death (?) either by his bow 
or by his order m . . . shall allow to destroy after one of his 
kinsmen (?) or after one of his friends (?) or after 28 one of 
his kinswomen (?)... he allow to destroy, his kinsmen (?) 
steal my memorial, and set it up in the midst thereof (?) 
indeed (?) ? 29 shall say, Your brother has destroyed (?) . . his 

ei] Zenjirli: Hadad 163 

hands to the god of his father ? shall say, If (?) ? I have put 
these (?) orders into the mouth 30 of a stranger, say thou (?) 
my eye was dim or terrified or . . in the mouth of adversaries, 
and behold ! (?) it is a memorial (?), so that ye make his 
kinsman (?) discontinue 31 ? and let him crush him with stones ; 
and behold !(?)... his kinswoman (?), and let him crush her (?) 
with stones ; and behold ! (?) if he have destroyed 32 after him, 
and thine eye be wearied (?)... by his bow or by his might 
or by his order 33 or by his instigation (?), thou (?) also ? . r- 
thou shalt slay him ? [or] in wrath, or 34 shalt write (?) con- 
cerning him, or teach a stranger to kill him . . . 

Zenjirli (^oaoj) is a small village in NW. Syria, rather more than 
half way between Antakiyeh (Antioch) and Marash. This inscription 
was found in 1890 at Gerjin ( c j_ s j^5), half an hour NE. of Zenjirli. 
It is carved on a colossal statue of the god Hadad ; the writing, like 
that of 62 and 63, is in relief, and belongs to the archaic type 
represented by the Moabite Stone. The contents show that this 
inscr. is earlier than 62 and 63, which date from the time of 
Tiglath-pileser iii (745-727 B.C.); moreover, in the latter inscrr. the 
Aramaic character of the dialect is more strongly marked '. 

Part i. 11. 1-15 a. Panammu acknowledges the good providence of 
Hadad and the other gods of his country, and records the prosperity 
of his reign. 

L. i. *ptf In 62 19 "OiK; see 1 i n. inp 13 1DJ2 Panammu 

i 62 5, the predecessor of Panammu ii 62 i. 63 2, to whom 62 is 
dedicated. Panammu of Santal (prob. Panammu ii) is mentioned in 
inscrr. of Tiglath-pileser iii, KB ii 20. 30. A similar name is met with 
in Asia Minor, in Caria, Hai/a/w^s (Ball IrSBA (1888) 432), and in 
Isauria, Panemourteichos (Ramsay Hist. Geogr. of Asia Min. 394 &c.). 
The derivation is unknown ; prob., like ^np, the name is of non- 
Semitic origin. ns* 62 i. 5 &c. Ya'di was a town and petty 

kingdom of N. Syria, situated in the country N. of the Orontes. 

1 In connexion with these inscrr. the following abbreviations are used : Sach. 
Sachau in Mitth. aus den Orient. Sammlungen, Heft xi Ausgrabungen in Send- 
schirli (1893). Hal. = Halevy in Revtte Stmitiqiie i-ii (1893-4). DHM = D. H. 
Miiller Altsemitiscken Inschr. von Sendschirli (1893). Nb'ld. = Noldeke in ZQM.G 
xlvii (1893) 96-105. Hoffm. = G. Hoffmann in Zeitschr. fur Assyriol. xi (1897). 
The text above is derived from the facsimile given by Lidzbarski, Nordsem. Efigr., 
Atlas tat xxii, with reference to Euting's facsimile in Ausgrab. in Sendschirli. 

M a 

164 Aramaic [61 

Winckler, Altor. Forsch. i i ff., suggests that the well-known ex- 
pressions in the Annals of Tiglath-pileser iii, KB ii 24f., \Azri\jdu 
(mdtii) Jauddi, \A\surijdu (mdtu) Jaudi\ which are usually taken to 
refer to ' Azariah (=Uzziah) the Judaean,' ' A. of the land ofjudah Y 
really refer to this HN\ The context implies that Jaudi was in N. 
Syria 2 ; it speaks of nineteen districts of the city of Hamath as having 
revolted to Azrtjdu, and there is little likelihood that the Judaean 
Azariah would have mixed in the politics in N. Syria and formed an 
alliance with Hamath, 150 miles N. of Palestine. According to the 
biblical chronology Azariah was dead at this time (about 740 B. c.), 
but this difficulty can be overcome 3 . Winckler's view requires that 
two such names as Azrijdu andfaudt (= either V W or miiT) existed 
at the same period in different parts, a mere coincidence, perhaps. 
Azrijdu, with the divine name in*, is more characteristic of Judaea 
than N. Syria ; in*, however, was not unknown in the latter region *. 
There is much to be said for Winckler's contention, but it is hardly 
established beyond dispute 8 . *T The Old Aram, form of n (Bibl. 

Aram., Nab., Palm.), used as a relative (64 14. 69 9. 70 i &c., and 
on coins 149 A 6) and as a sign of the genitive (66 a. 67. 68. 76 B 3 
&c.). nDpn=no'i?n. nvJ See 37 i . ft So in Phoen. 

(Gebal) ; see add. note ii p. 26. *nn 150 b, the chief deity of 

the Aramaeans ; cf. "ASwSos ySomAevs Oelav Philo Bybl. Fr. Hist. Gr. 
iii 569. The statue on which the inscr. is carved represents a bearded 
human head with horns, the symbol of the god's power. In the O. T. 
his name occurs in . compounds, e.g. WTTp 2 S. 8 3 ff.=Assyr. 
Dad-idri; Tirrp i K. 20 i (COTaoof^pffVlrtfl Zech. 12 n. 
Nothing distinctive is known of his character; but he was prob. 
regarded as a god of storm and thunder, for he was identified by the 
Assyrians as a stranger-god from the Amorite country with Ramman ; 
see Zimmern KA T 3 ii 443 f. The original significance of the name 
may possibly be found in the Ar. JL break, crash, groivl, ioU thunder ; 
cf. Hebr. in, Tin shout (Baethgen Beitr. 67 f., Hal. ii 26 f.). As 
a personal gr. n. ITl is found in Sabaean, CIS iv 55 6 . 'D^JO 

? in my youth (*o5g3)not in my life-time (WVa?) ; the latter, inerever, 

1 So e.g. Schrader COT 217 tt. 

a Cf. also laucfu in the Nimrud Insyr. of Sargon, KB ii 36. 

* See Kittel Gesch. d. Hebrder ii 284 ff. 

* Thus lau-bi'di of Hamath, KB ii 36. 56, is interchanged with IlA-bfdi (of 
Hamath), ib. 42. 

* It is accepted by Benzinger Konige 166. 

* Possibly Hadad was known to the ancient Arabs, Wellhausen Reste Ar. 
Heidenthums 55 ; but Wellhausen's translation is disputed by Hoffm. 228. 

61] Zenjirli: Hadad 165 

is_expressed by >Q'3 in the inscr. DHMjrenders lord 
Possibly 'oby is the name of a place. 

L. 2. inta is explained as an abstract form, N^npK godhead (Lidzb.). 
The reading is uncertain. ^N 62 22, Assyr. tlu. The name by 

itself is found in Sabaean inscrr., e.g. "innyi 7N Hale'vy no. 144 3. 
150 4; elsewhere in N. Semitic inscrr. it appears in compounds, 
e.g. ifctBT 150 c. *)Bn 1-3 see 12 3 ., and cf. tjenplK 

I. n. ^j<33i 62 22. 63 5. The name of this deity is known 
so far only in this district of N. Syria ; it may mean chariot or 
steed of El (Rekub-el)7or charioteer of El (Rakkab-el, Rekab-el), 
Hoffm. 252 ; cf. the Palm, taby 139 6 n. On Assyr. monuments 
the sun-god is sometimes represented as riding in a chariot drawn 
by griffins, and he is called rakib narkabti 1 (cf. 2 K. 23 n ni33"lD 
EWn and Ps. 18 n); but whether Rekub-el had any connexion 
with the sun-god, as his minister or attendant, we cannot tell ; it is 
possible that he was a moon-god, for in the ancient East the moon 
came before the sun, as here (Lidzb. Eph. i 255 n., cf. 112 4.). Sach. 
6 1 suggests a transposition of "I and 3, and renders cherub of El; 
this is unnecessary. The pr. n. 33*113 62 i. 63 i prob. means son of 
the god Rekub-el. >> 62 22. 64 9 the sun-god, Assyr. shamash, 
worshipped throughout the Semitic world, e.g. in Israel 2 K. 23 n. 
Dt. 17 3, in Palmyra 117 5. 136 3. 6. His cult is implied by such 
pr. nn. as myy n3 (Hebr.), POBH3JJ CIS i 116 f. (Phoen.), myB>DB> 
ib. ii 87 (Aram.), weak 117 3. DTatPOP 145 i (Palm.). 

L. 3. Iton branch, rod, common in Aram., in Hebr. rare, Is. 1 1 i ; 
here used for sceptre, Hebr. tJ3B>. H33^n Here and in 11. 9. 10 

(rest.) this might be the name of a place not otherwise known ; but in 

II. 13. 19 it seems to be a fern, noun with a suffix. In each case the 
meaning 'blessing,' 'prosperity' (Hoffm., Lidzb.) or 'majesty' (Hal.), 
would suit the context. TDQj^e. T + HP + B, IS CS, in 11. 4. 22 TB1, 
cf. HTnD=nTn no 65 5. The conjunction a, which is prob. to be found 
in *!, &]' (Nb'ld. 103 n.), is used in these inscrr. like the Ar. >?, 11. 13 f. 
31. 63 18 ; similarly in Nab., e. g. 80 7. 10. 83 3. 94 4 &c. ; in Palm. 
143 5. Another form of the conjunction is NjS 11. 17. 33. 62 22. TDK 
PeaHmpf. i sing. 

L. 4. Vi^K Pl % abs.=jrcj>M. 11. 12 f. 19. 62 23. For the omission of 

final f cf. nyt? 1. 5. 'on, *w'T.~6. "nv wx* i- 3- '^atc ! 3 1 - ^ 3Bf 

62 3 (see note); but contrast J3131 pta 63 10. 13. This peculiarity finds 
a parallel in Assyr., which forms a plur. in 1 (or /) as well as in dm, 

1 Jastrow Rel. of Baby I, and Assyr. 461 ; Sach. 70. 

1 66 Aramaic [61 

and in Aram, dialects, e. g. Talm. p">n dates, '"VB fruits, cf. 
/xav ^:= H 3DB> ns (Dalman Gram. Jild.-Pal. Aram. 38, 3), and in Mandaic 
(Noldeke Mand. Gr. 162). WP In this dialect, and in that of jl 

N6rab and TSma, the impf. 3 plur. ends in u, not, as is usual injl 
Aram., in tin, e.g. 11. 7. 12. 64 9. u. 65 9. 73 B 3 (Egypt. Aram.) ; 
exceptionally in B. Aram., FttfcO Jer. 10 n. TOW Ezr. 4 12. Dan. 

5 10. Vin DJB>1 Meaning unknown. DHM takes D35? as=D^f and 
reads V11 = KTl, lit. peace of satiety ; but the reading is uncertain. 

L. 5. p"lN 62 14 &c.; in 63 4. 66 a (and regularly on Nineveh 
weights) Kp-|N = the later Aram. Xjnx, Hebr. pN, Arab. ^1. In Jer. 
10 ii Np"lK occurs side by side with NJHN; in Mandaic it appears 
prob. as an intentional archaism, Nold. I.e. 73. For the p which is 
peculiar (Driver Tenses 178) cf. ^pn 11. 18. 22 = Jb* = HX1 = 
Npto 62 13 = U-. = NX 11 = Up see p. 185. ny&? Hebr. 

cf. 62 6. 9 and see 1. 4 . 7Nn ? meaning, btf 1. 29 is prob. the 

plur. of ft, but the article prefixed is not found in these inscriptions. 

L. 6. l| l3n = Hebr. D'Cn; *OtJ>=Hebr. ta^DIB' Num. 115. 

L. 7. TN 62 9 perhaps forl + 'N (DHM, Nold.) whatsoever; qr_== 
Hebr. JN^ A.ram. W* then. my> Cf. Gen. 2 5 &c. (nnsn n). 

Dt. 28 39 (D^Dns) ; in later Aram. NjnNIl n^S is the usual expression. 
See 1. 4 n. 

L. 8. DHM restores 1DJB D["D1 pIS H3y1 13]B QB>. D3 1. 9. 

62 1 6, cf. DJN 62 5, is characteristic of Hebrew; it is found on the 

oab. St., 1 6, but the later Aram. does_ not use it. 

L. 9. DHM restores 3in n[-nm] and he cut off. ]vh tongue, as 

the instrument of slander; cf. \*\uh t^K Ps. 140 12. 15 3. 101 5. n3 (/ 
62 2. 7. 63 7 ff._ The scriptio plena (cf. N^l. 24. y*y 1. 30) is 
more frequent in 62, which Ts somewhat later. <D*3 = 'DI'Q 

62 1 8, IJQ!O. In Aram, the vowel of the first syllable in po* is 

6 not a, as in Hebr.; cf. 65 3. 76 A 4, constr. st. 1 D1' 62 n. i>3N 
Kniyi If the last word of the line be read n* Lidzb.'s facsimile 
shows traces of initial * and of 1 these words may be taken as perfs.; 
cf. 62 9. DHM takes them as nouns, reading the last word ^HN 

food and drink were abundant, cf. 1. \n. Nold. 103 reads *rrt and was 
abundant, i. e. abundantly. 

L. 10. Meaning very obscure. DHM regards "ion 11 as=">P^ was 
appointed, and 2*^ as=2Jf> ( c f. Solomon's D'3l?3 i K. 4 7 ff.) prefect of 
Q .., and prefect of the Zerari. But 3XJ7 may be a verb, to set up, and 
cities 62 4. 15; cf. 3XfJ Dt. 32 8. Ps. 74 17. Pr. 15 25 (with 
, i Ch. 18 3 (with T). The meaning of m? is unknown. 

61] Zenjirli: Hadad 167 

Perhaps villages; cf. Neh. 6 2 (?), B*1D3 Cant. 7 12. i Ch. 27 25. 
But joj of the villages is not a very natural expression, and possibly 
**VB3js the name of a tribe or place. This^Jiowever, does not suit the 
context of 'TS3 ^J?3 in 62 10. np* ? impf. of npi>. The reading 

is uncertain. 

L. ii. "nn -im .Tin B>N (Lidzb.) ?ftj:rA &> neighbour, and Hadad did 
richly ; but the text is very doubtful, IIV is possibly Pael of in 11 1. 1 2. 
Euting's facsimile gives mrp . . n 1"IB>N. sjPnplKI The name 

of a god. Hoffm. 214. 252 connects pIN i.e. 'Arqu or '^r^fwith the 
V^p"l=n1 (1. 5 n.) be favour able, and compares 1"iK (?), 13H, apparently 
a divine name in Palm, (see 115 i n.), *5HK and the Arab. *LJ (Well- 
hausen ./?/? ^4r. Heid? 58 f.). 1133 i.e. prqb. *">?? greatness. \ 

DHM reads H33 (for NnH33) honour. runj Perhaps perf. 3 plur. 

(or sing.) with suff. 3 sing. fem.=i!tin3, the suff. resuming the object 
which precedes, greatness they (he) gave it. A Nifal form is im- 
probable. DHM reads TTO ftDK a sure (covenant) they made; . 
JDN ? * faithfulness occurs again in 62^21. Lidzb. reads n"DT, but I 
neither the reading nor the jorm is clear. 

L. 12. no Various meanings of this obscure word are proposed: 
thus 7/7 in 1. 1 2 = IffP ; males, male offspring in 11. 13. 14. 62 4 = 0^10, 
Assyr. mutu; town, district in 1. 14. 62 10 = Assyr. mdtu (Winckler 
Altor. Forsch. i 107), cf. CIS ii 31 }pE>33 HD3 in vico Bdbsuqin. But 
it seems more reasonable to give no the same meaning throughout. 
Hale'vy regards it as an adverb, aussittit, forthwith, and explains the 
form as a contraction of the Hebr. ^HD, cf. Assyr. mat. Lidzb. renders 
surely, indeed, a meaning which suits the context in each case, and may 
be accepted provisionally, though its etymology is not evident. inp' 
See 1. 4 n. 

L. 13. IplM is prob. some part of the verb <pn=nvn (1. 5 n.); his 
land would be HpIN, like npQT 1. 18. DHM restores !np [W]1, 

rendering 'and QRL asked for a male offspring; and Hadad did not 
give a male offspring.' This gives a suitable sense, but the rendering 
of no is doubtful, and 1J5Q (1. 31. 62 ii) seems to mean and if j vrrr 
(Nold. 104), rather than and not, 1^=N^. To fill the space, ['3N 11 * 
is a better restoration. ^"ip i. e. "^P Pf. 3 sing. m. with suff., 

from top. In Lidzb.'s facsimile the 1 is clear. iO3i> 1. 14, inf. 

of to3. TO3i>n l. 3 n. 

L. 1 4. DpD place, possibly like TOTTOS in Gk. inscrr., a burial-place. 

L. 15. 1J3 JO }D Part ii. 11. 15 a-24 a. Panammu invokes the blessing 
of the gods upon his successor if he be faithful to his religious 
and filial duty, and a curse upon him if he neglect it. p |D 

1 68 Aramaic [61 

The first fo is perhaps the indef. pron. }t?, ^&, Assyr. mannu, 
manu. 111K HyDM 1. 21. In Hebr. 1j?D= support, stay esp. with 

food, e. g. Gen. 185; here perhaps in a more general sense, strengthen. 
n3K may be an abstr. form, VQK=Krin2K (DHM), or possibly a plur. 
with suff. = V13N his strong ones, Jud. 622. Ps. 50 13 ; but the latter 
does not give a good sense, and the form lacks support (Nold.). 

L. 1 6. Tin The deity is in the accus. after PQT, cf. in Sabaean 
"inny . . iniT!> CIS iv 74 n f. ; in Hebr. ^ is required. The sacrifice 
was to be offered not to the dead, but to the god on behalf of 
the dead; see Lagrange RB (1902) xi 232 f. inn DB>N "DH 

Cf. the Hebr. idiom rf\TV> Dt? TiTH make mention ofYahweh's name, i. e. 
to call upon, worship, Is. 26 13. Ex. 23 13. The verb here may be 
regarded as Afel. DE>K=Arab. ^, Samaritan NOtW. 

L. 17. NQ 1. 33. 62 22 = S3 1. 3 n. 'U1 P3J ^[3NH] Cf. 1L 21 f., 

where the words are more legible. B>2J=E>aJ; cf. l^ND 1. 34=*)7Nn, 
)tJ>r= J"Q.&'y, and vice versa i>na = J^<J &c.: Wright Comp. Gr. 
64 f. Tieri Impf. of Wit? 1. 9 ; see 1. 22 . For the idea cf. Luke 

22 30. *py i.e. with Hadad. ny Prob.=*tfy. Dy . . BOJ "VDI 
The verb here and in 1. 21 is Peal ; contrast nnn DB'N 13P1 1. 16, where 
the verb is Afel. 

L. 1 8. After Tl[n] Lidzb. reads [^ON*, but the word is illegible 
in the facsimile. npQt 1. 22 ; the last letter is perhaps the suffix, 

his. Hoffm. 234 regards the form as fern, and compares nnnt? 62 2 ; 
see 62 6 n. NT 1. 19 (?), though elsewhere fern, (see add. note p. 26), 
is here prob. mas., like the Arab. U, since it appears to agree with 

nrar. V^l*] 1- 22 > im pf- of *pn 1. 5 . ; cf. n mn in Hebr., e. g. 

Mic. 6 7. Hag. 1 8. W Meaning unknown. 

L. 19. ntUPl nron^rQI </ in his prosperity I rested (f], Lidzb., taking 
nsin as Pf. i sing, of KJn=rwn encamp, cf. HNJn Pael 62 12 and runD 
62 13 ff. But runD means fOT/>, not as a ra^'^-place, but as the 
place one reaches at the end of the day's march; so in Syr. Jju= 
incline towards, reach. Possibly ntMPl 62 12 may come from pn be 
gracious, and nwn be a pass, form, I was treated graciously. 

L. 20. yit See 4 7 . The obligation of religious duty on the part 
of Panammu's successor is repeated ; a clause expressing the possible 
neglect of it must be among the missing portions of 11. 20-22, to 
justify the imprecations in 11. 22 0-24 a. 

L. 21. See 11. 15 f. 

L. 22. Nil in a demonstr. sense, cf. in 73 A 3 in NJiy that time. For 
Kn after [}f] 1. 21 cf. Gen. 32 3. TD1 1. 4. pT, Wri i.e. 

&c., cf. W L 27 f. yi>n 1. 32. The impf. 3 sing, of these >6 

61] Zenjirli: Hadad 169 

verbs ends in *_ as in Palestinian Aram., Targ. &c.; contrast the 
Bibl. Aram, and Syr. ending K-^-, )-?_. 

L. 23. Kin Perhaps = )nn wrath. TBtfh Afel (?) impf. 3 sing, 

mas. with suff. 3 sing. fem. from "jro pour forth, in a figurative sense 
with ron, *! in the O.T., e.g. Jer. 42 18. 2 Ch. 34 21. The impf. 
is here preceded by 7 = Arab. J before the jussive, similarly VJD7 (i. e. 
yjO-6) 1. 24. nDtf6 1. 30. nwtt^ (i. e. iwnro) 1. 31, in each case with 
a jussive force ; cf. in Sabaean l-iiny^ ut descenderent, IPOTbl a/^<? / 
sacrificarent CIS iv 74 10 ff. &c., and see Hommel Sttd-ar. Chrest. 25. 
This usage has not been found hitherto in Aram. Possibly it may 
have given rise to the impf. in > which occurs in B. Aram., Targ. 
Jon., Talmud Bab., and Mandaic ; but in these dialects the *? has no i 
distinctively jussive force, and may be merely a phonetic variation of 
the impf. in J (Driver Tenses 204 Obs. i). htib rb }fP $>N Cf. 2 Ch. 
20 10 for the construction. H"O Reading indistinct, but the word 

is clear in 1. 26. 

L. 24. rut? i.e. nJB>. yjt^> i.e. y?O^ Nold. 98 n., in a jussive 

sense ; see note above. tib'kl With scriptio plena, Hebr. nb?p, 

Arab, jf), but Syr. U\\. n^T terror, as often in Targ. ; but the 

form is not apparent ; it might be inf. constr. The perf. occurs in 
1. 30. fro if Peal perf., does not construe ; the form must 

remain uncertain. For the imprecations cf. 4. 6. 64. 65. 

Part iii. 11. 24 0-34. Panammu denounces those who shall attempt to 
injure the persons or the power of his family and successors. Such 
seems to be the general drift of this most obscure section. DHM thinks 
that the reference is to the violation of the statue ; this is apparently 
alluded to in 1. 28, but the rest of the passage deals with the treatment 
of persons (note the verb Jin 11. 26. 33. 34). n^appearSu-to_be -I 

a jitlejdenoting a member of the royal family r .ISM IJTN 62 3, like the 
H7br7-jSl U3 2 Sam. 13 32 ff. 2 K. 10 6 ff. 11 2 &c., and N3^D "13 
CIS ii 38 2 'a prince of the royal house' (?). In 11. 27. 28 rvrPN is 
plur. with suff., 1. 30 nrVN is sing, with suff., while iinrvx 11. 28. 31 is 
prob. a fem. plur. or sing, with suff. The word may be a form of HK in 
a special sense. HTIDj. 27 nmiD is perhaps a noun from -/111, 
Arab. 3J love, lit. my loved one, so friend (Lidzb.). noiO 1. 26 

seems to be Hofal ptcp. of r1D. mm HT r6t?M Cf. Jud. 5 26 

L i 

pJ!0). Panammu appears to have in mind the wholesale assassina- 
tions of the royal family which so frequently accompany the accession 
of an oriental king. 62 3 shows that his fears were justified. T) . . 

Lidzb. suggests ^n['3]. 

L. 26. DDn is some part of -/DDH be violent. 

170 Aramaic [61 

L. 27. nn' 1. 28, i. e. 'Bn? impf. 3 sing. mas. of 'CH lit. be able, so 
perhaps allow, cf. JVUH permission Ezr. 3 7 ; see 1. 22 n. nn?J> is 
perhaps inf. constr. 1E>N3 The word ~\VX= place, 62 18 (?). 

64 8 mt?N fa's place. 68 6 NlflN. 76 C 4 1HN. Here and in 1. 32 
1B>K3 may perhaps be taken like the Syr. J&>, i. e. o + l^ in the 
sense of after, lit. in the place of; so HofTm., Lidzb. The exact 
meaning, however, of the expression destroy after one of his princes is 
not clear. in must be constr. state before the gen. following, for 

in 1. 28 it takes a fern, form before a fern. noun. For the construction 
cf. in Hebr. DJM inx Gen. 26 10. nwittfi nnx 2 K. 4 22,&c. in is 
the usual Aram, for inN, e.g. 62 5. 63 13 &c. ; in Hebr., Eze. 33 30. 

L. 28. nnifK See 1. 24 n. n3t rWN OM 11 Here and in the 

foil, lines to 30 b the offender is apparently not the future king but a 
member of the royal house, and the offence is the removal or violation 
of the statue which Panammu had erected. The details and general 
sense are very uncertain, ''ist 1. 30 (?) my memorial ; 13f has this mean- 
ing in 62 22, Palm, pal 135 i, and Nab. CIS ii 169 &c. ; in Phoen. 130 
9 6 n. Dpi Impf. 3 sing., rather than plur. as Nold. 104. nm 

Accus. particle with suff. This form is prob. preserved in LoX loo, 
but in later usage it has become n 11 , thus Nab. nJV 80 5, Palm, n 11 121 4, 
B Ar. ftlJT Dan. 3 1 2 (only here), n" 1 in Targ. and Sam., k_ in Syr. (rare). 
This m, and the Phoen. JVN, Hebr. DN, may be accounted for by an 
original 'awayat which passed into 'iwqyath, 'iyyath, 'iyath, 'eth ; see 3 
3 n. nyD3 in the midst of it, supposing that we have here the 

Aram. V2PB, NJfJPfp midst, as in 62 10. 63 9 f. Hoffm. 319, however, 
suggests in each case the meaning J>lacej V^P, Arab. *^y>- What 
the suffix refers to is not clear. ntM 1. 29 Meaning unknown. 

L. 29. D3nN The suff. as in Dbp Ezr. 5 3 &c., for the usual Aram. 
P3'; cf. Dnb 63 1 8 for pr6. nnB>n Afel, either perf. or 

imperat. n^N i. e. n?N or r6x constr. state sing.; so in Nab. 88 

6. 94 3. Palm. 136 7. This is the sing, form of the plur. M^N 1. 4. 
For iTY cf. Ps. 44 21. },1 Prob. = // 64 n, as in Bibl. Aram. 

Dan. 2 6 &c. Ezr. 413. The meaning of DN is not clear. Ttiytf 
Perf. i sing, of DH?. If mN is plur., i?K may = these. D3 

1. 30, with suff. >DS 65 4; Aram. MM9, U>ok, Hebr. ns. For the 
expression cf. in Hebr. 'a 'M 131 D" 1 ^ Num. 22 38. 23 5. 12. 16 &c. 

L. 30. It stranger \. 34. IDS Either perf. or imperative. Appa- 
rently the offender is supposed to make the excuse that he did not 
realize what he was doing. ^y Dp Cf. i K. 14 4. n?1 

Perf., cf. 1. 24. nx JK Prob. = on* D'5MK, although, since 1V= 

Arab. JJL-, the dialect of this inscr. should have p for 5f, on the analogy 

62] Zenjirli : Panammu 171 

of pIN and *pt. 13ns ? and behold ; the reading is very indistinct, 

but it is supported by wrn 1. 3 1 bis. "T3f may = memorial as H3t 1. 28 ; 
it may also = male, a meaning which seems to be required for 1"13T 
1. 31 (Lidzb.). HlMr6 Impf. 2 plur. with cohortative i>; see 

1. 23 . 1OJ= make an end, in a trans, sense. 

L. 31. l"Df Lidzb. suggests that this is an abstract form for NnTDt 
mankind, men. ilBTD^a Impf. with cohort, h 3 sing, mas, with suff. 
3 sing, mas., similarly rUBTD7B with suff. 3 sing, fern. (?). BTO = break 
in pieces, shatter ; in riebr. Pr. 'AT "22 to pound, in Targ. Jon. Ex. 30 36 
nTO {^ironi of pounding the incense, used in Ethpa. like the Syr. 
j^fco = fight, strive. The punishment is to be stoning, whether the 
offender be a man or a woman. But it is not clear what the offence 
is, whether the violation of the memorial, which is apparently alluded 
to in the preceding lines, or the attempted assassination of Panammu's 
successor, which seems to be the drift of what follows. "03K 

i. e. D^2N 1. 4 n. nnB> The form is uncertain. 

L. 32. me>K2 Perhaps after him, \. 27 n. iy?n Meaning 

doubtful. The Aram, 'y? = itfb means to be wearied, e. g. Targ. Jon. 
Dt. 25 1 8 pnhw31 f^y? wearied and faint. nm23 his might, cf. 

WTOf Dan. 2 20. 

L. 33. i"Q1J To render his generosity (cf. Hebr. rmj) does not give 
a suitable sense ; his instigation is better, cf. Arab. L^JJ impel, incite 
(DHM). riN Uhou, 64 5. NS also, 1. 17 . me" is 

some part of V IB" fo straight. nnnn Mow *<fo// &7/ him. It is 

difficult to believe, as DHM does, that 3~>n can mean destroy (the 

L. 34. pnn Apparently impf. 2 sing, of ppn_ inscribe (Eze. 23 14), 
perhaps rather thou shall ivrite of him, or inscribe on it ; the context is 
not decisive. n^NH Pael impf. of l^N = *& /^r, ^L\ r teach ; cf. 
BQJ for t?SJ 1. 1 7 . njir6 Either inf. constr. /o ^'// ^/OT, or impf. 

with 7 

62. Zenjirli: Panammu. Between 745 and 727 B.C. Berlin. 

#/- 2-v 

* ta iJbisS natA * aDnna DP j T * 

run nx nnn^ * p n ' n7K nwfi * nat< 2 
.K . .1 . .1 hy ' na^)b ... p. . .ppn *n^ -Dpi 

Dpi mytn ; n&rn '.mi&n HKP 6 

wi Wa 

V_ '. ' ' "<, <,*fJn*l 

. % * . . . .Sa * *a&$ 7a*i * /p&^a, * n^D, * abD^i * /p^a 
jax .nni na * n*a ^y na:>Di ni^K po -ry 7 
. a * r-b HK p^ ' . . .* !&.... na^ na 

I lUffitX <x + <"** 


nnanp * p PD& I-OK 
, . nth 


[]... i:i ?D hjpoi 1^3 *a a . n .r 

an? bya * fo n tDa * ^ya if? 
. . . . v WK T^D 
D nxna nwrn 

..... ena naa 
Npia p . n nina * i\vx 


tana * ^aa p * mp II^N -J^D nosnn n-io naj 15 


pBW ' p ' 

Zenjirli : Panammu 173 

^'"H^ .yr 

n*n& nafer i&as SK na mi * rw 16 

. ... or nanaa WK 

ntoa rona nn^i ttSa nn'K n 17 

w-,~ . . -n^K ; nSa nana * HpSl ^ 

Ou>A><tu- jM-xWx I 

nayni matt ^htyib * nS Dni n^ii 18 


n 19 

nn fi n na? * 


This statue Bar-rekub placed to his father Panammu, son 
of Bar-sur, king [of Ya'di] : . . year . . my [fa]ther Panammu 
. . 2 his father ; the gods of Ya'di delivered him from his 
destruction. There was a conspiracy (?) in his father's house, 
and the god Had [ad] rose ... his seat(?) over(?) . . . destruc- 
tion . . . 3 in the house of his father, and slew his father 
Bar-sur, and slew seventy 70 kinsmen of his father . . 
chariots . . . owner of ... 4 and with the rest thereof indeed (?) 
he filled the prisons, and desolate cities he made more 
numerous than inhabited cities ..... [ye] set (?) 5 the sword 
against my house and slay one of my sons, I have also 
caused the sword to be in the land of Ya'di . . Panammu, 
son of QRL . . my father . . . perished . . . 6 grain and corn 
and wheat and /barley, and a peres stood at a shekel, and 
a shatrab . . at a shekel, and an 'esnab of ? at a shekel ; and 




Di 23 

1 74 Aramaic [62 

my father brought ... 7 to the king of Assyria, and he made 
him king over his father's house, and he slew ? of destruction 
from his father's house . . from the treasure ... of the land (?) 
of Ya'di, from . . . 8 and he ? the prisons, and released the cap- 
tives of Ya'di ; and my father aro[se] and released the women 
of .... house of the women killed (?) and ? ... 9 his father's 
house ; and he made it better than it was before ; and wheat 
and barley and grain and corn were plentiful in his days; 
and then . . . did eat and . . 10 cheapness of price (?). And in 
the days of my father Panammu he appointed indeed (?) ? ? 
and charioteers, and . . my father Panammu in the midst of the 
kings of ? . . n my [fa]ther, whether he possessed silver or 
whether he possessed gold, in his wisdom and in his righteous- 
ness ? laid hold of the skirt of his lord the king of Assyria 
. . . 12 Assyria, the governors, and the princes of Ya'di, and 
his lord the king of Assyria was gracious to (?) him above 
the kings of ? ... 13 at the wheel of his lord Tiglath-piieser, 
king of Assyria, (in) the campaigns . . from the east even 
to the west, and [from] . . u the four parts of the earth ; 
and the daughters of the east he brought to the west, and 
the daughters of the west he brought to the [ea]st, and [my] 
father . . . 16 his border, his lord Tiglath-piieser, king of 
Assyria, cities from the border of Gurgum . . and my [fa]ther 
Panammu, son of B[ar-sur] . . . 16 ? Moreover my father 
Panammu died while following his lord Tiglath-piieser, king of 
Assyria, in the camp, also . . . 17 and his kinsfolk bewailed him ? , 
and the whole camp of his lord the king of Assyria bewailed 
him, and his lord the king of Assyria took . . . 18 . his soul, and 
set up for him a ? on the way, and brought across my father 
from Damascus to (this) place (?) . In my (?) days . . . 19 . the 
whole of his house. And as for me Bar-rekub, son of 
Panamm[u, for the righteous]ness of my father and for my 
own righteousness, [my] lord made me to sit ... 20 of my 
father Panammu, son of Bar-sur ; and I have placed this 
statue . . to my [father] Panammu, son of Bar-sur . . . 21 and . 
said ? and concerning ? surety (?) . . king . . and ? . . before (?) 

62] Zenjirli : Panammu 175 

the sepulchre of my father Pa[nammu] . . . 22 and a memorial 
is this (?). Also may Hadad and El and Rekub-el, lord of 
the house, and Shamash, and all the gods of Ya'di . . . 23 . 
before the gods and before men ! 

The text given above is derived from the facsimile in Ausgraben in 
Sendschirli, and from the text as published by Lidzbarski in Nordsem. 

L. i. |T 3V3 61 i; for 3VJ Off see 37 i n. 23TO 63 i prob. 

a short form of ^N33T13 61 2 n. PQN Pronounced rGK as 

appears from HUN 1. 2; the full form is m3N 76 A 5. D i, in Nab. 
82 2, in Palm. 110 3 &c., in Syr. ~5>=>F. 1*11 As in 13113, the 

latter part of the compound is a divine name IV, which occurs in the 
biblical pr. n. "IIVHID Num. 1 10 &c., and in the place-name 
Josh. 15 58; see Gray Hebr. Pr. Names 195 ff. * 
61 i. After nJB> Sach. reads 6^s[3] i.e. a Nif. form (not used 

in Aram.), and translates ' [in remembrance] of the year when his 
father was delivered.' 

L. 2. niBPB One of the objects of the inscr. was to commemorate 
the deliverance of the king, cf. 1 3 f. For tD7D, in Hebr. poetical, cf, 
Ps. 18 3. 44. 49. HK nta Contrast >"W Ti^K 1. 22. Perhaps 

the at the end of n^N (constr. plur.) was left out here because "nto 
follows. nnnt? appears to be inf. constr. with suff., cf. 1. 7. 61 

27 f., and see 61 18 n. nta Possibly = Hebr. n;K oath, here 

conspiracy, DHM approved by Nold. The facsimile clearly gives n?K, 
but Lidzb. reads HTN, a form of the relat. particle, cf. >T (?). mn 

3 sing. fern, of Kin, in Bibl. Aram, )"IV1, HIT]. mtPD Perhaps 

the same word as in 61 15. 25. 

L. 3. "112 ms Jim His father is ambiguous ; the suffix may refer 
to the murderer, another son of Bar-sur and brother of Panammu, or 
it may refer to Panammu, the murderer being some member of the 
royal household. TTBe latter is preferable (DHM). 'jnt? For 

the omission of final J see 61 4 ., and cf. the forms of the tens 
(cardinals) in Assyr. esrd, Saldsd, hanld &c., and in Eth. saldsd, hamsd 
&c., and in late Syr. uv>, *j^l&c. On a basalt fragment found at 
Zenjirli the usual form occurs with the same numerical symbols as 

1 The connexion between this divine name and the title "fls(n) the Rock used of 
Yahweh in the O.T. (Dt. 82 4. 2 S. 23 3. Is. 17 10 &c.) is not clear. Very likely 
there is none ; the title Tis(n) seems too purely figurative to have suggested the 
existence of a -parate deity called Reck. The bibl. and post-bibl. references to 
IIS are discussed Ly Wiegand in ZA TW (1890) 85 ff. 

176 Aramaic [62 

here . . [f]ai>D : JB^tJE, Sach. 71. As an illustration of the massacre 

see Jud. 9 5. 2 K. 10 7. WK Apparently plur. constr. ; see 61 24 n. 

L. 4. mm May be a verb (61 u .); but it is simpler to take it 
as a noun, cf. frn? Is. 44 19 ; the suff. will then be sing, collective, 
referring to those who took part in the plot! Fof the two accus. after 
KA> cf. i K. 18 35. Eze. 9 7 &c. JTUDD Cf. Ps. 18 46. Mic. 7 

17. For no see 61 12 n. rain Adj., cf. Eze. 36 35. n^K" 
Ptcp. pass. In Hebr. the Nif. ptcp. is used, e.g. Eze. 12 20 &c. .DB>n 
DHM reads 1OBTI, and supposes that the speaker is the god Hadad, 
announcing a divine oracle. 

L. 5. 'J3 in i.e. king Bar-sur; cf. Ps. 2 7. tUK See 61 

8 n. nin if it governs the foil. 3in must be Pael, / caused to 

be, to fall, cf. Arab. (^ to fall. The perf. after the impfs. in the 
preceding clause lays emphasis on the finality of the god's deci- 
sion. inp "in 1D3S i. e. Panammu i, 61 i. 

L. 6. PlKt? 1. 9, prob. = corn, Assyr. leu. rniK> The context re- 
quires some kind of grain. The use of the word here throws light upon 
Is. 28 25 mytS^ mis? nan, and shows that it is unnecessary to regard 
Tjifc as a corrupt repetition of mjfl?. mytn non Cf. njw, 'Cn 61 

5. 6 ; for prices in a time of plenty cf. 2 K. 7 i DTIKDI ^>pB>3 rf?D nND 
i>ptJ>3 D'nytJ'. In these words the fern, ending n (absol. state) is notice- 
able ; cf. nJT 1. 22. 63 20. 61 1 8 n., and the usage of Bibl. Aram, and 
Nabataean. DIB lit, half, a half mina, cf. CIS ii 10 BHB, explained 
in the Assyr. version as ' a half mina.' In Talm. B. Fed viii 5 DlBj as 
the context implies, = HJD ''Vn; cf. Dan. 5 25 DIB, and see Cl.-Gan. 
Rec. i 142 f. 7p5? = i>pn, the B> as in early Aram, inscrr. from 

Nineveh, CIS ii 13 f. 43, cf. Nt?!^ ib. 3. 3H35? The name of a 

dry (?) measure. There are traces of a letter after 1; perhaps the full 
form was n3"iBB>. 33 DK Cf. 33D CIS ii 7 a, in the Assyr. version, 

' two-thirds of a mina,' perhaps the Sumerian sinibu. r\WD The 

meaning drink (=WRW? Dan. 5 10) is too indefinite, and load, something 
carried (r\WD a fern, form of Kf?D) is equally vague. Lidzb. reads ntJ'D 
oil for anointing, cf. 76 C i (?). 147 ii a 12 flf. ; but the facsimile 
shows a n. i>3'l i. e. fe Pael pf. = ^aJ, 11. 14. 21. The object of 
the verb was prob. some such word as ' a present.' In consequence of 
the famine Panammu sought the protection of the Assyrian king, and 
no doubt had to purchase it by a gift. 

L. 7. ruta Pael pf. ; illustrate from 2 K. 24 17. nnt? J3K is 

rendered by DHM stone of destruction, cf. Js. 8 14. *)??.. I 3 ?. Such an 
expression sounds too rhetorical for an inscription ; moreover, }3X is 
an uncertain reading. ISN JD The sentence may be completed 

62] Zenjirli: Panammu 177 

HN' p"K [rb$]/rom the treasury of the gods of the land ofYadi. The 
reading p"W is better supported by the facsimile than Lidzb.'s H7K. 
The passage may be illustrated by 2 K. 16 8; cf. * JV3 nilVX i K. 
14 26 &c. 

L. 8. Btra DHM renders searched^ and compares t??Bte in Targ. and 
Talm. A better meaning, suppressed, may be obtained through the Assyr. 
pasdsu (DOS) = ' blot out,' ' extinguish,' esp. of sins. *B"in Afel 

pf. of <B1, cf. nain in Hebr., e. g. Cant. 3 4 ttBTK tfy\ Wnpc. Job 
27 6. n^ 3 Cf. D'lSO *3B> Is. 20 4. n^np Ptcp. pass, 

plur. fern. The form 7Dp agrees with the Arab. J^3 as against the 
Hebr. and Aram, 7Bp ; cf. B73 Hebr., Aram. = Arab. eJ. The 

meaning of 7K13P is unknown. 

L. 9. nnonp Lit. its former state', cf. JDDlp Eze. 16 55. 36 n. m 
/few, or whatever ; QI >j n. n73K cannot = iy3K /b0fi?, for the 

fern, ending of nouns is n in this inscr., e. g. non &c. The form seems 
to be perf. 3 sing. fern. . DB>1 if these letters are correct, may be 
restored n*ri^ or nriB>} and did drink. The subj. of both verbs is 
perhaps ['IK'], though in 61 9 ns 11 is mas., or [Kpix]. 

L. 10. H7T may be explained by the Talm. 71T be cheap, 7if cheapness, 
e.g. Midr. Rab. Qoh. 10 c 71T3 i>31K nn 1pV3 731N HT; Sab. Qam. 20 a 
i>1T3 piyt? 'on ' value of barley at a cheap price.' 11310 The form 

is uncertain ; DHM explains it as absol. st. of WiroiD = Hebr. ~M 
Num. 2019. DB> The subj. seems to be the king of Assyria. vyi 
331 may well mean charioteers, cf. D'enan ^JJ31 331H 2 S. 1 6 ; but 
^VBS ^y3 can hardly mean villagers, citizens of villages (see 1O 3 n.} 
in this connexion. To render lords over chariots, lords over villages, 
gives an unusual meaning to i>y3 owner, but it may bft illustrated by 
D*U ^y3 Is. 16 8. The meaning of n*B3 is uncertain ; see 61 
10 n. 3 . n . 1 Hal. restores 3BTU1 and was esteemed which involves 

a Nifal form (1. i n.) ; Lidzb. 3PVH. nyO3 See 61 28 n. The 

last letter looks like n or n in the facsimile ; but nyxo3 makes no 
sense. 133 ^D 1. 12. 133 may be the name of a place, cf. 

133 "TO Eze. 1 i &c., or a noun, might', cf. the verb 133 1. 4. 

L. u. 1? ... v sive . . . sive\ for 17 if see 61 13 n. It is question- 
able whether 17 could have been written for the negative N7, as many 
take it. The general sense appears to be, ' my father, whatever the 
state of his exchequer (or, however wealthy he may have been), was 
prudent enough to seek the patronage of a powerful suzerain.' Cf. 
63 10 f. 'a. Not my mouth, which would be ""Da 61 29. Lidzb. 

takes a as the conjunction, and^feiSsTrWB; but the impf. is out of 
place here, and the facsimile distinctly shows the dividing dot after 'a. 


1 78 Aramaic [62 

Possibly 'B may be an unusual form of the conjunction, = KB 1. 22. 
*p33 TPIN is a figure for seeking alliance and protection, cf. Zech. 
8 23. rwi From Nl 63 3 (constr. st.) with suff., cf. 76 A 7. 

In later Aram, the 3rd radical disappears before a suff., e. g. in Palm. 
pD 126 2 &c., though it is retained in the Nab. form NStOD 81 8 &c., 
and in the Bibl. Aram. WO Dan. 4 16. 21 Kethib. 

L. 12. VlB must be regarded as plur. absol., not constr., and as 
equivalent to the Hebr. rfina (sing. HHS), Assyr. pahdti ' viceroy ' ; see 
Schrader COT 186. >1&0 TIN Prob. 'members of the royal 

family, lit. brethren, of Ya'di.' PIN is apparently a title like ITN 
1. 3. nwn Possibly Pael perf. with suff. 3 sing. mas. from &on= 

run encamp ; ' he gave him a position in the Assyrian camp above the 
kings of KBR.' The suzerain was attended on his campaigns by 
dependent kings; cf. i K. 20 i. 12. 16. But the rendering caused him 
to encamp is uncertain; and as the context in 61 19 hardly admits 
/ encamped as the sense of JlKJn, it is perhaps better in both cases 
to take the forms from pn be gracious (DHM), although the N is 
difficult to explain. 133 'ota *?y Illustrate from 2 K. 25 28. 

L. 13. ^6a 63 8 the same word as the Hebr. P3p3, properly the 
wheel of a chariot, Is. 628. Jer. 47 3, or the chariot itself; illustrate 
from i K. 20 33. 2 K. 10 15. 16. The missing verb was prob. and 
he caused me to ride, or and I ran (63 8). "ID/DnPJn So written 

in 2 K. 16 7; elsewhere ">DK^>'n 2 K. 15 29. 16 10; in 63 3. 6 
ID^B'n. For the history of this warlike and successful king see 
Schrader COT 240 ff. JTJnD Prob. plur. rather than constr. sing. 

as in 11. 1 6. 17. The meaning here is armies or campaigns (DHM) 
rather than camps; cf. Jud. 4 \$i. i K. 22 34 &c. rune must be 
governed by some verb now lost. Npl = NttD, see 61 5 n. In 

Hebr. N is used of the sun rising, Gen. 19 23. Ps. 19 7. For 
3iy . . . XpID cf. Ps. 75 7. 

L. 14. plnjm Cf. 63 4 Kp-lK 'jm NIC (plur. constr.). The 

/ latter expression shows that njm (Hebr. 1??^ one fourth) is plur. and 

J not sing. ; cf. the Assyr. lar kibrat irbitti or arbdi ' king of the four 

I quarters,' a title used by Tiglath-pileser and the kings before and after 

. him ; KB ii 2. 8. 34 &c. vov NpID DJ31 The allusion is prob. 

to the transportation of subject nations, a characteristic feature of 

Assyrian policy. 1133 may be used figuratively for 'peoples' (cf. 

' daughter of Zion '), or simply women. 

L. 1 5. The connexion between this and the line before was prob., 
' my father rendered him military service, and his lord , . . added to his 
border cities &c.' (DHM). D313 Gurgum or Gamgum, mentioned 

62] Zenjirli: Panammu 179 

in inscrr. of Salmanassar ii, KB i 156. 172, a principality to the NE. 
of Satn'al among the border mountains between Syria and Cilicia, 
bounded by the districts of Kommagene (Assyr. KummuK) and 
Melitene (Milid} on the NE. In the Annals of Tiglath-pileser iii the 
name occurs between Samal and Milid, KB ii 30. The chief town 
was Marqasi (CIS ii p. i.q)={ypip=, A&J-I ; we may conclude that 
the Amanus district round Mar'ash formed the kingdom of Gurgum ; j 
Sachau Sitzungsb. Preuss. Akad. (1892) pp. 320 ff. 

L. 1 6. 31B> Prob. a pr. n. ; cf. 13OB> Jud. 5 6, and p. 80 n. DJ1 
61 8 n. n3^3 By metathesis for ^3*13 ; cf. in Mandaic ma^= Jl^i, 
K3p1K = Jojjxx scorpion, Nold. Mand. Gram. 74. ii3J?3 Lit^o/ the 
feet_Qf\ cf. for the idiom Jud % 4 10. i S. 25 27 &c. 

L. 17. fTOSI i.e. prob. fi^ Pael pf. 3 sing., cf. 65 5 ^33. The 
construction of the words following is obscure. DrVK, though sing, in 
form (61 30), must have a plur. meaning; it may be regarded as 
a sing, collective. DHM takes 13^0 as=Nni3^O, cf. 1133 61 n ; but 
his royal kinsmen would be 13^D T nrPX. Lidzb. simplifies the difficulty 
by rendering his kinsmen, the kings ; apparently treating the abstract 
singular form as equivalent to a concrete plur., like 1H7K in 61 2 
(uncertain). n|?3 The suff. is fern., referring back to HJV331 

'D rune. For this idiomatic use of i>3 with suff., cf. 1. 19 rfo .1TV3, 
in Syr. o^o Jfco-^ao Nold. Syr. Gr. 218, in Hebr. Is. 9 8. Jer. 13 

19 &c., in Arab. Hi o4-*tf Wright Ar. Gr. ii 82 (a); cf. 89 5 ." 

L. 1 8. nt?33 See 61 17 n. DpH1 i.e. Qi?ni_. TIB>D, if cor- 

rect, will=nnBtDy^aj/, a meaning which hardly agrees with . . Dprn 
niN3. Hal. reads "aPD (VflSfc), a possible alternative, and compares 
JVafe'O f3N Lev. 26 i. Num. 33 52, i.e. a figured stone with an image 
of a god ; this gives a suitable sense. The reading i33O a weeping 
(Sach. &c.) is not that of the facsimile. The passage finds a striking 
illustration in Gen. 5Q_7~i3.' pBtST }D *3S 13ym The subj. of 
the verb is Tiglath-pileser, who was engaged upon the siege of 
Damascus ^,733-2 B.C. After 732 he returned home, and no further 
expedition to Syria is recorded; see Schrader COT 258 f. 1B>si' 

i. e. prob. to his native place. Panammu would naturally desire to be 
buried in his own country; cf. Gen. 47 29 f. 50 25. Ex. 13 19. Josh. 

L. 19. 3313 A careless spelling of 33113. 'OSCJ'in . . . 33K 

The casus pendens, with the pers. pron. as subject ; similarly in Hebr. 
Gen. 24 27 &c.; Driver Tenses 197 (4). The form '33N (61 i 
a stranger to Aram., is a peculiar feature of this dialect ; see 
N a 

180 Aramaic [63 

p. 185. '13) '2N p*TC3 The phrase occurs again in 63 4 f. and in 

the basalt fragment (1. 3 n.) . . ['pnai ]3M p*l3 ; cf. 65 2. The 

line may be completed KD13 7y -NS?N 170, as in 63 6 f. 

L. 20. noun i. e. noen. After }T 3 we may restore >[3K7 "OT] 
0,r a? memorial to my father. n . . D1 Sach. reads IVJai. 

The remainder of the inscr. is in many parts so much injured that 
the exact sense cannot be recovered. The general purport of 1. 21 
seems to be the safeguarding of the statue and sepulchre (?) ; 11. 22 f. 
probably invoke the curse of the gods upon any attempt to violate the 
memorial. The inscr, thus closes in the same way as 61, but with 
less elaborate detail. 

L. 21. "ION may be either pf. 3 sing., or impf. i sing. nttWDS 

Sach. connects with the Hebr. niNK>D portions, gifts, and the Phoen. 
nnNtJTD 42 i, and renders 'he gave orders in the matter of offerings/ 
Hoffm. derives the form from the \/JV55>. The meaning must remain 
obscure. ?T 7V Sach. concerning produce, Hebr. 7^. }DK 

Perhaps surety, 61 1 1 . 73 I| 1 ? and he_br ought, \. 6. 

L. 22. ND POT 13t The rendering given above is conjectural. For 
this is a memorial we should expect the order 13T NH ntf, as in Hebr. 
* ITO Kin m i Chr. 21 31. Qoh. liy. The idiom is frequent in 
post-bibl. Hebr., and in Aram., e.g. Dan. 4 27 Nnan 792 N'n NT vbn 
&c. ; Driver Tenses 201 (3) Obs. Normally the pronoun Kin 
anticipates, the subject, which comes last (this is it, Babylon) ; but 
here the subject comes first for emphasis, and the pronoun reiterates 
it (a memorial, this is it). Similarly in Syr., the pronoun may 
refer either backwards or forwards to the subject ; Nold. Syr. Gr. 
311. ND See 61 17 n. 'U1 Yin See 61 2 n. n^ 7V2 

owner of the temple (615 f.) rather than f patron of the royal house.' 

L. 23. BON . . >n!>N Cf. 69 20 BOfcO JH7N. Jud. 9 9. 13 D'tMN) DTJ7N. 

63. Zenjirli : Bar-rekub. Same period as 62. Imp. Museum, 

ma* i 

68] Zenjirli: Bar-rekub 181 

hy - -iD^srfan KTW 6 

y a nrar w wans 7 

^--ba s 

n 10 


fyar tp ii 

pf?a nn * na p 13 
ihni j 14 
i wa nab n& W? K 15 


XHD $ 1 18 
r fcW3*n^'Nnv^n 19 



I am Bar-rekub, 2 son of Panammu, king of Sam'al, servant 
of Tiglath-pileser lord 4 of the four parts of the earth. For 

the righteousness of my father and for my own righteousness 
my lord Rekub-el 6 and my lord Tiglath-pileser made me 
to sit upon 7 the throne of my father. And my father's house 


laboured more than all : and I ran at the wheel 9 of my lord, 

the king of Assyria, in the midst of mighty kings, possessors 

of silver and possessors of gold. And I took 12 the house 
of my father, and made it better 13 than the house of any 
of the mighty kings ; and my brethren the kings coveted (?) 
15 all the prosperity of my house. And 16 a good house (?) 
my fathers, the kings of Sam'al, did not possess; it was 
a house of ? 18 to them, and it was their summer house 19 and 
it was a winter house ; so 2t) I built this house. 

1 82 Aramaic [63 

This inscr. belongs not to a statue, like 61 and 62, but to a 
building the new palace built by Bar-rekub. It was found in 1891 
on the Tell of Zenjirli. On the left side of the inscr. is a figure of the 
king in Assyrian style carved in relief, holding a lotus flower in his 
hand. Another fine relief of Bar-rekub has been found at Zenjirli: 
the king is seated on his throne, with a eunuch behind and a scribe 
in front of him. On the right, and at the level of the king's crown, 
is carved the inscr. [l]D3a 13 33113 DJN. In the middle of the 
monument, between the head of the king and that of the eunuch, 
is the symbol of the lunar deity, a full moon and crescent ; at the 
right of it runs the legend pr6y3 'NIO i.e. 'My lord is Ba'al of 
Harran.' Harran, in N. Mesopotamia, possessed the great temple of 
Sin, the Assyr. moon-god ; and this was no doubt the deity whom 
Bar-rekub worshipped ; see 64 9 n. HaleVy Rev. Sent. (189 5) 392 ff.; 
Cl.-Gan. tit. ii 213, Rec. ii 40, Album d'Ant. Or. PI. xlvi (facsimile). 

L. i. nJS 1. 20. 68 i. 73 A 3; contrast -pN 61 i. WK 62 19. The 
Aram, character of the dialect is more strongly marked in this inscr. 
thajTin inTtwQLpreceding ones. 33111 The same person as the 

donor of 62; he was reigning prob. in the years 732-727 B. c. 

L. 2. |jKt? ita The outline of the history of Sam'al may be 
traced in Assyr. inscrr. for about 233 years. It is first mentioned, 
as a country, by Salmanassar ii (860-825 B. c.), who defeated a 
coalition of N. Syrian kings at the beginning of his reign, KB i 156 f.: 
Sam'al was then an independent state. It is mentioned next by 
Tiglath-pileser iii in 738 and 734 B. c., as a town, with a king 
Panammu, KB ii 20. 30: at this period it became tributary. Then, 
in 68 1 B.C., the provincial governor of Sam'al gave his name to the 
first year of Asarhaddon (681-668 B.C.), Smith Eponym. Canon 68; 
and in 670 Asarhaddon made Sam'al a halting-place on his return 
from Egypt. By this time it had become part of the Assyrian empire. 
Lastly, the name appears in two lists of Syrian towns, temp. 
Asurbanipal (668-626 B.C.), which must have been written before the 
end of his reign, Rawlinson Cun. Inscrr. of W. Asia ii 53 i 1. 43 ; 
53 3 1. 6 1 ; Sachau 58 ff. The situation of Sam'al may be inferred 
from the occurrence of the name in the inscrr. between Gurgum 
(62 15 n.) and Patin or Hamath (KB i 156; ii 20. 30); it lay in the 
country between the_riversJPyramos on the N. an^ Oj-nntes nn the S., 
al the foot of the Amanus jnguntains. The name has a Semitic 
sound, and perhaps, like the Hebr. PKOfc?, means left, geographically 
north. In this inscr. Bar-rekub, son of Panammu ii, calls himself 
'king of Sam'al' and his ancestors 'kings of Sam'al' 11. 2. i6f., but 

63] Zenjirli: Bar-rekub 183 

Panammu ii is styled ' king of Ya'di ' in 62, and likewise Panammu i 
in 61. The question arises, what is the relation between the two 
districts or cities? Sam'al, it seems, was ruled by the dynasty of 
Panammu ii and Bar-rekub ; Tiglath-pileser speaks of ' Panammu 
of Sam'al' (supr.); and we may suppose that Ya'di, which had 
Panammu i for its king in an earlier generation (see 61 i .), was 
attached to the neighbouring state of Sam'al in the time of 
Panammu ii, perhaps as a reward for his fidelity to the king of 
Assyria. The fact that a king of Sam'al and a king of Ya'di bore 
the same name, though belonging to different families, may be merely 
accidental or due to some previous alliance by marriage (Winckler 
A Itor. Forsch. i i5ff.). It is curious, however, that Bar-rekub. if he 
ruled over both places, in 62 makes no mention of Sam'al, and in 
63 says nothing libout Ya^dT Whether Zenjirli belonged to Ya'di 

or to Sam'al in ancient times is not clear: for bothT^STT^TS^ and 
- v 

63 (?NDB>) were found there. The Hadad statue (61), which was 
found at Gerjin near Zenjirli, was certainly a product of Ya'di. 
Winckler argues that Zenjirli and Gerjin belonged to Ya'di, and 
were situated near the southern border of Sam'al, the neighbouring 

L. 3. "iD^srfan liy See 62 13 .; illustrate from 2 K. 16 7. 

L. 4. Npns >jm In 62 14 pixnyil. Kp~lX is a clear instance 
of the emphatic state, cf. fctota 1. 14. NJV2 1. 20, and perhaps Nine?, 
N1P3 11. 1 8 f. In 61 and 62 this characteristic Aram, usage does not 
occur. 3M plS3 Cf. 62 19. 

L. 5. J*aan See 61 2 n. 

L. 7. ND13 See 15 2 n. ^oy Perf. 3 sing, or ptcp., probably 

laboured, idled, as in Aram., Arab., and late Hebr.; p will then have 
a comparative sense. Bar-rekub claims that his family was the most 
zealous of all the princely houses in the service of the suzerain. 

L. 8. &foa mm Lit. / ran at the wheel, i. e. followed the chariot ; 
cf. 62 13, and contrast i S. 8 u inuaiD VSi? ivn. 

L. 9. njTCD3 See 61 28 n. 

L. 10. pim pi?D The form of the plur. is clearly Aram. ; see 61 
4 n. The reduplicated form of m is common in the Targ., N2")?!; 
in Syr. Juiioi. '1:1 v\D3 ^yi Cf. 62 n; ^yi in this sense is 

frequent in the O. T., e.g. Qoh. 5 10. 12 &c. 

L. 12. nmt^ni Perhaps out of spoils of the campaign; Cl.-Gan. 
Rec. ii 103. 

L. 13. nn See 61 27 . 

L. 14. UNJnn is a double reflexive form, Ethnafal, from il3N or 

1 84 Aramaic [63 

from as 1 " (i.e. ^bnn), the latter being frequent in Syr. in the 
Ethpa. ok 17, in Hebr. Ps. 119 131 TDK'. The meaning is prob. 
they wished for themselves, \. e. coveted. Hoffm, compares the Assyr. 
Ittanafal form in ittanabriq ' flash forth,' and the Ethiop. reflexive with 
prefixed tau (Dillmann Gram. Ath. Spr? 1 50). Sachau unnecessarily 
supposes an error for UUnn. N'ata See 1. 4 n. 

L. 15. no W> The h is governed by lawnn; n adds a vaguely 
intensifying force to ^3, as the Arab. L after an indef. noun ; in Palm. 
Kta 147 i 12. H3D Either sing. TUB or plur. TUB. 

L. 1 6. '3 is perhaps for JV3, the final n being dropped; it is 
difficult to obtain sense if *3 is the prep, with suff. >\wb i. e. wb 

there was not, with sufF. 3 sing, mas., nfe^p, without the final *'; cf. 
moip 66 z for VilBlp. W^ is a contracted form of p &6, cf. the 
Arab, <_J!J (inflected like a verb), Aram. IV?, V^S^, Mand. IV N^, 
and the Assyr. la isu ' is not,' ' has not.' In the second Nrab inscr. 
the negative shows the same tendency to assimilate itself to the 
word following and to lose the N, thus rnKD&6 65 4. Myth 6- 
D3nn!? 8. >H3K Plur. with suff., cf. 'nras Dan. 2 23. For the n 

inserted cf. fines? from DtP Ezr. 5 4, and 9 3 n. 

L. 17. HO in this and the foil, lines means palace more naturally 
than mausoleum. 1D73 Perhaps = Assyr. kaldmu ' all/ ' of every kind.' 
' A house of totality ' will then mean ' a single house ' or ' a house for 
everything ' ; it was the only palace which Bar-rekub's ancestors 
possessed. Another possible explanation is that }D?3 stands by 
metathesis for 13^D=nD^D 'a royal palace,' see 62 i7.; so Hoffm., 
Cl.-Gan., Lidzb.(P). 

L. 1 8. Di"6 with the suff. on' for pn'; so in Egypt. Aram., e.g. 
DH3D3 76 A i ; in Nab., e. g. Dni> 85 2. DH33 895; in B. Aram., e. g. 
Jer, 1 1 1 and Ezr. (by the side of pn', but Dan. has only pn') ; and in 
Targ. Ps.-Jon. Nin&5>=Arab. *llA, Hebr. inD Cant. 2 n. 

L. 19. WM = NV^p, cf. ^D3* = "JI^Bp* 64 ii. ^13 = ^1p 75 2 ; 
similarly the Arab. <sl^ = Hebr. pHX, Mand. NBPtt = Hebr. 
For the winter and summer palace cf. Am. 815 Ppnn n^3, ppn 
and Jer. 36 22. NX''3=Aram. Kp, Arab. J^J. 

L. 20. NJV3 See 1. 4 n. 

Additional note on the dialect of the Zenjirli inscriptions. 
There can be no doubt that this dialect belongs to the Aramaic, 
rather than to any other branch of the Semitic family. Thus the words 

mx, pnx, na, in, Nona, (n)m, JOD, Da, Dip, pnan ; the forms 

63] Zenjirli 185 

61 15. 1*133 ii. nat 31. to 62 i7(?); the ending n of the fern. 
absol. 62 6 n. ; the plur. ending in n, pnai p^D 63 10. 13. )B^tJ> 62 
3 n., and without , TiijN 61 4 . ; the sufF. 3 sing. m. in n' and 3 plur. 
in on' 63 i8.; thejiccus. sign ni 61 28; the relative n; rnn=nrvn 

62 2; the impf. forms p"V, Wri &c. 61 22. nan 1 '!', Je6 &c. 61 
23 n. the use of the perf. with weak waw ; the absence of the article, 
and the use of the emphatic form in 63; all these forms and usages 
are characteristic of Aramaic. On the other hand there are features 
which exhibit an affinity to the Canaanite group, Hebrew, Moabite, 
Phoenician, e. g. ^N, 'MK, ' 61 10. 20, D3, iTfl, nn, *13T, It, ppn, Kin, 
N^, np!>, JJ1J ; the impf. 3 plur. in ^ 61 4 n. ; the infin. without 
prefixed D ; while passages abound which find illustrations or parallels 
in the O.T., see esp. 61 9. 16. 18. 23. 29. 62 2. 3. 4. 6. 7. n. 13. 18. 
19. 63 3. 19 with the notes. Even more significant is the way in 
which this dialect allies itself with Hebr. (and Assyrian) rather than 
with the usual Aram., in the following consonantal equations, the first 
three of which are also characteristic of the dialect of NSrab, 64. 65 : 

Arab. Aram. Hebr. Zenj. 

3 = n = r = r, e. g. n, |t, rar, nnr, -or, TI-IK, ros 1 . 
v> = n = p = p, e. g. 3B, ^pp, *KW, fthv. 

J& = 3 s= V = It, e. g. NV3 63 19. 

LT = P (V) = v = p, e.g. pis, *pn, NpiD (61 5 .). 

In the last equation the alliance is with Aram., not with Hebrew. 
These facts point to the conclusion that the dialect belongs to an early 
stage of Aramaic, and differs in many respects from the later literary 
Aramaic, particularly in a closer resemblance to the language of the 
O.T. and of the early Aram, inscrr. from N6rab, Babylon, and Egypt 
(61 i n. 4 n. 5 n, 62 6 n. 63 19 n. &c.). It was a local dialect, with 
certain peculiarities of, its own (e. g. p and, TOD, TD1, t?v, J"I19 ?), some 
of which show a kinship with Arabic (e. g. B, Dt?N, TO ^2, *T = ji, 
111 &c.) ; and no doubt it was influenced by contact with Assyria. 
The Hittite kingdom once predominated in the neighbourhood of 
Ya'di and Sam'al 2 , but the nature of its influence upon these petty 
states is not known at present. 

1 This equation is found also in the Aran). of Nineveh 66, Babylon CIS ii 65. 
69-71, Asia Minor (Abydos 67, Cilicia 68. 149 A 6), Tfrna (Arabia) 69. 70, and 
Egypt 71. 74-77. It is characteristic of the Aram, of the early period, 8th~4th 
cent. B.C., as used in the Assyrian and Persian empires. The forms n, p, mi, Nt are 
specially significant as distinguishing the old from the later Aram, of the O.T., 
Nab., Palm., and Palest, dialects (see p. 26). 

3 Lagrange Rev, Biblique (1901) 30 f. 35 Rel. Sim. (1903) 44. 50. 

1 86 Aramaic [64 

64. Nerab 1. Prob. vii cent. B. c. Louvre. 















b&n nn^ 


nrb row pn p *pBM ^ 10 


Of Sin-zir-ban, priest 2 of Sahar in Nrab, deceased. 3 And 
this is his image 4 and his couch. 5 Whosoever thou art 6 that 
shalt plunder this image 7 and couch 8 from its place, 9 may 
Sahar and Shamash and Nikal and Nusk pluck 10 thy name 
and thy place out of life, and with a ? death u kill thee, and 
cause thy seed to perish ! But if 12 thou shalt protect this 
image and couch, 13 may another protect 14 thine ! 

The two inscrr. 64 and 65 were found in 1891 at NSrab, a small 
village SE. of Aleppo. They accompany the bas-reliefs of two priests 
of the local sanctuary, finely executed in the Assyrian manner and 
singularly well preserved. No. 64 represents the priest Sin-zir-ban, 
with hands raised and joined in prayer; the upper part of the inscr. 
surrounds the head and hands, the lower part is written across the 
robe. The writing is not so archaic and rigid as that of the Zenjirli 

64] N&rab 1 187 

inscrr., while it belongs to an earlier stage than that of the inscrr. 
from Tema (69. 70). An indication of date is afforded by the names 
of the deities mentioned. They are clearly Assyrian ; and ' the moon- 
god at N6rab/ the chief deity of the place, can be none other than 
the Assyrian Sin, whose great temple was at Harran. The worship of 
Sin had already made its way from Harran to N. Syria in the time 
of Bar-rekub, before 727 B.C. (see p. 182) ; and from the same quarter 
it found a home at N6rab. The temple at Harran was destroyed 
by the Medes in 605 and restored by Nabonid in fifi2. Cl.-Ganneau, 
with much plausibility, dates these monuments from this period. He 
suggests that after the catastrophe of 605, N6rab offered the hospitality 
of a shrine to the moon-god and his allied divinities (fit. ii 222). 

L. i. plWW The first letter is not distinctly cut, but the traces are 
clear enough to justify the reading (Lidzb., Cl.-Gan. Rec. iii 106 f.). 
This tJ> must be the relative and sign of the genitive ; cf. 65 i, and 
similarly in Phoen., at the head of an inscr., 39 2 n. In Aram, we 
should expect n at this period (e. g. NSD3 n CIS ii 70) ; but the usage 
here is perhaps influenced by the Assyr. la (possessive). p"ittS? The 
name is Assyr., Sin-zir-ban ' Sin has created a son,' a suitable name 
for a priest of ini}>= Sin, the moon-god; cf. Marduk-zir-bdni CIS ii 
18 end. 1D3 65 i. 69 23. b 2; Nab. 98 4; Syr. Jiaooa; 

NPun. 55 7 (see n.}. The VSlM may be connected with the Assyr. 
kamdru 'lay prostrate,' hence "ID3 priest, lit. 'one who prostrates 

L. 2. nn&> i.e. the moon} Aram. 1HD, "irPD, lift; Arab.^-l; cf. 
Hebr. D^in'B' 'moon-shaped ornaments/ Jud. 8 21. 26. Is. 3 18; see 
further on 1. 9. 2133 nnt? the moon-god at Nerab 65 i. For the 

expression see 24 2 n. ; it implies that the deity was imported from 
elsewhere. 313 is still called ^>j-^\ . Three places of this name were 
known to antiquity, this one near Aleppo, another near Sermin (27^ m. 
SE. of Aleppo), and a third near Damascus. Nireb is mentioned 
in the list of Thothmes iii, Rec. of the Past, new ser., v 33 ; and 
Stephanus Byz. s. v. Nr/pa/Jos gives TroAis Hvptas, possibly, but not 
certainly, referring to the Nerab here. It is not unlikely that N6rab 
acknowledged the suzerainty of Assyria at this period, judging from 
the strongly marked impress of Assyr. influence on these inscriptions. 

L. 3. fUT See add. note ii p. 26. 

L. 4. nnx*lN 1. 7 NnviN = Wlteny (Ci.-Gan. fit. ii 196, Lidzb.) lit. 
couch, here sarcophagus 65 8, cf. Dt. 3 1 1 ^T12 BHy ; Palm. N65 > ny=/cAtv>;, 
Inscr. of Tayyibe, p. 296 n.i. For the orthography cf. }lbpl?K= ^ *~.g, 
is holy CIS ii 312 (Hoffm. ZA xi 211), and in 

1 88 Aramaic [64 

Mand. NBN=NDy=By, Nold. Mand. Gr. 58 n. For =-1? cf. pmp 
and pnK". 

L. 5 f. D3nn n JO Cf. 65 8, the indefinite rel. JO as in Nab. 94 5 
n $>3 |, n }D, and in Palm. 147 H a 34. 45 ff. n JO. Cl.-Gan. finds 
a similar construction in 4 3 pan tJ>X DIN ^3 TIN H D ; but see note 
in loc. The general sense of Dim 65 8. 9 is clear from the context, 
but the etymology is uncertain. The form may be explained as the 
Hafel, or rather Peal, impf. of wn=DJN carry off by force, rob, a root 
frequent in the Targums, the n being written for X as *]\T for TN, 1?n for 
"^K 73 A i ; so Hoffm. 212. Or it may be the Hafel impf. apoco- 
pated of XDJ = MM (cf. 5 5) treated as a n'i> verb, with the n retained 
in Hafel as in vnxn 1. n (Cl.-Gan. 197 f.). The first explanation is 
perhaps preferable. 

L. 8. rrWK Cf. 61 27 n. Note that p, as in the dialect of Zenjirli, 
here = Aram. n=Arab. >; see p. 185. 

L. 9. *\wy\ h^y\ PCEI "int? 65 9. Sahar (1. 2 n.) is the Aram, 
equivalent of the Assyr. Sin, the moon-god (*intJ> mas.) of Harran. 
Not only Sahar, but the other gods of Nrab are Assyrian in origin. 
Thus Sin, Shamash, [Nergal], Nusku are invoked along with other 
deities, and in this order, by Salmanassar ii and frequently by Aur- 
banipal, e.g. KB i 130. ii I54f. 176 ff. 210. 216 ff. &c. In the 
cylinder from Abu-Habba (Sippar) Nabonid, 555-538 B.C., records 
how he rebuilt I-hul-hul, the temple of Sin at Harran, which had 
been founded by Salmanassar ii and refounded by Asurbanipal. In 
connexion with his work of restoration, Nabonid calls upon these 
same gods in the order Sin, Ningal (instead of Nergal), Shamash, 
[Ishtar], Nusku; KB Hi 2 roof. We may conclude, therefore, that 
along with Sin, these other deities, associated with the moon-god, were 
imported from Harran. The god Shamash has been found already at 
Zenjirli, see 61 2 n. Nikal is no doubt the same as Ningal mentioned 
by Nabonid, the n being assimilated, and the k interchanged with g, 
as in Tukulti=.Tbyr\ in iD^DD^in ; moreover Jensen (ZA xi 296 f.) 
shows that the Sumerian NIN-GAL would be pronounced by the 
Assyrians Nikal or NikkaL This form actually occurs as the name of 
the goddess, A^ti ^i=>, worshipped at Harran in The Doctrine of 
Addai, ed. Phillips 24 1. 17; and the same passage enumerates the 
other gods, K'ijti the eagle, prob. a copyist's misreading of IBO in 
the original, r^icoJto the moon-god, and KlxJSix- the sun-god. In 
the inscr, of Nabonid, 1. c., Ningal ( => Nikal) is said to be the consort of 
Sin, and ' the mother of the great gods/ Nusku, the son of Sin, was 
a fire-god, the messenger of Bel; Jensen I.e. 295, Jastrow Rel. of 

65] N$rab 2 189 

Bab. and Assyr. 220 f. The above argument is clearly stated by 
Cl.-Gan. 2 1 1-2 2 1. V1D From HD3 tear out, cf. fiDW nyiTI imnoa* 

69 14 (optative). Ezr. 6 n; in Hebr. Pr. 2 22. Ps. 52 7 &c. For 
the impf. 3 plur. in A for un cf. VilNiV 1. n. I^NOn 11 65 9, and see 
61 4 w. 

L. 10. pn \Q from life rather than/hwz /fo living, the plur. being 
in the absol. state, and having an abstract sense, like D'OlpT &c.; cf. 

pn nyi <z</ /0 /*/<? CIS H 163 d. pTia rims Dan. 712. men 

fir6 A second accus. of manner after the direct obj. in "]1^03* 1. 1 1 ; 
cfTMal. 3 24 Din psn nx warn. Ps. 64 8 pn D ' n ^ D< ?.*1. The 
meaning of nni> is unknown. Various explanations are possible: 
thus, a destructive death, Syr. U^x destroy ; a death in full vigour, 
Hebr. r& fresh, cf. "Op ^N r6 Kin Ber. Rab. 79 ; a ignominious 
death, Arab. us i-, ^5*^* ignominious. The general sense must be the 
same as nnnDO 1B>K3iT 65 9 f. 

L. ii. T^BS 1 ' With 3 for p cf. N^3 63 19, n$2 = )^io crr^r &c., 
Wright C<?^. Gr. 50. naNHM For the n retained in Hafel 

impf. cf. IK'Nan' 1 65 9. [pQjjrp 69 21, and the usage in B.Aram., 
^B^n) Dan. 7 24. pt^nn Ezr. 4 13. The Peal of TIN occurs in 65 10. 

L. 12. "teJn As in the Zenjirli inscrr., X = Hebr. X = Aram. D = 
Arab. Jo; cf. 60T3 63 19, and see p. 185. The 3 is not assimilated; cf. 
Ps. 61 8 &c., WinDJ 11 69 14, and contrast ino' 1. 9. 

L. 13. mriN 65 8 a curious form, not easy to account for. Hoffm., 
213 ff., points it rnnNj an older form of HJl?* w ^ tn n ^r added to the 
root as in njTL (from JTi), HJZip, n^J* ; then, he says, to this ofyorf was 
added the nominal ending J . The addition ii-^- to a triliteral root is, 
however, a very rare occurrence, and it is doubtful whether it would be 
attached to such a common word as 1HN. It seems much more likely 
that mnN is merely the emphatic form, with n for N, mnx being 
an early form of the usual NJ1H1N, Ui~/. 

65. Ndrab 2. Prob. same date as 64. Louvre. 

mtt TIP TM naap i 

ntonp 'np-na na 1 ^ HJT a 

w % *jini ib D^ 3fip 3 

p Tnn^ ^e nna DV^ 4 

yai ruK nrna ^ai 5 

190 Aramaic [65 

tbnriK Dim * 6 
cy prm spa 7 

ppyn n p nnK wnrfc mri^S s 
TIP *3ttnni 9 
nmn&o nnnaa 10 

Of Agbar, priest of Sahar in Nrab : 2 this is his image. 
For my righteousness before him 3 he gave me a good name 
and prolonged my days. 4 In the day that I died my mouth 
was not closed from words ; 5 and with my eyes what do 
I see ? Children of the fourth generation ! They wept 6 for 
me, and were utterly distracted (?). And they did not lay 
with me any vessel 7 of silver or bronze ; with my shroud 
they laid me, so that 8 for another (?) thou shouldest not 
plunder my couch. Whosoever thou art that shalt injure 
9 and plunder me may Sahar and Nikal and Nusk make 
his death miserable, 10 and may his posterity perish ! 

The priest Agbar is represented sitting, in the act of offering a 
libation before an altar. Facing him from behind the altar stands an 
attendant, holding a fan. The treatment of the scene recalls an 
Egyptian funeral rite, but the style of the figures is thoroughly Assyrian. 

L. i. "133X1? For & see 64 i n. The name Agbaru occurs in an 
Assyr.-Aram. inscr., CIS ii 42 end ; cf. the name of a chief in the 
Amanus district, Gabbari, KB i 162. The title as in 64 i. 

L. 2. ^Dp-rca See 62 19 n. 3 9. monp before him, Dip 62 21; 

or the suff. cf. mat* 62 2. i ., Palm, mn Vogue" 21. 80 4. 

L. 3. ao DP Cf. DJ?3 DP 9 6. 'OV "pKm Cf. 3 9. 

L. 4. nno Prob. perf. i sing., JTTID. If the form were a noun, the 
sufF. i sing, would be needed. TnNJ"lN7 In this inscr. i> is written 

for *6, lOP^ 1. 6. DJnr6 1. 8. 63 16 . mNDK is the Ethpeal of TriK= 
Syr. inN (see p. 185) to be closed, hindered from . . , e. g. *U?* . . t*ials 
Eze. 33 22, sometimes followed by ^io, as here. The general sense 
may be illustrated by Deut. 34 7. 

L. 5. fUN nm Oratio directa: 'D = HO what? or how? For the 
abbreviation cf. tOQ 61 3. 4. 22. HTn is the ptcp. = ntn. yai = 

Hebr. Q^?1 Ex. 20 5. 34 7 &c. JTM i. e. ^133 Pael perf. 3 plur. 

65] Ntrab 2 191 

with suff. ; cf. n'OS 62 17. The perf. 3 plur. in this dialect ends in 
4, not tin, e. g. 1B> 1. 6, cf. 10p 61 2. unJ ib. 20 ; read, therefore, 
not }m. Before the suff. the 3 of the 3 plur. reappears, e. g. 
1. 7. Hoffm. (I.e. 224) reads }133 as= 1| 3133; but in this inscr. the suff. 
is always written. 

L. 6. nonnx Dim Lidzb.'s explanation of these difficult words may 
be accepted provisionally (Eph. i 193). He takes Din as an abstr. 
noun used as infin. abs., and llDnnx as Ethpe. pf. 3 plur. of Din lit. 
murmur, discomfit, fig. be distracted, as in Hebr. e. g. Ps. 55 3. Hoffm. 
suggests IDnnsn inv }13n ' they wept for me Oh woe! the hundred of 
them/ taking inv as = ovai, Heb. 'in, 'IN, Syr. o, OM, and lonnso 
as = tonrixp (cf. linflpri Dan. 3 23) ; the form of the suff. is unusual, 
and must be treated as a case of the separate pron. ton (76 B 4) being 
used as a suff., cf. Hebr. tlftfoi Eze. 40 16. nirvn s 13 1 XI . 73 B 2 ; 
Kautzsch Lehrg. ii 447. 1B>h i. e. 1D& fc6l. JND Cf. Dan. 

5 2 NSD31 Nnm "OKD. 4 5 . 5 5. 

L. 7. jytoi? Apparently = Hebr. lypb *' onfcr that. 

L. 8. DJnr6 mnsi' The construction gives difficulty. It is natural 
to suppose that rnriN and DJnn are the same forms as in 64 6. 13. 
Taking the 7 with both words as the negative, repeated for emphasis, 
we may render : ' in order that thou other one shouldest not 
plunder.' But such a construction is almost intolerably harsh ; the h 
with ninN may be the prep.,/~0r another (dat. commodi). DN p 

See 64 5 n. 

L. 9. For the gods see 64 9 n. It^an 11 The Hafel as in 64 

1 1 n. The V E>N3 occurs in all the cognate languages, Aram. &W3, 
*,U be evil, cf. B*K3 75 2 ; Arab, y-tj ib. ; Assyr. # ' evil ' ; Hebr. 

L. 10. nnnn his manner of death ; the change of persons after 
DN JO 1. 8 is curious. -For the meaning cf. nX110 manner of running 
2 S. 18 27, and for the form cf. Targ. KnO, NniD ; here the 
fern, ending is added to the root HID. nmriN In Nab. nnN 

(Arab. JiJ) is used in the sense of posterity ^ e.g. 79 2. 82 3 &c.; 
illustrate from Num. 24 20 1?N HJ| ^nnnK). The vivid style of 

the inscr. is noticeable, and recalls passages in 4. 5. 61, where similar 
imprecations are to be found. 

192 Aramaic 

66. Nineveh. CIS ii 1. End of viii cent. B.C. Brit. Mus. 

Illllllllllllll " 

p n] pa npy wan * 

# 15 double (?) minas of the country. 

b 15- 

c Fifteen double (?) minas of the king. 

The inscr. is written upon one of the bronze lion-weights found at 
Nineveh ; CIS ii 1-14. Twelve of these weights have Assyr. as well 
as Aram, inscrr., and bear the names of Salmanassar, Sargon, and 
Sennacherib ; they belong, therefore, to the viii-vii cent. 

a. p In Babyl. written ideographically MA . NA, of Sumerian, 
but possibly Semitic, origin; Hebr. D^E fr m n ?9 Eze. 45 12 &c., 
iwa. The mina was the unit in the Babylonian system of weights, 
which was based on the sexagesimal principle; hence 60 shekels = 
one mina, and 60 minas = one talent. 1 Prob. a symbol for 

double ; CIS ii 2. 3. 4. In the Babyl. system there was a double series 
of weights, a heavy and a light one. The heavy mina = 982-4 
grammes = 15160 grains, circ. 2^ Ib. avoir,; the light mina was half 
the weight, i.e. 491-2 grammes = 7580 grains, circ. ij 3 ^ Ib. avoir. 
The present weight weighs a little over 32 Ib. 14 oz. ; when new 
it prob. weighed about 33 Ib. 6 oz. ; its value, therefore, is that of the 
heavy standard. These lion-weights belong some to the one class, 
some to the other ; the light weights sometimes have the shape of 
a duck. See Kennedy, art. Weights and Measures, Hastings' Diet. 
Bibl.\ Benzinger Hebr. Arch. 180 ff. ; Nowack Lehrb. Hebr. Arch. 
i 206 ff. n Sigh of the genit. ; 61 i n. Njntf 61 5 . 

c . *)^D In Aram, yshv would be usual ; the form is prob. due to 
Assyr. influence (Corp.). The ' minas of the king ' corresponds to the 
Assyr. mana la Sarrf, cf. Hebr. itari pN 2 S. 14 26 (prob. a post-exilic 
addition, giving the weight by the Persian standard). These weights 
were found among the foundations of a royal palace, underneath 
a colossal winged bull; most of them bear the king's name in the 
Assyrian versions of the inscriptions. 

67] Abydos 193 

67. Abydos. CIS ii 108. vi-v cent. B.C. Brit. Mus. 

KfiDS T N'inD hlph pfiDN a 

A 3 

Correct (?) according to the commissioners (?) of money. 

This lion-weight, found at Abydos in Asia Minor, belongs to the 
Persian period, as the form of the letters shows. At this period Asia 
Minor was subject to Persian rule, and the Persian satraps used 
Aramaic in intercourse with the subject races in the west of the empire 
(cf. 71 n.). This was a trade weight officially certified to be of full 
standard. It weighs 25-657 grammes, i.e. originally 26 grammes = 
about 56 lb.; hence it appears that the standard was not the Babylonian 
one (66), nor the Persian silver talent of 33-6 kilogrs., but the Persian- 
Euboean gold talent of 25-92 kilogrs. On the back of the lion is 
the mark A^ apparently from the Archaic Gk. alphabet ; it seems to 
indicate that the weight was used in commerce with the Greeks. 

a. pBDK is best explained as an Iranian word uspurn ' completeness,' 
'whole' (Marti Bibl.-Aram. Gr. Gloss.), consequently the meaning 
here will be ' of full standard ' ; in Ezr. 5 8 &c. N3"]?DK ' completely/ 
' with exactness.' A different explanation is suggested by Hoffmann, 
ZA xi 235 f. He regards pDDK as an Aram, form of Q95f nail, with 
N prefixed as in ]DK, and with D=X as in xniD 69 i3=ij>; and 
compares the use of supur ' nail-sign ' in Assyr., e. g. ' instead of their 
seal they have made their nail-sign' (supur sunu), KB iv 104. The 
Persian etymology, however, seems more likely in view of the date 
and origin of the inscr. 72p7 Lit. to meet, so before, cp. in Palm. 

147 i 10. fc^iriD Prob.=' officials,' but the precise meaning is 

uncertain. Vogue' renders ' guardians ' from 1DD hide, a questionable 
use of the root ; Levy renders ' satraps ' ; Geiger ' staters/ ' correct in 
accordance with the silver stater' (Cook Aram. Gloss. 23); but the 
weight of the lion shows that the standard was the gold talent, as 
Meyer points out, Entstehung d. Judenth. 1 1 n. The proper expression 
for 'officials in charge of the money' would be NSD3 7JJ 't JO"tflD 
(Hale*vy) ; the Aramaic of these Persian commissioners was perhaps 
not very correct 

194 Aramaic 

68. Cilicia. v-iv cent. B. c. In situ. 

mn n 


run POK nay KT* 5 

mnp& rut K^KSI 6 

I am WSWNS, son 2 of 'FWSI, grandson of 3 WSWNS, and 
my mother is 4 'SWLKRTI ; and while 6 I am hunting here, 
6 it is in this place that I am making my meal. 

The inscr. is carved upon a rock SE. of Sarai'din, in the valley of 
the river Lamas, in the SE. of Cilicia. A facsimile is given by Nold. 
'I.e. infra. 

L. i. vxten This and the other pr. nn. appear to be non-Semitic, 
perhaps Persian ; but the forms are uncertain because the 1 may be 
read 3. Hale'vy reads a in each case, and takes {joatw as==Evyyevi7S, 
a dialectical form of Svyyevifc ({?: = ), ^3BK 1. 2='A7mios; Rev. 
S<fm. i (1893) 183 ff. Noldeke reads 1, ZA vii (1892) 350 ff. 

L. 2. mi in Cf. 3 i. For it in Cilicia = H cf. 149 A 6 and 

p. 185 n. 

L. 4. ''n'ishK'N is explained by Hale'vy Ashgal the Cretan, or of 
Cretopolis (in Pisidia); for pJB'N he compares 73?^ Ps. 45 10 &c., and 
takes *m3 as an ethnic form. T3 when, cf. Palm. 121 3 Kin H3 

pn and 1. 4. >D, '13 more often mean as, e. g. 76 C 3. 94 4 &c. 

L. 5. 13JJ NT>X Lit. doing a hunt; 13JJ ptcp. active. HJH i.e. 

run fore=^l, as the Bibl. Aram. nen = ^r. 

L. 6. N1J1N Contrast niB>N 64 8. ninKIO reading 1 rather 

than 1 ; the form is Ethpa. ptcp. from mil?, and, like ?&*?"= dpun-av 
in the N.T., e.g. John 21 12. 15, means breaking (my) fast (Noldeke 
1. c.). The reading mntPD can only mean / was cast down, not ' je me 
repose' (Hale'vy). 

I T$ma 195 

69. TSma. CIS ii 113. Date prob. v cent. B. c. Louvre. 

anna n] thv [ana . . 2 
bTi ^K an[ew 3 
JT Nra nap [ . . . Din] 4 

n] n 9 


XT KHID *?m V 13 

njnn 'ninoy 14 
NT ni Nfc'ri 15 

D*)n& T D^X 16 

. x Din T D^ x^n nSn 17 

^ pi HI 9 pprj bpn p i s 

D^fi T 19 

.. IZ 20 

<7 21 

p 22 

niT KJvpD xn]tt3 23 

O 2 

196 Aramaic [68 


# ..... in the 22nd year ... 2 [in Tem]a, Salm of Mahram 
and Shingala 3 and Ashira, the gods of Te'ma, to Salm of 

4 [Hajam] . . appointed him on this day [in Te]ma ..... 

5 which . . . . 6 ..... 7 ..... 8 therefore . . . . 9 which Salm-shezeb, 
son of Pet-osiri, set up 10 [in the temple of S]alm of Hajam, 
therefore the gods of 11 Tema ma[de gra]nts to Salm-shezeb, 
son of Pet-osiri, 12 and to his seed in the temple of Salm of 
Hajam. And any man 13 who shall destroy this pillar, may 
the gods of Tema 14 pluck out him and his seed and his name 
from before 15 Tema ! And this is the grant which 16 Salm 
of Mahram and Shingala and Ashira, n the gods of Tema, 
have g[iven] to Salm of Hajam . . : 18 from the field 16 palms, 
and from the treasure (?) 19 of the king 5 palms, in all 20 2i 
palms . . year by year. And neither gods nor men 21 shall 
bri[ng out] Salm-shezeb, son of Pet-osiri, 22 from this temple, 
neither his se[ed] nor his name, (who are) 23 prie[sts in] this 
temple [for ever]. 

b. Salm-shezeb the priest. 

The characters exhibit some archaic forms, e. g. T and " ; but as 
a whole they belong to the early part of the middle period of 
Aramaic writing. Like 61-63 the inscr. is carved in relief. It 
records how a new deity, Salm of Hajam, was introduced into 
Tema by the priest Salm-shezeb, who further provided an endow- 
ment for the new temple, and founded an hereditary priesthood. 
On one side of the stone the god Salm of Hajam is represented 
in Assyrian fashion, and below him a priest stands before an altar, 
with the inscr. b underneath. 

L. i. nB>2 See 6 i n. T\W is in the constr. st. before the numeral 
as in 71 3, and often in Nab. and Palm., e. g. 78 4. 110 5. 

L. 2. D^S 70 3 perhaps connected with </ J&> be dark (cf. Assyr. 
kakkabu salmu=the planet Kewan or Saturn, and the pr. n. Salmu-ahf, 
KB iv 150; see Am. 5 26), rather than abbreviated from i>jn D^X 
image of B. ; see 38 2 n. Salm appears to have been an Aramaic or 


N. Semitic deity, and not native to Arabia. Like $>JO, he is given 
i local designation, 11. 10. 16. The names of the gods are here 
restored from 1. 16. 

L. 3. NDTI Cf. 81 2 = XWfi Gen. 25 15 = i Chr. 1 30 a descendant 
of Ishmael, Is. 21 14. Jer. 25 23. The town, now called *UIj, 
is situated in N. Arabia (El-Hejaz) in an oasis famous, even in 
ancient times, for its abundant and inexhaustible spring. Caravans 
(Job 6 19) on their way to Egypt or Assyria halted here; and the 
influence of commerce with these two countries is evident in this 
stone : the name of the priest's father is Egyptian, the figures of the 
god and his minister are Assyrian. [wnjT D7V? is governed by 

some verb denoting that the local gods had sanctioned the admission 
of this stranger deity; the Corp. suggests 1pl (1. n) at the beginning 
of 1. 2. 

L. 4. HDB> Prob. pf. 3 sing. m. with suff.=! T lpb'- the subj. will be 
the priest, the obj. the god. 

L. 8. }r6 1. 10= ID tf+b, then, therefore', Dan. 2 6. 9 &c. 
L. 9. UT^D^X i.e. Salm has delivered; cf. the Assyr. Salm-mulizib, 
Nabu-lizibanni Schrader COT 421, and the Hebr. foainsto Neh. 3 4 
(Cook Aram. GL s.v.); an?, in Targ. 3W, Syr. o?<x, is Shafel of 
3T*, 101 1 2 f. HDBB 74 A 4 i. e. he whom Osiris gave, cf. the 

Egypt. P'-dy-'st 'he whom Isis gave,' P'-dy-'Imn 'he whom Ammon 
gave/ and the Bibl. *IB>B1S, JHB 'BIB i.e. P'-dy-p'-R* 'he whom the 
Ra gave'; s?e Driver, art. Potiphar, DB iv 23. 

L. 10. Dan Prob. the name of a place where Salm was worshipped; 
cf. j4*N Yakut ii 886 (ed. Wiistenfeld), in Yemen. 

L. ii. Ipiv Pael; cf. the meaning of the noun KDp-W 1. 15 gift, 
endowment, Dan. 4 24 LXX l\?r)[j.o(Tvvr), Matt. 6 i 8iK<uo<ruvr) ; Arab. 
isS^o alms. 

L. 12. r Wl "nil See 64 and 65 for the adjurations. 
L. 13. ban 11 Pael, destroy; the root is found with this meaning in 
all the Semitic languages. KD1D Perhaps the same word as 

\l2, lit. an elevation of land, a stone which indicates the road, in pi. tomb, 
with D=V; see note on pBDK 67 (Hoffm.). In the Corp. the form is 
connected with the Syr. \&sc> found, make firm, JL'i'ooo stabilitas\ but 
no derivative of this root is actually used in the sense of monument. 
Winckler considers that it=the Assyr. asumitu 'inscribed stele,' Altor. 
Forsch. ii 76 f. (in Delitzsch Assyr. HWB s.v. DDl), a plausible 

L. 14. *nino:> See 64 9 n. ; for 3 retained cf. pan 11 1. 21. *lin 
64 12 n. not? 1. 22. In Hebr. DB> is found with almost the same 

198 Aramaic [69 

meaning, posterity, e.g. Dt. 25 7. Ruth 4 5. 10 &c. SJN } Cf. 

i K. 9 7 (' i>J). Dt. 28 63 (i>y, with nw). 

L. 15. Nt NH Fern, of )Jo. = Arab. fjui, Syr. )?, Targ. *nn. NnpT* 
See 1. ii n. Winckler, however, regards this as a Babyl. loan- word = 
sattuku l the regular dues or income of a temple ' (Delitzsch Assyr. 
HWB 513), e. g. KB iii 2 32 1. 13. This is at any rate a plausible 
explanation, for the influence of Babylonia upon Te'ma, especially 
in religious matters, was certainly strong. See Altor. Forsch. i 183. 

L. 1 6. DlflD No doubt the name of a place, like Dan. It is 
apparently preserved in the Arab. S^s* near Jebel Selma, which is 
in the neighbourhood of Te'ma, Yakut iv 425. vhtiW A deity 

otherwise unknown; possibly the K is the fern, ending. The name 
has been compared (Corp.) with that of a Babylonian goddess hwt, 
mentioned in the lexicon of Bar Bahlul, and stated to be the Chaidaean 
equivalent of Aphrodite, Lagarde Gesam. Abhandl. 17. Another sug- 
gestion is that Singala (Sin-gala) is the moon-god, Neubauer St. Bibl. 
\22\n. Cf. the Palm. bat? pr. n. fern. 143 12. NT>K 1. 3. HaleVy 
suggests that NWN=NTDS (with B> for D as in Kno^ 1. 18), a form 
which occurs in the name of a Palm, deity NTDN31 'Pafiacreipr) (prob. 
Rab-osiris) 147 i 10. But it is possible that KTtJK in spite of the * 
is the goddess Ashera, who was certainly known in Arabia; see 10 4 n. 
and Lagrange RB x 549. 

L. 17. . N The Corp. restores ^, with the sense scilicet. 

L. 1 8. &6pn Emph. st., Targ. tfbpn, Syr. \*L field; cf. CIS ii 24. 
27 t6pn rQT record or tablet of the field. This may well have been 
the land with which the temple was endowed, or 'the land of the 
priests'; see Gen. 47 22 and Lagrange RB x 219 who cites in illus- 
tration the Nab. Din, 79 8 n. }S>pr Cf. Targ. Ex. 15 27 f^ W&\ 
(at Elim). In the present day the value of land at TSma is reckoned 
by the number of palms on it ; the price of a tree is said to be 20 
francs. NnKW treasury = NHO^D, )&<v.m . Winckler explains the 
word by the Babyl. limtu ' a fixing ' or ' fixed portion/ so fcota if '{j> 
' the king's crown estates/ Altor. Forsch. i 184. The Babyl. limtu does 
not appear to be used exactly in this sense ; at the same time it must 
be admitted that ' treasury ' is not a suitable word for what was clearly 
landed property consisting of date-palms. 

L. 19. For the prince's contribution to the sanctuary cf. Eze. 45 17 ; 
in many Nab. inscrr. the fine for violating a tomb is ordered to be 
divided between the god and the king, e. g. 80 8 n. 81 7 f. &c. 

L. 20. After the numerical symbol the Corp. restores NH 
or NT. jnta 76 C 7. There is no need to render ' divine 

70] Tema 199 

persons' i.e. members of the royal family (HaleVy, Neubauer 1. c. 
212 .). 

L. 21. pajpp For the n retained in Hafel cf. niKiVI 64 n ., and 
for the 3 cf. in Nab. paji 79 2. 80 5 &c., and see 1. 14 n. The form 
here exactly resembles pW Targ. Jon. Ex. 11 7; Dalman Gr. 241. 

L. 23. MnD3 See 64 i . 

70. Tema. CIS ii 114. Circ. iv cent. B. c. Louvre. 

pya p] a 
jp] 3 

The seat which Ma* nan, son of 'Imran, offered to the god 
Salm, for the life of his soul. 

The characters belong to a period late in the middle stage of Aram. 
writing. They are almost all of the same size, and written as it were 
between straight lines, like CIS ii 72 from Chaldaea; the Chaldaean 
manner, exemplified in the latter inscr., has perhaps influenced this style 
of writing (cf. 69 3 n.). The T and * are archaic in form, p is almost 
Nabataean, y is shaped like a V> and N has the curious shape -J--, D is 
written with the two down strokes equal in length. 

L. i. NSTT'D Cf. 3JTIQ 80 4, here a seal on which the image of the god 
was placed on certain days, the Lat. pulvinar deorum ; cf. Palm. NBny 
in the inscr. from et-Tayyibe p. 296 n.i, and KIDIX (Nab.) p. 255 n, i. 

L. 2. py Cf. the Nab. pr. n. Njyo CIS ii 294, Euting Nab. Inschr. 
19, and the Palm, ijyo Mawcuos, e.g. Vogue* 27 4 &c. It is found in 
composition, e. g. "n^NJyo CIS ii 118, and perhaps lies behind Movi/ios, 
the name of a deity associated with the sun-god at Edessa; cf. the 
pr. nn. <u)\ ^ (Hejra) and )o&?Vi,Nv> (a king of Edessa). pcy 
= Jj^* 'E/Apavos from Hauran ; cf. the Sinaitic nojniy Eut. Sin. 
Inschr. 72, Cl.-Gan. Rec. ii 213; and D1y(?) at Safa, Dussaud et 
Macler Safd no. 68. The root noy, ^ = live, e. g. n^3 noy n 
Eut. Sin. Inschr. 551 ; the Arab, has also the meaning worship. Both 
pr. names have the ending tin, apparently usual among the Aramaeans 
of Arabia. 

L. 3. Mnta oW See 69 2 n. 

L. 4. nB>Q;j "r6 A favourite formula (with variations) in Palm. 
inscrr.; cf. 29 n. 

2OO Aramaic [71 


71. Memphis. CIS ii 122. Date 482 B.C. Berlin Museum. 


nanon pq ii ^ nny ms lanron nn -a raw *pa i 
ttrm n&N J-DK m ^oa Knbtf nw D-rp a 
T N^ba enarpn Tna HT mi njpn n&N p 3 

i 4 

0. Blessed be Abba, son of H6r, and Ahatbu, daughter 
of * Adaya, both assisted by divine favour (?) ! The approach 
2 before the god Osiris. Abseli, son of Abbd, his mother 
(being) Ahatbu, 3 spake thus in the 4th year, (in) the month 
Mehir, of Xerxes king of kings. 4 By the hand of Pamen . . . 

b. Hakna. 

The inscr. is written upon the base of a tablet carved with a 
representation of an Egyptian funeral scene. In the uppermost panel 
Osiris sits, attended by Isis and Nephthys; the parents of Abseli 
approach the deity with outstretched arms. Certain details, such as 
the clipped hair of the figures, betray the foreign nationality of the 
donor; the hieroglyphic inscr. 1 in the upper part of the tablet is 
evidently written by an unskilful hand. In general appearance the 
stone resembles 75. It belongs to the period when Egypt formed 
a part of the Persian empire (B.C. 525-332); and we learn from 
it that the Aram, settlers used their own language, which was also 
the language of the Persian government (cf. 67 n.), and at the same 
time adapted themselves to the religion of the country. 

L. i. 1*13 75 i ; the plur. would be more correct here. 
Prob. = the Aram. N3N. nin Cf. the common Nab. pr. n. 

87 8. 90 5 &c., and the O. T. "Wl Ex. 17 10. Num. 

1 ' Offering made to Osiris, prince of Amenti, the great god, the lord of Abydos, 
that he may give good sepulture to (the spirit of) Ahitobu, the matron faithful 
before the great god'; and behind the figure of Abba, 'the foreigner, surnamed 

72] Memphis 201 

31 8. mnriN Perhaps = Ptag nns sister of her father, cf. the 

biblical 3NHK and the Aram, nontf (i. e. fi^HX) ? mother's brother, Levy 
SVV^. . Gemmen p. 14 no. 20. Lidzb. illustrates from Talm. B. 
Baba Bathra no a DKn Tltf!? pn 0^2 31T 'most sons are like the 
brothers of the mother.' iTTJJ Prob. the same name as the Arab. 

Adi, Adiya, (jf-Xc, *G ^Lc ; the root means to pass, run, transgress, cf. 
the O.T. rrnjJ 2 K. 22 i ' Yah passes by.' But the word may be read 
my. The numerical symbols must refer to the parents of 

the donor. nonon The meaning is obscure. If the word is 

compounded of the Egypt, hes, hestu and ameh, it will mean favoured by 
the god, faithful; cf. 75 4 iT'DH plur. those favoured (by Osiris); in the 
Egypt, inscr. (p. 200 n. i) ameh is rendered ' faithful.' It is an expres- 
sion taken from the terminology of the Egypt, funeral rites. The form 
non is found on a wooden sarcophagus of the Ptolemaic period in the 
Cairo Museum, Cl.-Gan. Rec. ii n. Nraip The confused way 

in which the word is written on the stone, with 2 superadded, shows 
that the scribe was uncertain about the form. It is probably a noun, 
with the sense of a ' nomen actionis,' a drawing near, cf. 72 i rfl"lp 
and Ps. 73 28 31tJ "6 DTlta roip; at any rate the word denotes the 
' accession ' to Osiris after death. According to Egyptian belief the 
departed soul, if judged pure, did not merely go to Osiris, but actually 
became Osiris. 

L. 2. ^D3N The second part of the compound resembles ^P Neh. 
118. ^?p ib. 12 7 ; the vV6D = to weigh. In inscr. b the Egyptian 
name is given, tfjan ffakna. 

L. 3. *VTO The name of the sixth month, Jan. 26-Feb. 24, in 
Egyptian, in Coptic mechir; see Brightman Liturgies i. 582. ty-WETt 
= the old Persian Hshaydrshd = WTNp ON Esth. 1 i &c., in Greek 
Hc'p^i;?; he reigned from 485 to 465 B.C. N'ota V Nata A common 
title of the Persian kings; see 5 18 n., and Driver Introd. 6 546. 

L. 4. T3 introduces the name of the scribe or sculptor, an Egyptian, 
JOS = Pa-amen ' who belongs to the god Amen ' ; again in CIS ii 
148 3. 

72. Memphis. CIS ii 123. Date v-iv cent. B. c. Louvre. 

DixS run nmpb wn i 
in sb^N -ay 'sn n 2 

DIM Di my 713 Htt 3 


2O2 Aramaic [73 


Offering for the approach of Banith to Osiris- Apis made by 
Abitab, son 3 of Banith. Thus (?) he made it before Osiris- 

The inscr. is written on an oblong vessel used for libations ; it was 
found in the Serapaeum at Memphis. 

L. i. ""Bnn Prob. an Egypt, word hotpit, later hotpi = ' obla- 
tion.' rD"lp!> See 71 i n. J1J3 An Egypt, pr. n., found 
again in CIS ii 148 3. The meaning is uncertain; Pa-net f, i.e. 
'belonging to the goddess Neit,' has been suggested,' but it is 
questionable whether the Semitic 2 is ever used to transcribe the 
Egypt, p. Maspero explains Banit as =' leaping ' in Egyptian (Corp.). 

L. 2. an HOIK Osiris- Apis, called by the Greeks Serapis, specially 
honoured at Memphis ; 'an = Egypt. Hapi. It is probable that f]n is 
to be read in Jer. 4615 MT TT?^ ^91 , which many moderns correct 
to 1"] <I 3K flR D3, after the LXX (26 15) 8ia TI l^vyev cbro <rov 6 *A7ris ; 
6 /AO'OXOS 6 eKAcKTos o-ov K.T.A. 30' I 1K = the Hebr. 31B3N i Chr. 

8 ii. 

L. 3. S n3 The context suggests the rendering thus ; but there is no 
exact parallel for the form. It may be an abbreviation of ^n (Bab.- 
Aram. = /foj) + 3; see Dalman 81, Wright Comp. Gr. 109. The word 
has been rendered ' a piece of bread/ i. e. a second offering, after 
a Coptic noun which it somewhat resembles ; but this is not probable 

73. Elephantina. CIS ii 137. iv cent. B.C. Berlin Museum. 
B A 

>n:rc p jjp D^n iSn pp i 

hi pi n^n ) 2 

H3N in Wiy 3 

Dan 4 


pap >nifc 6 


74] Elephantina 203 

A. Now behold, the 1st dream I saw, and from that time 

1 was very hot ; there appeared an apparition ; its words 
(were), ' Hail ' ! B. Now if ornaments (?) of all kinds thou 
sellest, the infants shall eat ; behold, there is not a small 

The above texts are written with a reed pen in Egyptian- Aram, 
characters on either side of a fragment of pottery. They are 
evidently complete in themselves, for the sentences are not broken 
off, but squeezed into the shape of the potsherd ; the two texts form 
a single narrative. It was the custom to write down brief descriptions 
of dreams, and bring them to the temple to be interpreted. 

A. L. i. f = |J|3 now in Bibl. Aram. li?n Cf. ^ in 
Dan. J D?n Cf. TO -n-pwrov tvvirvtov on a Gk. papyrus (Corp.). 

L. 4. fion = DS0, p.>^a. M . &{}> is an adverb = K' 1 3B> Dan. 

2 12 &c. 

L. 5. nnn Prob. an error for ''Tnns Ethpeal pf. (Corp.), 147 

i 7. 1TH i.e. n cf. ifyfy] Krmn Targ. Job 20 8. 

r. U' > 
L. 7. u?W i- e. ^? ^ cf. 'ATroAAwviov etSov* irpo<nropvera.i p.oC Xcyet' 

Xalpe, from the papyrus quoted above (Corp.). 

B. L. i. Tntf Plur. constr. before !?3, cf. !>3 >ni33 Eze. 44 30. The 
meaning is prob. ornaments, Targ. ^^V, )&>r finery ; cf. in Palm. 
119 4 pnjTQVn their ornaments. Hoffmann (ZA xi 223) renders 
bundles, cf. Hebr. Q^nziX Ru. 2 16; a less suitable sense. 

L. 2. !CiT03Tn Pael impf. 2 mas. or 3 fern. sing. For the suff. ion 
see 65 6 n. 

L. 3. 173^ Impf. 3 plur. without nun ; see 61 4 n. 

LI. 4-6. ptDp 1NB> t6 The meaning seems to be ' there is plenty 
left/ 1NB> Prob. a noun = Hebr. "iNf, cf. Nab. TVINE? 94 3. For si? 
before a noun-clause cf. >!> iTCH N^ Ps. 22 3. "OIDS BN N!? 'a Job 
9 32 &c. 

74. Elephantina. CIS ii 138. iv cent. Brit. Mus. no. 14219. 
B A 

jDwan na nx . . . . . . . na PDM ^ i 

[nn]o now jm panp] in n pnao i^a a 

[p] wan t|toi ^nnin ... ... a m w n^nn 3 


1 po 
po IT 

Aramaic [74 





...apiaia 8 

..& 9 

1 Isimen, son of . . made .... 

2 for these comforters (?), whom 


3 and Geshuria (?) shall judge 

him . . . 

4 and he asked about Petosiris . . . 

5 Sehumu for these .... 

6 and he asked about 

7 Petharpo'.: rates . . . 

8 son of Kaumen .... 



. . Seho, son of HBRTISN 

. . they will give (?), and if the i 

witnesses ?] have said 
. . HRTB' and BGTF ; HBRTI[SN] 

. to us against PUHDK. He said 
. . . . ? to him our prince (?), and 

he did not give us 

of kings, our prince (?) 

Petenutir, son of 

shall carve (?) 

The above texts are written with ink on either side of a potsherd ; 
they probably formed part of a legal document. 

A. L. i. JDDN An Egypt, pr. n., perhaps Ist-men= l Isis is firm.' 

L. 2. I^N 1. 5 = ^K in the Mishnah, Hebr. nta; here preceding the 
noun, as P?N in Dan. 2 44. 7 17 and p^n in the Pal. Talmud, see 
Dalman Gram. 82. poriJO Perhaps = forup comforters in the 

sense of supporters or witnesses in a legal action. 

L. 3. JTOT1 Prob. = PWP). N'lWJi It is not certain whether 

this is a pr. n. or a noun. 

L. 4. nDlDB See 69 9 w. 

L. 5. Winy Pr. n. with ending l' as in Nab. 

L. 7. Bina-inBB An Egypt, pr. n.= 'he whom the god Harpocrates 
gave/ HfTfapTroxpa.Tr)<i ; again in CIS ii 147 n. The n is used to 
transcribe the softer and harder aspirate (like the Arab. and ) 
in Egyptian. 

L. 8. JDD An Egypt, pr. n. Kamen, Kaumenu. 

B. L. i. NTO 77 A 4 = the Egypt. Zeho, in Gk. Tews or 

Perhaps a Persian name (Corp.). 

75] Egypt ; the Carpentras Stele 205 

L. 5. pD 1. 7 is explained as = SO"1B> our prince. For the suff. cf. 
Palm, po 128 3 ; Nab, JOKIO 81 8. 

L. 6. ji? = JO^> & zw. 

L. 7. irota Seems to be written for N^D, and to be part of the 
phrase K^o "jbo, the usual title of the Persian kings, 71 3 and Dan. 
2 37 (of Nebuchadnezzar). 

L. 8. nrutD[s] = the Egypt. Petenutiru ' devoted to the gods.' 

L. 9. ffrv Apparently from the Aram. s^>3 to engrave on stone ; the 
reference is not clear. 

75. Egypt; the Carpentras Stele. CIS ii 141. v-iv cent. B.C. 
Museum of Carpentras (S. France). 

now n Kpflbn *unn n-D 
nan ma *6 *jnai may N 1 ? 
np pb noix Dip p in n5"D ^DIK Dip 3 
........ iron pi 'nytoj nnSfi nn 4 

Blessed be Taba, daughter of Tahapi, devoted worshipper 
of the god Osiris. 2 Aught of evil thou hast not done, and 
calumny against any man thou hast never (?) spoken. 3 Before 
Osiris be thou blessed ! From before Osiris take thou water ! 
4 Be thou a worshipper, my pleasant one (?), and among the 
favoured .... 

Above the inscr. an Egyptian funeral scene is carved ; cf. 71. The 
characters belong to a somewhat later type than those of the latter 
inscr. ; some of them, 3, i, "\, y, % t, >, B>, n, N, illustrate very clearly 
the transition from the archaic to the square alphabet. See Driver 
Samuel xviii-xxi. 

L. i. nana Cf. 71 i. tan Egypt, pr. n. f., ta-lai ' she who is 

of the spirit.' ""Snn Also Egypt., ' she who is of the god Hapi ' ; 

the mas. Pahapi is a common name. Nruon i. e. ^C 1 ??^ Monk 

in Egypt. = ' pious,' ' perfect ' ; cf. the mas. nDIN n nrUO CIS ii 
142. Kri^N no^K Cf. 71 2. 

L. 2. DJTUD i. e. Bywo, so in Nab. 94 5, cf. Mand. DNIJ'D (Nold. 
Mand. Gr. 186) ; in Palm, jyno 147 i 5 and (N)ojn ib. 8 ; in Targums 
and Talm. 'T 1 ? (Dalman Gr. 90) ; in Syr. >f. The word is 

206 Aramaic [76 

compounded of V^D = V^P and KD, lit. scibile quid ; the various 
forms are corruptions of this (Wright Comp, Gr. 126). 
See 65 9 . mny and mOK 2 or 3 fem. sing. t^ 
Prob. a variation of the idiom ? )T^o > ^o/"i. e. he calumniated, cf. Dan. 
3 8. 6 25. With >"D (so in Hand.) = "nplit. morsels cf. Syr. )4-* = 
Hebr. n$2, Hand. NOena = Hebr. BB>P. non i. e. HDH = ^i" 

may mean there, yonder, cf. Ezr. 5 17. 6 i, i.e. on the earth, speaking 
from the other world (so Nold., Lidzb.), a somewhat artificial ex- 
planation. Lagarde suggests that non = Syr. yo!^ (from jxaoi), 
ever. The word cannot mean perfect ; in Aram, this would be not 
nDR but HO^pri, as is the rule with adjectives from y'y verbs. 

L. 3. Tip PD Egypt, monuments and papyri frequently mention 
water as a last offering to the dead; illustrate from CIG 6562 evi/n;x> 
Kvpia, 801(7;) <rot 6 "Ocripis TO ijrv)(pov v8o>p. 6717. Note the Hebraism 
Tip, cf. BN 1. 2. 

L. 4. TiyDJ may be the name of an Egypt, deity, which nn^Q 
seems to require; or it is an error for TlDJtt, cf. 2 Sam. 1 26. 
Cant. 7 7. !TDn Perhaps the Egypt, hosiou 'favoured (by 

Osiris),' cf. TODDIl 71 i n. It is also explained as = \"Z*~ pious 
(plur.) ; but this would be written NJpn. The line prob. ended 

76. Saqqara ; Papyri Blacassiani. CIS ii 145. End of v cent. B.C. 

Brit. Mus. 

A (recto) 

DTOM *b& tfa i 

ITn 1 ?** ^O WX a 

. 3 

^ pirn* pni y 4 

. 5 

. 7 
. s 
rn m p 9 

76] Saqqara ; Papyri Blacassiani 

B (verso) 

. . . ywr\ NsSfc n annon hy 
...... K J?a roy TIK in 

T&K M J?D n K'ta 
m *frn anna ^nn tan 



P) . . 5 
... 6 

-a].. 7 

C (recto) 

n^bi pyn 

n nit . . 2 

p * 

. . 4 

[D]n3W 'Ntord nnny^ ____ 5 

. nS^ni ^jnn -[ ..... 6 

-my wrhi h& oy n . . . 7 

D (verso) 


n pp] ...... 3 

. . . 4 

. . . 6 

p p5ip % ] . . 7 

nS ptbNn . . s 

nro . . 9 

208 Aramaic [76 


1 ... nor may their belly be filled with bread ... 2 ... each 
the pains (?) of their gods ... 3 ... their agreements, until 
they build the ci[ty] . . . 4 ... and in later days he shall 
eat ... 5 ... righteousness to his father, and he shall sell . . . 

6 ... and let him weigh it in his heart, and let some one slay 
the s[ons] ... 7 ... his lord, and let some one release the sons 
of his lord . . . 8 ... bread, and may the gods of Egypt 
assemble ... 9 ... 43 years . . . 


1 ... for my sons, according to the testimony of the king, 
and he heard ... 2 ... son of Punsh, he delayed (?). The 
king answered ... 3 ... son of Punsh the words which 
the king said ; and he answered ... 4 ... thou didst kill 
them. Thou shalt go with the sword of thy might and . . . 
5 ... shall be changed (?) for thee, and the captives which 
thou hast taken this year ... 6 ... in these ; and thy bones 
shall not go down to Sheol, and thy shadow ... 7 ... [son 
of Punjsh, upon the thousands (?) of the king . . . 


1 ... the king, and he cried and anointing-oil ... 2 ... this 
which he called ... 3 ... thou shalt hang him even as thou 
didst to his sons ...*... unless in the place where the 
sea is he kill ... 5 ... Sha'atram (?) in Tamai (?) and 
Menah[em] . . . 6 . . . thou shalt go and be at ease . . . 

7 ... with the gods, and he whispered (?), Help !(?)... 8 ... 


1 ... which his father will give him ... 2 ... gods of Egypt, 
who ... 3 .. . . [of Eg]ypt, and they will be ... 4 ... and 
righteousness perish, and ... 5 ... and the man was brought 
out ... 6 ... *LK, son of KBWH, who ... 7 ... [may they b]less 
his grave ... 8 ... and say to him, my (?) distress ... 9 ... in 
the midst . 

76] Saqqara ; Papyri Blacassiani 209 

The above texts, being written upon papyrus, do not properly come 
under the title of inscriptions, but they are included because they 
illustrate the language and writing used by Aramaic-speaking settlers 
in Egypt during the same period as the engraved texts of this group. 
The writing is of a similar type to that of 76, but of a more cursive 
form, and a stage nearer to the square character ; see Driver Sam. xxi 
(with facsimile). As in 75, the language contains some marked 
Hebraisms. These stray leaves are too mutilated to enable us to 
make out their general purport ; it has been suggested that they give 
an account of a plot against the government of the Persian king in 

A. L. i. DHJC32 N^D 11 Cf. Job 15 2. 20 23. The 3 plur. m. suff. ends 
in D>1', e. g. D.Tnf>K 1. 2. DPPB^p 1. 3 ; so regularly in Nab., e. g. DWD3 
80 2. D.TJ2 102 4 ; Targ. Ps.-Jon. DinJT? (also p') ; Bibl. Aram. 
D'nB>aa Ezr. 5 10 (also fin), cf. DbnJ>N 717. In Palm, the form is p'. 

L. 2. e*N A Hebraism, cf. 75 2. ^3 Perhaps = Targ. 6O'3, 

Syr. \\3, Hebr. 2N3 ; but what ' the pains of their gods ' can mean is 
not clear. 

L. 3. DiWp Apparently plur. of ND'p, Syr. J^Lja. 

L. 4. fnnx Plur. of pnK, Syr. JJi-/ next, following, plur. ^-JW; 
cf. Dan. 2 1 1 }"}? another. 

L. 5. pn i. e. J?n, c f. in Nab. 79 6 &c. 

L. 6. \-|^>pJT i.e. <i n6i?n^ c f. Ti^nn C 3. For the suff. with nun 
energic cf. the Bibl. Aram. Fiabo^, Pal. Aram, nwajn (Dalman Gr. 
308); and for the 3 sing. m. suff. in in' cf. the Syr. *ocu' with the impf., 
and the Palm, wnnff 145 6. The Hebr. forms Vifir Deut. 32 10. 
' n P/$- J er - 5 22 are similar (Ges.-Kau. 58 k\ ' [n]S> So Corp., 

cf. nto ya 1. 7. 

L. 7. n&no See 62 11 . 

L. 8. ftwam for jwnn^l, cf. 147 ii c 33. pvo The dual 

is written with ', but the plur. without , e.g. jnnN JDV 1. 4. pB> 1. 9. 

B. L. i. NTlDn = Knnnp witness. 

L. 2. Bttia An Egyptian pr. n. 1HN Apparently perf. 3 

sing. m. tota my Cf. Dan. 2 5. 8. 20 &c. 

L. 4. ion Here accus. ?j, as in Ezr. 4 10. 23, in Dan. pon. inn 
C 6, i. e. :jnn impf. of *]Sl ; similarly in Targ. and Bibl. Aram., e. g. 
Ezr. 5 5 TjrP. 

L. 5. ci^n 11 The last letter of each word is uncertain. NT Cf. 61 
18. 69 13. 

2io Aramaic [77 

L. 6. ia Cf. Dan. 3 12 &c. Ezr. 4 21 &c. (K). pnrp Pe. 
impf. of nni 

L. 7. ^K Instead of ^^ thousands, the word may be pointed ^K 
chiefs, lit. chiliarchS) specially an Edomite term, Gen. 36 15 ff. 

C. L. i. nEtO may be a verb and he anointed, or a noun anointing-oil 
as in CIS ii 44, in Palm. 147 ii a 27. Nn&? 122 3. 

L. 2. rw Cf. 69 22. 

L. 3. S"tfi>nn Prob. impf. 2 sing. m. from r6n, i. e. ""H^nn ; for the 
suff. see A 6 n. V3 = ^D sicut in Nab. 80 7. 86 6, Bibl. Aram. 

Dan. 2 43, Targ. 13. 

L. 4. sW> Dalman reads ^[N], like the Pal. Aram. 
pN */"), r. 189. 

L. 5. D-inj?B> The form may be incomplete; a pr. n. '"KOn is 

said to mean in Egypt, a cat. 

L. 6. r6cn Apparently impf. of n^B> /0 rw/. 

L. 7. }r6 Plur., cf. 69 20, and contrast v6tf 62 23. 
Pael, as in Aram, and Hebr. ; cf. Is. 26 1 6 (noun). 
imperat. The scriptio plena is remarkable. 

D. L. i. JW So in Nab. 79 3, in Bibl. Aram. JFP. 

L. 3. pirn i. e. ftom. 

L. 5. pBiDNI Ethp. perf. ; in the Targum the Ittafal is used, e. g. 
pariN Eze. 24 6. Ni?sn'B Onk. Gen. 38 25 (with 3 assimilated). 

L. 6. HU3 . . "]by Pr. nn. ; the first is perhaps incomplete. 

L. 8. "nyv The i may be the suff. or sign of the plur. constr. ; 
Targ. tOJJV, Syr. )* 

L. 9. J^D3 Lit. in the division ; but the form may be mutilated. 

77. Papyrus Luparensis. CIS ii 146. iv cent. B.C. Louvre. 


JDMfi rrva nnpw nnCTnjb n 'SNS [m*a] . . 
nan xn-)^ 1 ? ^^ i a j ^ psco [nan] . . 

[1 W?p] p^D 

n n M p^p i W?p p[i3] . . 

77] Papyrus Luparensis 211 

ian n&s in Nnx 1 ? yn 4 

...1 11 111 pNO 

T^y 111 r^p n jSiSp spa 5 

iny Dip 7^ S . . a 6 

i %p 


r * 

;ix& NS[']S[a] ...... 8 

pixo nj . xa *T 9 

pixtt i ^p 

nns in....^] .11 

' ^[^p pX]ib [NDIS?] 1 ? 12 


fcp NHIS? 1 ? ill; i .1 

11 jwp i imS i in; n 2 




i v 

i&n Nfw 1 ? ; pnn . . 5 

11 |W?p wrvh iii 1 ? DV in n 71'^ n 111; a i [^p] . . 6 

in in; n i *fcp . . 7 

11 111 in; a [W?p] . . 9 
in in in; i 'pbp] . . 10 

. N . . !l7 12 

p a 

212 Aramaic [77 


1 ... [in the month] of Paophi, which is written out. 2 . . . 
[wine] of Egypt, qelbi I. 8 . . . [Egyptian, qelul I, qelbin 2. 

1 Outgoings in the month of Paophi. 2 On the ist of 
Paophi, for the meal, wine of Sidon, qelbi i, Egyptian, [qelul 
i]. 3 On the 2nd of Paophi, for the meal, Egyptian, qelul I, 
qelbin 2. 4 Given to Seho, son of Pamut, wine of Egypt, 
ma'nin 5 and . . . 5 For each person, qelulin 2, qelbin 3 ; on 
your account, a small (?).... 6 ... on your account, before 
l Ahor(?), E[gyp]tian, qelul i. 7 ... Egyptian, qelul i. 8 ... 
[at] night, Egyptian, qelbi I. 9 . . . which is in . ., Egyptian, 
qelul i. 10 [On the ... of Paophi], for the meal, wine of 
Sidon, qelbi i, Egyptian, [qelul i]. u [To] . . , son of Peha(?), 
Egyptian, qelul i. 12 ... for [the meal], E[gyptian, qelu]l i. 


1 On the 23rd, for the meal, qelul i, qelbi i. 2 On the 24th, 
for ? i, qelbin 2. 3 For the libation before Apuaitu (?), the 
great god, qelbi i. 4 For the libation before the lady Isis, 
qelbi i. 6 For the meal, wine of Sidon, qelbi i. 6 On the 25th 
of Koihak, which is a day for vows, for the meal, qelulin 2. 
7 On the 26th, before O[siris] . . . 8 On your account ? . . . 

9 On the 28th, for ... 10 On the 29th, for ... n Ahor- 
nufi (?) 

These texts are fragments of daily accounts kept by a steward, to be 
submitted to the master of the house. They were probably written 
during the Persian rule, and belong to a rather later date than 76. 

A. L. i. ''SKS The 2nd month of the Egyptian year, Sept. 28th- 
Oct. 27th; Copt. Paopi (see Brightman Liturgies 168), Gk. Ilaax^i, 
Arab. iJt>. nnpSJ A noun fern. sing, in the emph. st., or perhaps 

with suff. 3 sing.; cf. Npi?^ Ezr. 6 4 and ol&aaj=T^v SaTrdvrjv Lk. 
14 28. 

L. 2. al'p An Egypt, fluid measure; the derivation is unknown, 
cf. Arab. ulJls a mould. The Corp. renders lagena. Nme6 11. 3. 

10 &c. for the feast; Targ. KWVtf, e . g. Onk. Gen. 43 16, Syr. Jl'oU ; 

77] Papyrus Luparensis 213 

from mtJ> lit. to loose, cf. mne>0 68 6. )T ion 1. 10. B 5. 

Wine from Phoenicia (e.g. Beirut, Byblus) and Syria was specially 
esteemed in antiquity; cf. Athenaeus Deipnosoph. i 52 <I>s aSioros *<f>v 
TTOLVTUV <l>oivi/aos oivos. plVD Lit. Egypt, here Egyptian zw* ; see 
Gen. 40 9-11, Strabo 687 (ed. Mull.) oivov re OVK oXiyov eV<ep 
(nome of Arsinoe), ib. 679 6 Mapeom;? oTvos &c., Pliny Nat. Hist, xiv 9. 

L. 3. 7l7p It is suggested that this is the Egypt, qerer, qelel ' vessel,' 
Copt. /ceA.coA a small vessel. But in Aram, are found ??\> Talm. Para 
79 b, a stone vessel for receiving the ashes of the sin-offering, JfciXcus, 
plur. Ucus ; whence the Arab. !l3 an earthen water-jug (Fraenkel 
Aram. Fremdw. in Arab. 170 f.). The 7vp was clearly a fluid measure ; 
Corp. amphora. 

L. 4. 3S1=3W Ptcp. of 3PPj cf. CIS ii 147 B 2 &c. Nffif 

Cf. 74 B i. nS Egypt., of the goddess Mut. }3ND Lit. 

vessels here measures ; Corp. dolia, i. e. large wine-jars. 

L. 5. Pp Apparently =NW3 body, corpse. 5J33 is taken to mean/br 
^acA, individually ; what seems to be the full expression occurs in 
CIS ii 147 i tf'aa NSU1, cf. in Gk. papyri TO KO.T av8pa ru>v (r<ap.d- 
T<OV. nyt "j^y The meaning perhaps vs. for you (i. e. the master) 

a jffza// (measure of some kind). 

L. 6. nnj? Prob. the name of an Egypt, deity to whom the libation 
was offered; cf. B n. CIS ii 136 -inj?7. 

L. 9. ru . VI Restore rujnn i. e. in the city of Tarn's, 1J& Ps. 78 12. 
43 &c. 

L. ii. nna Probably an Egypt, pr. n. Paha. 

B. L. i. After the numeral the name of the month is to be under- 
stood ; see 1. 6. 

L. 2. 1W27 ? meaning. If it is a pr. n., instead of the numeral we 
must read } as part of the name 111J37. 

L. 3. irpj Prob.=n^, jjjjoj libation. inaN The name of 

a deity, perhaps Apuaitu (a form of Anubis), though this would be 
transliterated W13N. 

L. 4. nn DK See 3 2 n. 

L. 6. *]rV3 The 4th month of the civil year, Egypt. Kahika, Arab. 

L. 8. "0113N ? pr. n. 

L. ii. Kn^B If the form is complete, the meaning may be angle, 
corner, Targ. NJTa'B, J&Ift, Hebr. n|B. 

B3iny Perhaps = the Egypt. Ahor-nufi (for -nufir) ' 'Alior is good'; 
cf. A 6. 


78. El-'Oia. CIS ii 332 ; Eut. 1. B. c. 9. At Strassburg. 

b *& itfpb 2 
pro vittK nS 3 
nmnS \ rop 4 

This is the monument of Ab . , son 2 of Moqimu, son of 
Moqim-el, which 3 his father built for him in the month 
Elul, 4 the ist year of Harethath, king of the Nabataeans. 

This inscr. comes from El-'Ote ( ), a little to the S. of El-Hejra 
(jr*)t where a large number of Nab. inscrr. have been found (79-93). 
Both places are in N. Arabia, in the Hejaz, S. of Tema (69 3 n.), 
and not far from the coast of the Red Sea ; they are situated in what 
was the southernmost end of the Nab. kingdom l . 

L. i. NT See add. note p. 26. Nt?23 In Nab. either fern., as 

here and in CIS ii 194 f. &c., or mas., 159 B>SJ rm. 192 &c., 
frequently used of a monument set up over a grave; so in Aram., 
CIS ii 115 f.; in Palm, m NB>23 Vog. 31 i. run NK>s:> 146 i. Perhaps 
the word conveyed the idea of the personality ('j lit. soul) of the 
deceased; a nefesh was erected for each of the persons buried in 
a tomb, cf. Nn^M Tnn 96 i. This idea is prob. symbolized by the 
pyramid standing upon a cube, such as was sometimes carved upon 
the rock over the inscr. ; see the illustration in Vogii Syr. Centr. 90. 
The nefesh is mentioned in the Talm., e. g. Sheqalim 5 a 
i?V ; cf. also Jaj in Syr., e.g. i Mace. 13 28 ^a 

-a Trvpa/u'Sas, referring to the monument built by Simon at 
Modin (Cl.-Gan. Rec. ii 190 f.). .IK Probably ION. 

L. 2. Wpbsrljii CIS ii 215. 233; a common name in Palm., 
110 f. &c.; in Gk. MoKt/x,os, MOKI/AOS. In Nab. pr. nn. frequently end 
in /, the equivalent of the Arab. -^-. ^ND^pD Compounded of 

and i>N; cf. in Pun. (D)^Kpo CIS i 261, and for the form, 

1 The texts of 78-93, before they appeared in the Corp., were published in the 
valuable edition of Euting, enriched with notes by Noldeke, Nabataiscke In- 
schriften (1885). 

78] El- Old 215 

{jjO i Chr. 9 40. fOB'nD Neh. 6 10 &c. JIM So 09 i, cf. mn 

CIS ii 224 4 ; but W2 333 z and in Palm. 122 5. 

L. 3. W>K Aug.-Sept., Neh. 6 15; one of the names of the 
Babyl. months borrowed by the Jews after the exile. See Schrader 
COT 7 380. 

L. 4. nmn i.e. Aretas iv, 6 ncr/mio? /Jao-iAevs (Jos. Ant. xviii 5 i), 
who reigned from B.C. 9 to A.D. 40; inscriptions (CIS ii 214 f.) and coins 
are dated in his 48th year. After his accession he secured the favour 
of Augustus, and was recognized as king (Jos. ib. xvi 10 9). Herod 
Antipas married his daughter (see 95 3 .), but subsequently set her 
aside for Herodias, and thus gave Aretas a pretext to punish his 
son-in-law for this and other grievances (Jos. ib. xviii 5 i). At a later 
time, circ. A.D. 38, when St. Paul was persecuted by his ethnarch (2 Cor. 
11 32), Aretas was master of Damascus; it is conjectured that the town 
had been made over to him by Caligula as a peace-offering 1 . He is 
mentioned in 20 inscrr. from El-Hejra (CIS ii 197-217), in the second 
inscr. from Petra 95, in the inscr. of Medeba 96, of Sidon CIS ii 160, 
of Puteoli 102, and frequently on coins. In the inscrr. he is surnamed 
nny DIT) = OtAoTrarpis, a title which asserts his claim to independence, 
in contrast to such titles as ^tAopw/wtios, <iAoKawrap, adopted by subject 
kings. nmn=Gk. 'ApeVas for 'Ape'0as, perhaps under the influence of 
dpen;. 1D3J The kingdom of the Nabataeans was centred at 

Petra, the former Edomite stronghold of Sela'; hence the name of 
the country, 'Apa/3ta rj Trpos ry TLerpa i. e. Arabia Petraea. From this 
centre it extended northwards, at times even to Damascus (in B.C. 85 
and A.D. 34-65 circ.), and southwards into N. Arabia, as far as 
the NE. shore of the Red Sea, 'omnis regio ab Euphrate usque 
ad mare Rubrum,' says St. Jerome (infr.). From the language of the 
inscriptions it appears that the Nabataeans were of Arab race and spoke 
Arabic, but^ugedLAiagiaic forthe purposes of writing and commerce ; 
Noldeke in Eut. Nab.InschrT'j^. BeTo7e~theHeflenistic period little, 
or nothing, is known of them. It is probable that the Na-ba-ai-ti, 
frequently named along with other Arab tribes 2 in the Rassam 
Cylinder of Asurbanipal (KB ii 216-222), were the Nabataeans. 
Whether the latter are the same as the Arab tribe called nVU in 
the O.T. is not altogether certain ; the identification is as old as 

1 The Roman Damascene coins end with Tiberius, A. D. 34, and begin again with 
Nero, A. D. 62-3 ; in the interval Dam. was under the Nab. kings. So Gutschmidt 
in Eut. Nab. Inschr. 85 ; Schiirer Gesch.Jiid. Volk? i 737. 

* E.g. the Kid-ra-ai i.e. nip, KB ii 222 ; ct nvaa and nip Gen. 25 13 &c., 
Nabataei and Cedrei in Pliny Hist. Nat. v la. 

2i6 Nabataean [78 

Josephus (Ant.\ 12 4 Naj8aiw^5 Na/Jarryv^v xwpa-v), who is followed 
by Jerome (Quaesl. in Gen. 25 13 ed. Vallar. torn, iii 345) and most 
moderns. ^^ looks like a fem. plur. (cf. nV3O from riiB Neh. 12 
47 &c.), and may possibly come from the Arab. io lofty place, 
eminence ; its resemblance to 1DZ13 is thus not very close, although there 
are analogies for the interchange of n and B, e. g. JJLS and i?Dp, 62 8 n. 1 
In the Hellenistic period the Nabataeans first appear in the time of 
Antigonus, 312 B.C., who sent two expeditions against them, 
Diod. xix 94-100. Their first known ruler was the Aretas of 2 Mace. 
5 8 (TOV TWV 'Apa/?o>v rvpawov), with whom Jason sought asylum in 
169 B.C., for the Nabataeans were friendly to the Maccabaean family, 
i Mace. 5 25. 9 35. With the decay of the Gk. kingdoms of Syria and 
Egypt their power increased, and towards the end of the 2nd cent. B.C. 
they were consolidated under a vigorous king named Erotimus, who 
was perhaps the founder of the Nab. dynasty (see Jos. Ant. xiii 13 3. 5. 
15 i. 2. Wars i 4 4. 8 &c.) 2 . In B.C. 85 Aretas iii was master of 
Damascus, and struck coins there with the legend /SaonAeW 'ApeYou 
<S>tAe'AA.77vos. Shortly after this the Nabataeans for the first time came 
into collision with the Romans under Pompey and Scaurus, Jos. Ant. 
xiv 1 4-2 3. 5 i. Wars i 8 i; and in the subsequent period were 
sometimes reduced to tributaries, sometimes allowed a measure of 
independence, until finally in A.D. 106, when Cornelius Palma was 
governor of Syria, the Nab. kingdom was absorbed into the Empire 
and became a Roman province 3 . 

The following list of Nab. kings, based upon Schurer Gesch.Jud. 
Volk? \ 726-744, will be convenient for reference: 

Aretas i reigning in 169 B.C. 
Erotimus 110-100 B.C. 
Aretas ii 96 B.C. 
Obedas i 90 B. c. 
Aretas iii circ. 85-60 B.C. 
Malchus i circ. 50-28 B.C. 100*. 

Obedas ii circ. 28-9 B.C. 95*. 

Aretas iv 9 B.C. 40 A.D. 78-01. 

95. 96. 
Malchus ii circ. 48-71 A.D. 92*. 

93. 99. 
Rabel circ. 71-106 (?) A.D. 97*. 

End of the Nab. kingdom 106 A.D. 

Under the numbers marked by an asterisk further particulars will 
be found. 

1 The Gk. NajSarcuot = Aram. JB32, Lagarde Bild. Norn. 52. 

3 Justinus xxxix 5, cited by Schurer ib. 731. Bevan House of Seleucus ii 257. 

8 Dio. Cass. Ixviii 14, cited by Schurer ib. 743. 

78] El-Hejra 217 

79. El-Hejra. CIS ii 197; Eut. 2. B.C.I. In situ. 

11 i^ro 11 117 iiy H Kiip n:n i 

,ITI par H pSi ninKi ni^i wsA oJ?K 2 

ni iipi jnr H \th\ rh tfp 117 Y p t|pn iro 3 

rrvi nvni 117 4 

nay am IIDU 5 

IK jny IK pi* IK pi* IK nil Kifii pr H p ^i 6 

ni up* IK nSi ini why ^KH* *IK uv 7 

Din mi ninii KISH ms K^y *i p 1 ? pb s 

Din n^ni 9 

This is the sepulchre which 'A'fdu, son of Kohailu, son 2 of 
Elqasi, made for himself and his children and his posterity, 
and for whomsoever shall produce in his hand 3 a warrant 
from the hand of 'Ai'du : it shall hold good for him and for 
whomsoever 'Ai'du during his life-time shall give leave to bury 
in it : 4 in the month Nisan, the ninth year of Harethath, 
king 5 of the Nabataeans, lover of his people. And may 
Dushara and Manuthu and Qaishah curse 6 every one who 
shall sell this tomb, or buy it, or mortgage it, or give it away, 
or 7 let it, or frame for it any (other) writ, or bury any one 
in it s except those who are written above ! And the tomb 
and this its inscription are inviolable things, 9 after the 
manner of what is held inviolable by the Nabataeans and 
Shalamians, for ever and ever. 

L. i. ify 93 i i.e.'jJlc, 'AtSds Wadd. 2034 &c. 1^713 i.e. 

JI^T; in Palm. 141 2. 

L. 2. 'Data Prob. ='AAc'ios. mnttt m^ Both words are 

always in sing., with collect, sense. For nnx see 65 10 n. 

L. 3. P)pn 3ri3 87 3 &c. lit. a document of confirmation, *\[>n = be 
strong; cf. Esth. 9 29 (*)j?n). D 11 ? Ptcp. 0$. napl JJU For 

the construction cf. the use of the subjunct. with u_ in Arab., Wright 
Ar. Gr. s ii 30 f. ; the impf. (or juss.) with } in Hebr., e.g. 2 S. 16 n 

218 Nabataean [79 

Van. Is. 43 9 &c., cf. Job 19 23, Driver Tenses 62 ; in Bibl. 
Aram. cf. Dan. 5 2 nn?M . . . IOK, though the pf. with 1 is more 
usual, Dan. 5 29 &c., as in Syr., Mold. Syr. Gr? 334 B. 

L. 4. JD'O The ist month, Mar. 22 to April 20, Neh. ,2 i. Esth. 
87; see 78 3 n. nmr6 See 78 4 n. 

L. 5. uyh 81 4 &c. = Arab. ^J. The perf. is used similarly in 

,1-D - - 

Arab, for prayers and imprecations, e. g. sJJ I <siiJ, Wright 1. c. 
3. tOETT The chief god of the Nabataeans, worshipped throughout 
N. Arabia, especially at Petra, and in Hauran at Adra'a ('ynx) and 
Bostra. In Arab, the name is written ^$j^\ i. e. ji lit. owner, 
possessor (cf. ?yi) and (j^\, prob. the name of a place l . Wellhausen 
enumerates three places called Shara, and described by Arab, writers 
as remarkable either for swampy ground, or for lions, or for water, 
trees, and jungle. Such localities were esteemed specially suitable 
for a himd or temenos of a god, and Shara, wherever it may have been, 
was prob. a place of this kind; ResteAr. Heidenth. 48 if. Thus Dhu-shari 
lit. owner of Shard is only an appellation of the god : his actual name 
(p. 239 n. i) was not used; cf. Dhu '1 Halasa (Arab., 105 .), Dhu 
ShamSwi (Sab., 9 i .), ^U ni>JD (= mnt?y), IS i>JD (= mpta), 3 2 n. 
In Sabaean both the name and title of a god are sometimes used 
in full, e. g. 'Athtar Dhu Gaufat (CIS iv 40 4. 41 2 f.), Almaqah Dhu 
Hirran (Mordtmann u. Miiller Salt. Denkm. 6). Dusares was wor- 
shipped at Petra under the form of a black rectangular stone a , a sort 
of Petraean Ka'aba ; and Epiphanius describes a feast held at Petra 
on Dec. 25th in honour of 'Xaaftov [xaa/^ov ed. Dind. ii 484] i.e. 
virgin, and her offspring Aowa/a^s i.e. the only son of the lord' 
(Haer. 51)*. By Gk. and Lat. writers Dusares was identified with 
Dionysos-Bacchus : Aovcrap^v TOV Aiowcrov Na/Jaratoi a>s <f>f)(rlv 'IcriScopos 
(Hesych. s.v.) ; but, as Wellhausen justly remarks, the god of a nomad 
race of Arabs, living in the desert, could hardly have been worshipped 
originally under the character of Dionysos, for Dionysos (bjn) is the 

1 Ace. to Steph. Byz. s.v. &.ova&pr), a mountain, <r($7rAos nal Kopv<pi) ii\ 
'Apaflias- tipr/Tai S airb TOV Aovffapov. Hence, he says, the Nabs, called themselves 

3 Suidas Lex. s.v. tbs *A.prjs. 

8 If the reading is right Xaa0ov prob. = lira lit. a die, cube, i. e. the sacred stone, 
either of Dusares himself, or of a goddess-consort (such as Allat) ; see on the 
passage Rosch ZDMG xxxviii 643 ff. Rob. Smith holds that the Petraeans 
worshipped Mother and Son, each under the form of a stone {Kinship 292 f. ; ReL 
of Sem. 57 .); Wellhausen (I.e. 50), that they conceived of Dusares as born from 
his baetylion. In his account of the cult, Epiph. may have been unconsciously 
influenced by Christian ideas of the Parthenogenesis. 

79] El-Hejra 219 

god of agricultural, settled life. No doubt in time, under the influence 
of Canaanite and Aramaic civilization, Dusares assimilated the attri- 
butes of Ba'al-Dionysos 1 ; and if, as there is some evidence for believing, 
Dusares was originally a solar deity (see Baethgen Beitr. 95 f.), the 
assimilation is not difficult to imagine. iniJD 8O 4. 8. Note the 

ending i', not elsewhere in Nab. with fern, nouns, as in Arabic a pr. n. 
ending in g does not take tanwfn. iniJO is the Arab, goddess Gu, 
mentioned in the Quran, 53 20. Wellhausen, I.e. 28, explains the 
form as a plur. manavdtun and the name as = Fate, lit. portion, /0/(as 
NDJO in Aram.), Tv^, cf. Gad. The chief centre of the cult of ManSth 
was in the Hejaz, at the water of Qudaid, a station on the pilgrim-road 
between Medina and Mekka. iiBp 8O 4. NBp 89 9. This is the 

only instance known of the emph. st. in n'. As in the case of iniJD, 
nothing definite as to the character of this deity has been preserved. Eut. 
quotes thepr. nn. <jl3, u-a^l/*^ \j*fA\ J-c; possibly Ka-us-ma-la-ka, 
a king of Edom mentioned by Tiglath-pileser (KB ii 20), contains 
the name of the deity. 

L. 6. pr . . pr Peal . . Pael, 80 4 f. 81 5. jneo 8O i &c., 

according to D. H. Miiller a word imported from the Lihyan dialect 
preserved in inscrr. from El-'Ola, Epigr. Denkm. aus Arab. p. 65, 
nos. 9. 25. 27. 29. In any case the Arab. ^1$, usually village, also 
means tomb, as in Nab. The statement of Strabo (p. 667 ed. Mull.) 
that the Nabs. wro. KOTT/HCUS rjyovvrai TO. venpa. (raj/mra . . . Sio KOI 
Trapa TOUS /coTrpwvas KaTopurrovcri KCU TOVS / is cleverly explained 
by Cl.-Gan. as due to a misunderstanding of the Nab. SOS3, which 
suggested /corrpux, jcorrpwv to Gk. ears, Et. i 146 ff. jn"P 8O 5 

&c. = ^jAj give in pledge. 

L. 7. "W 81 6 &c., also -UK 11 CIS ii 220 4, Afel impf. of 
, ,.* 

1JN. fi/'Kn' 1 CIS ii 217 10 &c. = Arab. c_aJl \it.join, so compose 

(books), a different sense from that of the Aram. f^N, & teach, 
learn. t5>1JX The form as in Hebr. and BAram. Dan. 413 Kt. 

The word is used in this dialect, as also in BAram. (fy$), with an 
indeterminate sense, every man, no man, any one, TIS, e. g. 86 6. 89 5. 
90 3. 945; similarly in Targ. Onk., e.g. Lev. 13 2. 18. 24; cf. 
Palm. E>3X 147 in. 

L. 8. pi? i. e. |nb = }n vb except 88 3. 94 5. Dan. 2 n. 3 28 &c. ; 
cf. wn n }r6 90 4. vhy Cf. pnao vby Dan. 6 3 and s^y in Pal. 

1 Thus coins of Bostra (iii cent. B. c.) bear the figure of a wine-press, and the 
legend "Aicria Aovadpta or Aovadpta alone ; see further Mordtmann ZDMG 
xxix 104 f. 

22O Nabataean [80 

Aram., for the usual ^."v^. rnna has the suff. 3 sing. m. Din 
81 3. 86 2. 04 3-5, Af. ptcp. Dnn 86 3, hence NntSlPID 102 i f. 
chapel; in Palm, join 112 4 = avaOffULra ; in Sabaean nnn = 
sanctuary (Sab. Denkm. 70), similarly D1HD CIS iv 74 15. The V '^j> 
conveys the idea of a sacred thing prohibited to human use, hence 
1\^. sanctuary; see 1 17 ., p. 68, and Lagrange Rel. Se'm. 181-187. 
L. 9. npvn 81 3. 86 2 &c. = i-flJ^- nature, character. \a?W 

81 4. 86 3 &c., a people nearly related to the Nabataeans; Steph. Byz. 
S.V. 2aXu/Ai.o(, 2$vos 'A.pd/3iov' (raXaju,a Se y elprjvr)' wi/o/xao-^crav Se O.TTO 
rov ?vcr7rovSoi ycvecrOai rots Na/?aratois. In the Talm. they are men- 
tioned together, e. g. Jer. Shebfith vi fol. 36 b WBaj ND^ N*3"ty ; 
see Neubauer Ge'ogr. du Talm. 427 for other references. In the Targ. 
nKitt5> = 3gn, e . g. Onk. Num. 24 21 f., &c. 

80. El-Hejra. CIS ii 198; Eut. 3. B.C. or A. D. i. In situ. 

i ms D^DD my > 

nnto n^i DninNi DWttf? nnm na^ai a 
5*1 nay Dni ibii ^a nnnnS y^n 3 
pi* p n^pi irmai n^y p n^Ni naniai 4 
pay IN nn* pr IN p*v IN pr p IN run N"IS^ 5 
vy PQ ^p* p IN i^ IN na n:a 6 
N^y ns i^y* N 1 ? H pi nnnnNi 7 
j pnaty iniiabi i^ini Ni^n 1 ? s 

in Nin^ D'ps in Nnfiii nnin nn^i IN D^ai 10 


This is the tomb which Kamkdm, daughter of Wailat, 
daughter of Haramu, 2 and Kulaibat her daughter made for 
themselves and their posterity : in the month Tebeth, the 
ninth year 3 of Harethath, king of the Nabataeans, lover of 
his people. And may Dushara 4 and his throne (?), and Alldt 

80] El-Hejra 221 

of 'Amnad, and Manuthu, and Qaishah curse him who shall 
sell 5 this tomb, or who shall buy it, or mortgage it, or give 
it away, or take out 6 from it body or limb, or who shall bury 
in it any other than Kamkam and her daughter 7 and their 
posterity ; and any one who shall not do according to what is 
written above, he shall be charged 8 from Dushara and Hubalu 
and from Manuthu with 5 curses, and to the magician (?) with 
a fine 9 of a thousand selds Harethite ; saving him who shall 
produce in his hand a writ from the hand 10 of Kamkam or 
Kulaibat her daughter concerning the said tomb ; and the 
said writ shall hold good. u Wahb-allahi, son of *Abd- 
'obedath, 12 did the work. 

L. i. nuy The mas. form is used in 3 plur. pf. and impf., though 
the subj. is fern., cf. 85 i. p-DprV 93 2. D3D3 Pr. n. fem.= Il5^5 
an Arab, gum, Sab. D3O3 (Sab. Denkm. 83), Ka.yKap.ov. The genealogy 
is here reckoned through the mother and grandfather (l~in), and 
the grave is set apart by a mother and daughter for themselves and 
their children, the family sacra, with the exclusive right of burial, 
being thus transmitted through women independently of their 
husbands; cf. 85. From 91 it appears that married women could 
hold property and bequeath it on their own account. Sometimes 
it is the father who provides for the burial rights of his daughters 
and their children, e. g. 81. 90 ; but as a rule the family grave descends 
in the male line, e. g. 79, esp. 89. These facts point to the inde- 
pendent position held by women among the Nabataeans, testified 
further by the Nab. coins, upon which women figure prominently ; and 
to the survival of the old rule of female kinship, along with the later 
system of transmission through males (Nold. in Eut. Nab. Inschr. 79 f., 
Rob. Smith Kinship 313 ff.). r6fcO 9O 2 i. e. iljlj fern., OvaeXaOrj 

Wadd. 2055 ; in Sin. the name is mas., Eut. 504 &c. 1D*in i. e. 

L. 2. rnfca i.e. l;.!I^fem. of 44^ Bnpa The suff. DPI' 

is mas. and fern, in Nab.; see 76 A i n. ri3Z3 i.e. rno tn e loth 

month, Dec. 1 7-Jan. 1 5, Assyr. Tibituv, 78 3 n. ; Esth. 215. Thus 
in the 9th year of Aretas iv the first half of Tebeth fell in B.C. i, the 
second in A.D. i. 

L. 3. }yin Impf. 86 8 ; pf. 79 5. 

L. 4. mniD 94 3 f. (after KIK'n) = <La his throne, 3JTiD=:iEmD, 

222 Nabataean [80 

70 i (N3JVD, see .), cf. Apoc. 125. The throne of D. has been 
explained as the platform on which his shrine was built; Cl.-Gan. 
identifies it with his altar, and thinks that the altar-throne was none 
other than the black squared stone worshipped at Petra (p. 218), 
Rec. iv 247-2 50 1 . It seems, however, more likely that the explanation 
of the term is to be found in the ritual scenes depicted on Bab.- 
Assyr. tablets, where the god is seated in his shrine facing the altar ; 
e. g. the tablet of Nabu-pal-iddina illustrated in the Brit. Mus. Guide to 
Bab. and Assyr. Ant. (1900) PI. xxii. Thus mmQl is practically the 
same as his shrine; see 94 3 n. n^K i. e. v^^Lll Alldt, the chief 

goddess of the ancient Arabs; cf. CIS ii 185 JOPI^K ON ni>K. She 
is mentioned with Al-'Uzza and Manat in Qur. 53 20. Arab writers 
say that her himd (79 5 .) was the rich valley in which the town 
of Taif lay, 60 miles SE. of Mekka; while the inscrr. show that 
her worship extended northwards to Hejra, Hauran (98. 99), as far as 
Palmyra (117) ; it reached also to Carthage and the Pun. settlements, 
see 60 3 n. The name npN with a final long vowel due to contraction 
(not the fern, ending), means goddess, and is prob. contracted from 
Ldfji (fern, of M = 4lll) cJI Jl >5U1, the middle stage of the 
contraction appearing in the 'AXiXar of Herod, iii 8. The expression 
DiinrvN n?K A. their goddess in 99 i seems to show that the original 
meaning of the name was in time forgotten. As to the character 
of the deity, there is some reason to think that she was a sun-goddess 
(so Wellh. Reste Ar. Heid. 33); in Sabaean Ildhat of Hamddn nni>N 
pan had solar attributes, Sab. Denkm. 66 f. But in Palm. 117 6 
she is distinct from BW; by Herod. (I.e.) and others she is called 
and in Hauran and at Palmyra her Gk. equivalent was 
This rather implies that she was an astral or sky deity, 
possibly the moon-goddess beside Dushara the sun-god, if such was 
his original character (79 5 n.}. In ancient Babylon Allatu was goddess 
of the nether regions (Jastrow ReL of Bab. and Assyr. 104 &c.), but 

1 On some early Gk. vases the god is represented seated on his altar. Cl.-Gan. 
quotes Gk. inscriptions from Sheh Barakat near Aleppo (Et. ii 4) to Z*vs 
MaS/Saxos = mio (?) ^3 = Zvy /Sa;/<oy on an inscr. lately found in the same district, 
Rec. iv 28. The evidence is hardly convincing enough to support the far- 
reaching identification above. 

2 Herod, says, the Arabs 6vop&ovffi 8J rbv n\v Atovvffov 'OporaK, rrjv SI 
Ovpavfyv 'AXjXar. Origen contr. Cels. v 37 ol 'Apafiiot r^v Qvpaviav na.1 rbv 
Atovvffov fjiovovs fjyovvrcu Ofovs. Arrian Exp. Alex, vii 20 "Apafias Svo pbvov Ttpav 
Otovs, T^V Oi>pav6v r( xat rbv Aiuvvaov. 

3 'hOrivrj in Gk. inscrr. from Hauran = rto , Wadd. 2208, 2308 &c. The son of 
Zenobia, n"nm, was called in Gk. J A6rjv68<upos. 

80] El-Hejra 223 

there is no evidence that rb$ had this character in Phoen. or Arab. 
religion (see 50 i .). i:oy JD or n:y The name of a place ; 

cf. inhn n rx 09 i f. 

L. 6. "Vy . . lbc> . . na Arab, words : li-L corpse, jL~> member of the 
body,^ls. another. 

L. 7. noy WKB 81 7 i.e. asy VVKQ, c f. \n^y WKD CIS ii 217 7. 
The first letter is the Arab. conj. i_, cf. D^pS 1. 10 and often. 

L. 8. l^3n Though the prep, is absent, this is prob. the ancient 
god JJj* , cf. $>nrm 102 5 (?) ; for the omission of the prep. cf. 

1. 2. |H1DB> Perhaps to be connected with * 

which sometimes=/0 curse, the Aram, equivalent of the Arab. j^jJ; cf. 
CIS ii 211 8 royi? im/our curses. K^3QK^ Possibly the name of 

some religious or secular institution, Lidzb. 145 n. Nold. suggests that 
the form is an error for N^a^N? in double (amount) ; cf. ^>B3 TTipy ''JVNa 
CIS ii 217 7. The word has been found recently in a Palm, inscr. 
following the name of a person sn^K IPTy H N^aax l6&fTO 12 ... i>yn 
where it is clearly a priestly title, perhaps (after the Assyr. Abkallu) = 
' magician' (see p. 295 . i), and in the Minaean (?) inscr. from Warka 
^3flK? = jst in the same position, Hommel Sud-Arab. Chrest. 
113. Lidzb., Eph. i 203, proposes doubtfully the rendering ad- 
ministrator. Dip 89 8 -=.fine, as in Targ., e. g. Ps.-Jon. Ex. 

21 30 K-fi91 K ?T?- The resemblance to K^VO-OS, census, is prob. 
only accidental; census does not -=fine, and a Lat. word is not likely 
to have become naturalized in this connexion (Nold.). 

L. 9. pyte In Targ. Ny^D = Heb. S>pp, e.g. Onk. Ex. 30 13 Kyb'p 
KB>-^p 'y. ^pa, Syr. ^.v',\nr), Gk. o-rar^p ; here silver drachmae. *mn 
An indeclinable adj. formed from nnin, ^^ from i^La., ' authorized, 
issued by Aretas.' The coins of Aretas iii, Obodas, and Aretas iv (at 
the beginning of his reign) are heavier in weight than those of the 
later kings. This" double threat of divine curses and a fine in 

money is a peculiar feature of the El-Hejra inscrr. ; cf. 69 19 . 
Lidzb., p. 143, has pointed out the remarkable parallel afforded by 
a number of Gk. sepulchral inscrr. from W. Asia Minor, especially 
by those from Lycia \ The custom of specifying a fine for violating a 
tomb spread widely from Lycia over the Roman Empire, and in this 
way may have reached the Nabataeans. 

1 See Hirschfeld in Konigsberger Studien i (1887, 83-144). The foil, is a 
specimen, from Pinara, circ. 3 cent. B.C. (Hirschfeld, p. 107) tciv Si TS irapa 
ravra ircmjerfl, a/xa/mwAoy | tarta OtSiv travrtav ai AIJTOVS \ Kal rS>v TfKVtav Kal 
vpoa-\airoTfiffdT(a rdXavrov Apyvpiov \ ai eiaT<u run PovXcpivm \ t-y&iKiifcaOcu vtpl 

224 Nabataean [81 

L. 10. in K1B33 Eut. renders (who are) in the said grave \ but 
it is better to refer the prep, to 2D3 a writing . . . in connexion 
with &c. 

L. ii. \nfjN3ni 93 7 i.e. ail 4^>J tne name of the sculptor; the 
*' is the sign of the genit. mnjmy Compounded with the name 

of king Obodas ; cf. l^cmy 97 ii. nmrmy 82 5. ^NTTUy CIS ii 
304. The origin of these names may have been due to the deification 
of kings after death (see 95 in.); in some cases, perhaps, the second 
name belonged to a venerated ancestor, or to a tribe (cf. Arab. 
Abd-Ahlihi), Wellhausen Reste 4. 

81. El-Hejra. CIS ii 199; Eut. 4. A.D. 4. In situ. 

-D lawn nay H KJDI KDDSI KISD nrr i 

n&K isni rrh*i r\w&h K^TI tfo^K is VM 2 

Din np^ro Din oni^n nnin vnsao i^iii 3 

n p S^ jnem p^ D^yS ibS^i IM 4 

x pr i pr IK a*n^ K^J; n p ^y 5 

HD 1p lajT H pi KJK IK ^n^ IK I^V 6 

H Ktoina Kn^K K-iPin 1 ? nay ^n^Kfi n^n^ 7 
nnin JOKT&^I mn ^K pj/?D 10^ ^iS s 
CDU ^a nnin 1 ? nSni it^y n^ bi^ ni^a 9 

nay 10 

This is the tomb and the base and the foundation (?) which 
Hushabu, son 2 of Kafiyu, son of Alkuf, the Temanite, made 
for himself and his children and Habu his mother, 3 and Rufu 
and Aftiyu his sisters and their children, an inviolable place, 
after the manner of what is held inviolable 4 by the Nabataeans 
and Shalamians, for ever. And may Dushara curse every one 
who shall bury in this tomb 5 any other than those written 
above, or shall sell it, or buy it, or pledge it, or 6 let it, or 
give it away, or lend it temporarily ! And any one who shall 
do otherwise than what is above 7 written, he shall be charged 

81] El-Hejra 225 

to the god Dushara, in connexion with the above inviolable 
place, 8 at the full price of a thousand selds Harethite, and 
to our lord the king Harethath the same amount. 9 In the 
month Shebat, the thirteenth year of Harethath, king of the 
Nabataeans, lover of 10 his people. 

L. i. NDD3 = POLO-IS, Syr. jruxLS, im-m->, in Targ. 
Some part of the building, but the exact meaning is unknown. If 
taken from \/|13, *W| (N3J3) would mean something ' straight,' ' fixed ' ; 
but the word may be Gk., hardly, however, x"^ melting-pot, funnel, 
as proposed in Corp. A good many terms connected with building 
and sculpture were introduced into Aram, from Gk., e. g. tOt^n Ocarpov 
CIS ii 163 2, Palm. Np^D3 119 3. 13E^n i.e. <^*Ji. 

L. 2. VB3 Cf. Arab. ^Ja equal, sufficient. *]13i>K Corp. suggests 
a compound of hx and [sp3] SJB3, ' incline, O El.' NWn From 

NDTI 69 3 n., as ^yCjj from *K|j (Nold.) ; cf. 85 2 . 13H In 

Arab, perhaps ^^ love, cf. D^n 93 3. 

L. 3. ian Nold. compares v-J^ to pity \ but ? 1BV1. VHBN 93 

3 is not otherwise known. The Corp. compares NDS, TIB to be wide, 
open. nnintf Plur. with suff. 3 sing. m. ; cf. DrminN 85 3 and in 

Egypt Aram. CIS ii 150 8 (as here). ripens Din See 79 8. 9 . 

L. 4. \chw\ 1033 See 79 9 n. 

L. 5. pBto* 86 4 &c. ; Syr. ^v> to pawn or mortgage ; in 79 6 
&c. fm\ 

L. 6. 3<T i.e. 2n^ 3n^ the rarely used impf. of 3TT 1 ; in 79 6 &c. 
Prob. a verb from o\, *151 time (Nold.). 

L. 8. 1D2D ''Ol' Lit. * according to a price of totality.' W is plur. 
constr., for Aram, uses only the plur., ^oo?, )? ; cf. CIS ii 217 7 
mn tnnN *DT fjS3 cfcw(5/e //^<f price of this place. IDiD is prob. a noun 
^sL* from j+i* iv /<? z'/^, collect, reckon up, rather than a pass. ptcp. 
1B30, 1S3O, which would not agree with the plur. 'CH. pj&D See 

80 9 . WKIO See 62 1 1 . N3b nnin The regular order 

in Nab., 85 10. 92 4 &c., as in BAram. Dan. 3 i. 5 i &c., and late 
Hebr. Dan. 1 21. i Chr. 29 29. 

L. 9. B3B> i.e. B3^ Zech. 1 7, the nth month, Assyr. lalatu; 78 
3 n. r6ni ~\wy This is the usual order in Nab. (with a fern. 

noun), cf. V3BM ntPJJ 82 4. 93 6. 99 3 ; similarly in Palm. 147 ii b 20 
nt?1 lory, in Mandaic (Nold. Mand. Gr. 189), and in Phoen. 5 i and 
NPun. In Syr. the ten follows the unit. 

226 Nabataean [82 

82. El-Hejra. CIS ii 201; Eut. 5. A.D. 8. In situ. 

irona 'ate nay 

irva jrwa PTOK mnao mi wai 3 
nmn aoanzA yaK>i iB>y ;w 4 
nrnmay nay Dm IBM 5 
majnay -D 6 

This is the tomb which Malkidn Pathdra made 2 over 
I-Iunamu Hephaestidn the chiliarch his father, 3 and for himself 
and his children and his posterity, each legal kinsman : in the 
month Nisan, 4 the seventeenth year of our lord Harethath, 
king 5 of the Nabataeans, lover of his people. ' Abd-harethath 
the mason, 6 son of 'Abd-'obedath, did the work. 

L. i. fno = MoXxuiv Wadd. 1910 &c. MTtflB Cognomen 

of the father, = table in Aram., e. g. Targ. Onk. Ex. 25 23. D. H. 
Mttller suggests that the name = T/xxTre^m/s ; but this would be 
Kntaa (Nold.). 

L. 2. *?y 91 2, instead of the usual $>, implies that the father was 
already dead. UW 85 i ^ii='Ovatvos Wadd. 2048 

i. e. 'H^aicmW. JO"lv3 = \tXiapxoS' 

A legal phrase frequently occurring in these 

rres 2 &c. In form pIVK is an adj. with the elative N 
), though without the significance of the elative in Arab, (corn- 
par., superl.); the 3 is distributive, as in rWBQ rut? Dt. 15 20. BHn2 t^nn 
I Chr. 27 i. Literally, pIVX may be rendered authorized; it conveys 
the idea of legal right, perhaps also of kinship ; Nold. is inclined to 
give the latter as the original sense, and compares the Syr. \s)\ 
relatives^ kinsmen (Payne Smith Thes. col. 1085). At any rate in usage 
the phrase denotes ' haeres quisque in vice suaY ' jure haereditatis ' 
(Corp.), ' all who have claims as kindred ' ; thus nplXNI PPHN CIS ii 

220 i f. DnpnvNi orn^ 215 2. 'N3 ' HI jvoprv H 219 2 f. b 
cniN se 3. 

L. 5. nmrroy See 80 1 1 n. N^oa 88 9 &c. i. e. ^BB, or 

El-Hejra 227 

83. El-Hejra. CIS ii 202 ; Eut. 6. A.D. 15. In situ. 

tnaa nri i 


ItDSJ 5 

This is the tomb and habitation which 2 Mun'ath, son of 
Abyas, made for himself 3 and his sons and his daughters 
and their children : in the 4 twenty-fourth year of IJarethath, 
king 5 of the Nabataeans, lover of his people. 

L. i. KJttt = Syr. ]jo( a lodging, inn, so mansion, abode, e.g. Jn. 
14 2 ud? fcs-o jJo/ yoj/ ^-Ju^c ; a somewhat poetical expression 
to be found in an inscr. By Ephraem it is used of mansions off he dead 

L. 2. ny 101 3 i.e. i^I, Mdvatfos Wadd. 2429. J3t< i.e 

84. El-Hejra. CIS ii 204 ; Eut. 7. A. D. 16. In situ. 

*D n^an nay n KnsD ro-r i 

run NIIJ^ ann r\&snh nSan 2 

w p? p wfa nni nnrow 3 

n ^ nij;n ma H wnarnD 4 

T^J nrnn 1 ? J^ w nto \ JS p 5 

om <J 

This is the tomb which Taim-allahi, son of 2 Hamilath, made 
for himself ; and he has given this tomb to Amah 3 his wife, 
daughter of Gulhumu, from the date of the deed 4 of gift 
which is in her hand, (that) she may do (with it) whatever 
she pleases : 6 from the 26th of Ab, the 25th year of Harethath, 
king of the Nabataeans, 6 lover of his people. 


228 Nabataean 

L. i. ^nND'H i. e. j IIS slave of Allah, e/xoXXov (gen.) Wadd. 
2020 ; frequent in Sin., e. g. 108. 

L. 2. r&Dn Mas., 87 2 ff. fern., = ii^i or L)U (sword-belt, J^. 
/o rarry) ; cf. *A/ieAa0os Wadd. 2393 &c. 

L. 3. nnniX From nrON (= Wat, Syr. )ifco? r 0//-/M) with suff. 3 
sing, m.; contrast nriDN CIS ii 194. In Palm, the forms are HHN, 
emph. NrVN, with suff. nnriN ; in Pal. Aram. niVK, KHIVN &c., with 
suff. iTHWK and n^nn^K, plur. pjw, KHM (cf. ' 62 8); Dalm. Gr. 
159. 1Dni>J Cf. the name of the Arab tribe i^i*. "BB> 93 5. 

nOK' 94 4, Palm. 147 i 8, the usual Aram, word for a bill or 0<f, e. g. 
rrin 1DB> a bill of debt, hence the NHebr. T3OW nj?D nOB?. 

L. 4. N2VH 87 5. 147 ii c 50. For the form N3*n cf. K?||). 90 4. 

L. 5. 3K The 5th month ; see 78 3 . 

85. El-Hejra. CIS ii 205 ; Eut. 8. A. r>. 25. In situ. 

n^D on 1 ? Nn^^n nroa n^^i iypi a 
DTWIK ..... xs^yi jra^ rna 3 

H 5 




rvo waa nn'nn wjnai 10 
nay onn lea ^a nnnn 1 ? nil x a 

This is the tomb which Washti, daughter of Bagarath, 2 and 
Qainu and Nashankiyah (?) her daughters, the Temanites, 
made for themselves, each 3 one of them, and for Shamiyath 
and .... their sisters, daughters 4 of Washti .... that they 
be buried .... this 5 who are above .... in this tomb ; and 
it shall hold good for 6 Washti, her daughters . . . 9 and he 




shall be charged to my god a hundred selcts Harethite, 10 and 
our lord Harethath the king the same amount : in the month 
lyar, the u 34th year of Harethath, king of the Nabataeans, 
lover of his people. 

L. i. *TttA The name is read distinctly in 1. 4. It can hardly be 
the same as the O.T. Til?!, which is of Persian (Zend) origin. rP33 
87 ii i.e. i\, i^ corpulent, Bay/so/ros Wadd. 2562. 

L. 2. Wp 87 2 fern., in Sin. mas., e. g. Eut. 4. 557 &c.; in Arab. 
,^43 is the name of a tribe, Hebr. H2 Num. 24 22. Jud. 4 
ii. n'MBO Similarly in Sin., e.g. Eut. 51. 190 &c. (mas.); cf. 

mw Eut. 162. nnJ3 Plur. ; cf. 80, where the grave is provided 

by a mother and her daughter. Here the sisters of the foundresses 
are to have the use of the tomb ; see 80 in. NrVJO'n i. e. 

KJT3D'n ; see 81 2 n. n$>3 rbl are distributive. 

L. 6. The illegible lines no doubt contained the usual imprecations. 

L. 9. N"6tf Either plur. or sing., with suff. HND The smallness 

of the fine is remarkable ; contrast 81 8. Eut. suggests that a metal 
plate, specifying a heavier penalty, was attached to the inscr. subse- 
quently. In some cases traces of such tablets are still to be seen. 

L. 10. "VK 86 9 &c., i.e. Apr.-May; Assyr. airu t Palm. 1>N, Syr. 
[, Rabb. 1K; see 78 3 n. 

86. El-Hejra. CIS ii 206 ; Eut. 9. A. D. 26. In situ. Plate VII. 


p sro 
H Ss 

^a p T 
om i&aj 
nay N V 

H nm nx ^IJK hi hy uhm 

^ p 

vrwrk D-in& 3 

nn nap pr 4 

nn tropa 5 

ra na in op6 6 

nay MNS 7 

af?a nn-in s 

nnnn 1 ? ^ani f rhr\ r\w ?& rm* xhy n 9 


majnay na 


230 Nabalaean [86 

This is the sepulchre which KahlAn the physician, son of 
Wa'ldn, made for himself and his children and his posterity, 

2 each legal kinsman, for ever. And this sepulchre is an in- 
violable place after the manner of the inviolable sanctuary 

3 which is inviolably dedicated to Dushara among the Naba- 
taeans and Shalamians. It is incumbent upon every legal 
kinsman and heir that he do not * sell this sepulchre, nor 
pledge it, nor let it, nor lend it, nor write 6 in respect of this 
sepulchre any deed, for ever. But every man who shall pro- 
duce in his hand a writ from Kahldn, 6 it shall hold good 
according to what is in it. And every man who shall write 
on this sepulchre any writing other than what is above, 7 he 
shall be charged to Dushara in money three thousand selds 
Harethite, and to our lord 8 the king Harethath the same 
amount. And may Dushara and Manuthu curse every one 
who shall change aught of 9 what is above! In the month 
lyar, the thirty-fifth year of Harethath, king of the Naba- 
taeans, lover of his people. 10 Aftah, son of 'Abd- l obedath, 
and Halaf-allahi, son of Hamlagu, the masons, did the work. 

L. i. pro . . pfcO i.e. 

L. 2. p-TCJO pIVK See 82 3 n. 

L. 3. anno Afel ptcp; cf. 69 16 (a place), and 79 8 . JTV 

i. e. TVV or rftj = Hebr. Bh\ 

L. 4. pW See 81 5 . '3 3fl3* Nold. renders ' make any 

written contract for the use of this grave/ 

L. 6. N$>y >1 i?3 }D Corp. renders as above, and the similar phrase 
with Ty elsewhere (e. g. 81 5), supports this. Nold., however, regards 


fD here as the Arab. yjLJLj ^ (^explanatory), and renders 'a writing 
of the same kind as all that is above/ This usage is more distinct in 
89 2. 5. 

L. 8. T'jr 1 Pael, = Arab. jSj he shall change ; cf.JJlc another, Ty. 

L. 10. nriDN i.e. ^ll. M^NS^n i.e. sJJl i-Jli. compensation 

C L 

yrcw ^//aA ; often abbreviated i_iii 89 i ; cf. 'Avriyoi/os, Palm. <l B <l ?n 

p. 301 . i = 'Avrioxov. 118 i. titan Nold. suggests liu^ (the 
vb. = /<? make fast a line) as an equivalent. 

El-Hejra 231 

87. El-Hejra. CIS ii 207; Eut. 10. A.D. 27. In situ. 

pis ia Dm "Dp H *nap nn i 

nSarri naenfn nnrow \rph aoi^n 2 

run om p t|pn rrra par n p W?i PI^K rfeam 3 

n pis rua nnp]n rteni roan 4 

p nap i run anapa inpnvn 5 

in Ninii n^ mi n wspna 6 

NED ^a nnnn 1 ? n^i pribn nj^ p^ npya 7 

vn na nini NXSK nn innii m^jn^y m nnsx s 


This is the sepulchre which Arus, son of Farwin, made for 
himself and for Farwan his father 2 the eparch, and for Qainu 
his wife, and for Hatibath and Hamilath their daughters, and 
the children of the said Hatibath 3 and Hamilath, and for 
every one who shall produce in his hand a warrant from the 
said Arus, or * Hatibath and Hamilath his sisters, daughters of 
Farwcin the eparch, 6 to be buried in this sepulchre, or to bury 
whom he pleases, 6 in virtue of the warrant which is in his 
hand, according to what is in that writ, or each legal kinsman. 
7 In the month Nisan, the thirty-sixth year of Harethath, 
king of the Nabataeans, lover of his people. 8 Aftah, son of 
'Abd-'obedath, and Wahbu, son of Afa, and Huru, son 
of Ufcayyu, the masons, 9 did the work. 

L. i. D1TK The termination perhaps indicates a Gk. name. 
i. c. tjljp. Arab, words in ^,1 do not take tanwin, hence this name 
does not end in V. 

L. 2. tonfin 93 i = rapxos, cf - Sin - n^n&n=eVapx"* 107, the n 

as in Syr. Idildoi, )L'c>d. irp 85 2 n. nnrux i.e. the 

wife of Farwan, and step-mother of Arus. Men, nhtsn i.c. 

tli, JLUI*. (84 2 n.). 

L. 3. n^K 94 3 prob. nJ>N, plur. of nn, in; see add note 
p. 26. fjpn 79 3 n. 

232 Nabataean [88 

L. 4. nnriK An error for the plur. nmnx. Other errors in this 
inscr. are rra 1. 7. 13JJ 1. 9. 

L. 8. HTIBK 86 10 n. lOTH i.e. ^J*r. NVQN 93 8 i.e. 


^5l ; the name occurs in the Libyan dialect, Muller Ep. Denk. aus 

Ar. nos. 30. 32. nin 90 5 i. e.jji, Hebr. "Wi Ex. 17 10 &c., 

Gk. Ovpos Wadd. 2270 &c. VHK i. e. "\ dimin., little brother. 

88. El-Hegra. CIS ii 208; Eut. 11. A.D. 27(?). In situ. 

nun -fl ^ "ftp n anaa PITT i 
jrnttt mnao m^i npsb 2 
vh m 3 
jrwa 4 
r H pi mi 5 
naj; 6 

\ . . . a ro p'j nn*i *nnn 7 
IBM ^a nnirfe s 

This is the tomb which Shullai, son of Radwa, made 2 for 
himself and his children and his posterity, each legal kinsman ; 
3 and that no one is to be buried in this tomb except each legal 
* kinsman, and that this tomb is not to be sold or mortgaged, 

5 And whoever does otherwise than is above, he shall be 

6 charged to Dushara, the god of our lord, [in money] a 
thousand [seta's] 7 Harethite. In the month Nisan, the . . . 
year 8 of Harethath, king of the Nabataeans, lover of his 
people. Aftab 9 the mason did the work. 

L. I. vB' 93 4 probably =SvXAaros (6 rStv Na/JarcuW cTrir-pornos 
Strabo 663 ed. MtilL). This presupposes a form ^Ju. or 'A, from J-., 
which, however, is not known. Prop. nn. of the form JjLi are fern., 
e.g. .ill; Nold. prefers a form ill. N11=*2j; in which 

case, though not known in Arab., it will be one of the few mas. 

89] El-Hejra 233 

names of the form *}UI, fern, of Jl (Nold.). Wellhausen takes it as 
= *\*,j, the name of an ancient Arab deity, and compares the Palm, 
names 1X1 D'Tl 115 i. 1X"1 *U Vog. 84 3; Reste Ar. Hei'd. 58 f. Cf. 
perhaps Risuil (? =i>NWi) OIL v 4920. 

L. 3. |n!> 79 8 n. 

L. 4. pTJV Ethpa. This unusual form (for pin) appears to have 
been current; cf. &3TnD ptcp. fern. 147 ii c 33 and 94 4 . 

L. 6. r6 if it qualified tOBTT, would be NH^N ; see 61 29 n. 

L. 7. Eut. fills the lacuna with J S* i. e. 15, making a total of 36. 
The Corp. would add two or three strokes, making 38 or 39. 

89. El-Hejra. CIS ii 209; Eut. 12. A.D. 31. In situ. 

nna \ryvfa rw&b jwop na vhn nay n 
jrroaVi pan p nn ii&n 1 ? n^n* H 
run iTyfc? ... 1 nn Knsaa pnapn* m D^y ny pnxa pnx 3 

n Knsa pi* n Dnnnao on^ai pan \ninKi iryfe? p nSa J^DK 5 
nn ana* tnny^a n^a vvxh nn^y IK naniD ana* IK 6 

nay pi nnSa napa 1 ? ana \r\rh IK an^A IK nnja 1 ? IK 7 

nnn nKJb ^an JJPD ejpa KJK]ib n?K jnrn? Dip nay s 
nn*a wp n^aa aw nn nno^a nia KiKnaSi 9 
nnaynayi Kibin nay onn itoai nSa nnnnS 10 

This is the tomb which Halafu, son of Qos-nathan, made 
for himself and for Sha'idu his son 2 and his brothers, as many 
male children as shall be born to the said Halafu, and for 
their sons and their posterity, 3 each legal kinsman, for ever ; 
and that there be buried in this tomb . . . the said Sha'idu, 4 and 
Manu'ath and Kenushath(P) and Ribamath(P) and Umayyath 

234 Nabataean [80 

and Shalimath, daughters of the said Halafu. And no man 
shall be allowed, 6 either Sha'idu, or his brothers male, or 
their sons, or their posterity, to sell this tomb, 8 or write 
a (deed of) gift or anything else to any man, with the sole 
exception that one of them write for his wife, 7 or for his 
daughters, or for a kinsman, or for a son-in-law, a deed of 
burial. And whoever does otherwise than this, he shall be 
8 charged with a fine to Dushara, the god of [our] lord, 
[in mon]ey five hundred selds Harethite, 9 and to our lord 
the same amount, according to the copy hereof deposited in 
the temple of Qaisha. In the month Nisan, the fortieth year 
10 of Harethath, king of the Nabataeans, lover of his people. 
Rauma and c Abd- c obedath, the masons. 

L. i. iS&n i.e. v-jLl. 86 10 n. ]r\)Q\)= Qos gives, cf. Koorvaravos 
in a Gk. inscr. from Memphis (200-150 B. c.), where KocryTjpos, 
K<xr/Javos, Kotr/ioAaxos &c. also occur; Miller Rev. Arche'ol. (1870) 
109 ff. Dp was apparently the name of an Edomite deity, cf. 
KauSmalaka, Kausgabri, Edomite kings, Schrader COT 150; and the 
Edomite Ko<rro/?apos Jos. Ant. xv 7 9 f. In Sin. the name "nyDIp 
is found, Eut. 423, though the reading is not quite certain; and in 
Hebr. D1p"Q Ezr. 2 53. It is natural to compare NtJ^p 1. 9 (70 5 .), but 
Nold. is against the identification, ZDMG xli 714. VW i. e. JL-L 
Fortunatus, cf. 1W (JJH) Sin. 106, Palm. 127 3, and mw 95 3. 

L. 2. p3T |D An Arabism, cf. 1. 5 Wyt? JD r6a PMK and 86 6 n. 
)D . . n'Q^ . . L ; Wright Ar. Gr. ii 48 g. 

L. 4. njfiJD Cf. il*j^ pr. n. fem.=de/ended, and njJJO 83 2. The 
two names which follow are uncertain. JVDN Prob. dimin. 

li from ill handmaid. TKsv i. e. A.I_.M, lJ*, cf. 

(fern.) CIS ii 210 2. nn i.e. "gh 90 3; Targ., Talm. 

one to whom something is allowed. 

L. 5. rfa BH3K 94 5 i.e. fib 'X every one] cf. aja 3Ti| CIS ii 
219 5, and J&to <*&, o^ jfc^^o Nold. Syr. Gr? 218; see 
62 17 n. 

L. 6. nTj? 1N=U^ jl, lit. or (any deed) other than ii. }mj&3 
Lit. except if; 80 9. 

L. 7. S^tW i.e. ^^>=kinsman in the male line; but as these 
would naturally have the right of burial, the meaning here may be 
a descendant in the female line, a daughter's child; Rob. Smith 

80] El-Hejra 235 

Kinship 315^ trta In CIS ii 215 6 mr^l, Targ. Tin|>3 only, 

alone, to be taken with JiTlj ; cf. 9O 6. 

L. 8. Dp 80 8. 

* '. 
19. nnDJ Seep. 189,= ii- ; Assyr. nishu 'excerpt' (ZA iv 267); 

cf. the late Rabbin. NnDU a variant, another reading. The word appears 
to be of N. Semitic origin, rather than native to Arab., the fern, ending 
in ii- being equivalent to the Aram. emph. st. ; see Frankel Aram. 
Fremdw. 251. 3V1> For tOTf. NBp See 79 5 . 

L. 10. NDn 91 2 perhaps *LjJ, or abbrev. from ^-jij, a common 

90. E!MEEejra. CIS ii 212; Eut. 14. A.D. 35. In situ. 

waA DsnN -D nmy*ay my ^ K^M n:n i 
i nipn p'tapn* ^ DmS*i nnjii XT n^i j J?i nnnn n^ibi a 
pe n3-T jnaa p^ v ^ paaro^ IN pr n nai n^w pan ^1 3 
pea wn^ n jn 1 ? DSyS n^K W rfa ana in jna pnn^* 4 

nn KVT p T n^ii ni y Dpi Dy o*p wni nrosi 5 

run K-opn nn ptap n ni& t|n nn wnn K-una nin 6 
-rajr Si 17* n pi Bnaw nn* psr ^1 7 
jnn J^N pybo t)D^ wtD^ nay WKB s 
nay Dm IMS ^Sa nnnn 1 ? yanw pyi^ na roe 9 

nmymy in nnsx 10 

This is the tomb which 'Abd-'obedath, son of Aribas, made 
for himself, 2 and for Wa'ilath his daughter, and for the sons 
of this Wa'ilath and her daughters and their children, that they 
may be buried in the said sepulchre ; 3 and neither Wa'ilath 
nor her sons shall be allowed to sell or pledge or let this 
tomb, or * write in respect of this tomb any deed for any 
man, for ever; but that the said tomb shall hold good for 
Wa'ilath and for her sons 5 and her daughters and for their 

236 Nabataean [91 

children for ever. And it is incumbent upon Wa'ilath and her 
sons, if Huru, brother of this c Abd- c obedath, be 6 in Hejra, 
and the fate of death befall him, to bury him, and none but 
him, in this sepulchre ; 7 and no man shall take him out. And 
whoever shall change (this provision), and not do according 
to what is above written, 8 he shall be charged to our lord 
in money two thousand selds Harethite. In the month 
9 Tebeth, the forty-fourth year of Harethath, king of the 
Nabataeans, lover of his people. 10 Aftah, son of 'Abd-'obedath, 
the mason, did the work. 

L. i. WHK Hardly an Aram, name; possibly 'Apv/?as. 

L. 2. r&NI See 80 i n. 

L. 3. pen 89 4 n. 

L. 4. tjn!?N An error for P13N. }rk 79 8 n. 

L. 5. Qp The ptcp. goes with Nin> 1. 4. nin Perhaps a 

merchant who was often absent from home (Nold.). 

L. 6. tnan=y4l, the emph. st. in Aram, representing the Arab. 
art., lit. 'the guarded, forbidden place.' In the Targg. and Talm. 
jn:in occurs as a name of various places; the N"tin mentioned in 
Jebamoth n6a as the home of a Jew living at Neharde'a (Babyl.) may 
be El-Hejra (Nold.). A good many Jews were settled in the N. of the 
Hejaz. DID *n Lit. ' a mortal change.' Tmir6 Lit. he alone ; 
cf. inb 89 7. 

91. El-Hejra. CIS ii 213; But. 15. A.D. 36. In situ. 

narn na ijy nay H *nM rtn i 
xaSai M&VI hy KjrnDN ia*n nil a 
rtn wnn xnsa n^n iwj^fi n^n 3 
p pn p^n nonAi 4 
KWTD jrnu p npbm 5 
o np]io N^ni: p npSn i^ySi 6 
|TN DmWfl onS ni H nw 7 
^D nninS J53 ro naD nppa s 
[majnay] "ia nn^K n^y am 9 

91] El-Hejra 237 

This is the tomb which 'Animu, son of Guzayath, and 
Arisoxe, 2 daughter of Taimu the strategos> made over Rauma 
and Kalba 3 her brothers ; and to 'Animu (belongs) the third 
part of this tomb and vault, 4 and to Arisoxe two- thirds of 
the tomb and vault ; 6 and her portion of the niches is the 
east side and the niches (there) ; 6 and 'Animu has his 
portion of the niches on the south-east, 7 and the niches 
which are in it ; for them and for their children, each legal 
kinsman. 8 In the month Tebeth, the 45th year of Harethath, 
king of the Nabataeans, 9 lover of his people. Aftah, son 
[of 'Abd-'obedath], the mason, did the work. 

L. i. lOJy 140 B i. Arab, names like Ijli, JL are suggested as 
equivalents. "Ava/ios, common in Hauran, prob. stands for 'J^\ = DJMN 
(CIS ii 191 i) rather than for 1Biy. ruOU The Arab, would 

be iljj^ or 115^; the mas. form occurs, (J. HDaonN Nold. 

suggests that this is an abbreviation, 'Apurrofrj for 'Apun-o&V?; ; for 
the omission of T cf. wmDN 1. 2; the Corp. merely transliterates 
Arsaxa. She was the wife of 'Animu ; note in this inscr. the predomi- 
nance of the woman (8O i .). 

L. 2. 1DT1 = Jo, CIS ii 203 i &c. 5>y 82 2 n. NDn 89 

10. N1^3 An Aram, name = )^o, cf. Phoen. N^3 CIS i 52 

i ; see 02 2 n. 

L. 3. rVHN i. e. i^DN ; the sufF. refers to PlD3D"N. Nnnv 04 i = 
p^ lit. excavation^ so underground chamber, in poetry a grave ; the 

vb. = ' to dig a grave.' Cf. in Hebr. mv Jud. 9 46. 49 (see Moore 
in loc.). i S. 13 6, and the use of myo in Gen. 23 9. 20. For 
the arrangement of an ancient Arab tomb see Wellhausen Resie 179. 

L. 4. fon pni>n Cf. he6t? Vll three-quarters 42 ii. 

L. 5. N>rm Sing. NPIU CIS ii 211 i ff., plur. prm 04 i = loculus or 
niche for a corpse. In Palm, the form is Kn1J 145 3. fritM 144 7, 
which suggests the Assyr. kimahhu 'grave/ 'coffin' (Winckler AF 
ii 61, Del. Assyr. HWB 587); hence the word is prob. of foreign 
origin. For the quiescence of the D cf. fl?-!")^ and the Aram. $"], 
JJo^j?' NPino i.e. Nn?"]9, \J^Jo } from nn to rise, of the sun ; 

in Heb. mt. For the interchange of 3 and 1 cf. JOO and Wft^, 
IVNJnanJ and nVN^aUJ &c. ; Wright Comp, r. 67. The Arab. J 
(Wellh. Resie 65), prob. the god of the rising sun, comes from this root. 

L. 6. HID An error for rffID ; other errors are ItU for ma 1. 8, 

-a for (?) mayny 13 1. 9. 

238 Nabataean [02 

92. El-Hejra. CIS ii 218; Eut. 21. A.D. 39. In situ. 

ny n NUDJb run i 
xrwb nin -a irros? a 
rrra Wm rhx jnscaa H 3 
mn m&? w 4 

This is the cippus which 2 Shakuhu, son of Thdra, made 
to A'ra 3 who is at Bosra, the god of Rabel. In the month 
4 Nisan, the first year of Maliku the king. 

L. i. K1JDD run So usually, but CIS ii 176 'D NT. The 
to prostrate oneself} as used in Nab., JOJDO means, not ' the place 
where one prostrates ' (SJL mosque), but ' an object before which 
one prostrates ' ; the verbs used with it are "Oy H (frequently), 2ip H 
101, D'pn *r 07 i, layi na n CIS ii 188 (corr. by Dussaud et Macler 
Vqy. Arch. no. 30). The mesgida was, in fact, a votive stele or 
column, in this case carved in relief under a canopy upon the face 
of the rock, but sometimes standing by itself in the sacred enclosure ; 
thus 97 is a hexagonal column ornamented with busts, fillets, &c., CIS ii 
185 is a square pillar with a moulding and plinth, 190 a pillar 6 ft. 
high. In the case of 188 the mesgida is a squared stone now serving 
as the abacus of a pillar in the narthex of an ancient church, and 
still the object of local veneration; see Dussaud et Macler 1. c. 161 f. 
The mesgida was more than a memorial stone, it was dedicated to 
a deity, as here to A'ra, 101 to Dushara and A'ra, CIS ii 190 to 
Dushara. Perhaps it was regarded as a kind of votive altar, not, 
however, intended for sacrifice ; 97 is shaped very much like a Gk. 
altar, 188 may have been originally an altar table or base. At 
any rate the monument was supposed to represent the person who 
erected it, and to plead for him before the deity. See Lagrange ReL 
Stm. 206 f. 

L. 2. imatP Prob. Aram., from rDB> to find. The form lhy5 is rare 
in Nab. names. Nlin Also Aram., N"fai = ox (Hebr. "titf) ; 

for the animal name cf. N373 91 2. The dedication perhaps implies 
that the donor came from Bostra. toyn Again in 101, and 

with the description K"i33 H ; the god is not otherwise known. 
Dussaud and Macler, Vqy. Arch. 169 f., take Nnys as the Aram, form 
of "lift?, one of the sons of Se'ir, Gen. 36 21 &c. This would corre- 

oa] El-Hejra 239 

spond to the Arab. j*\, which, however, is not the name of a tribe. 
Lidzb., Eph. i 330, suggests that the root is^-ic, which in Aram, 
would become nyy, and, to avoid the double guttural, 1JJN, NiyN ; cf. 
_ijt- = \SL-\ r double ) Driver Tenses 223. In this case N"iyK will 
correspond to the Roman Abundantia, Ops ; *ac wealth, plenty. 
Possibly the name KjnK gives the clue to the mysterious 'OporoA. 
mentioned by Herodotus as the consort of 'AXiAar (see p. 222 n. 2) ; 
Cl.-Gan. Rec. ii 374. 'OporoA may=Nn^K NJHN ; but the T is not easy 
to account for, and Cl.-Gan. has since offered a better explanation \ 

L. 3. N-ixna n 101 7 f. ; cf. nrfe n . . nfo!> 99. The idiom '3 n 
indicates the transference of the worship from Bostra, in the N. of the 
Nab. kingdom, to El-Hejra. For the idiom see 24 2 n. P&K 

fori the god of Rabel; contrast KP^N may /& god 'Obedath 95 i. 
For a god as patron of an individual cf. rcBn ni>N 95 2. ^Vp n^i? 
100 2. 'Tyt? nta CIS ii 176 4. josno nta xntrn 88 6. 101 6 f. 
(e)ts 0eov ['A]/uepou Duss. et Macl. 205. f>K3l may be either the king 
of that name (see 97 iii n.), or a private person, for the name is not 
uncommon. If Rabel here is king R., then Nsta 13$>D 1. 4 must have 
come after him, and reigned between A. D. 96 the latest year of 
Rabel (ii) known from inscrr. and A. D. 106, when the Nab. kingdom 
was absorbed into the Roman province of Arabia ; so Duss. et Macl. 
171 f., who regard this ttta as Maliku iii (iv). But there is nothing 
in this inscr. to prove that Rabel was more than a private individual ; 
and if he were a king, he may have been an earlier R. (see on 97 iii) 
and not necessarily Rabel (ii), for the expression ' A'ra the god of 
R.' may imply that a devotion to this deity was by ancestral custom 
especially connected with the name and family of R. (Cl.-Gan. Rec. 
iv 178 f.; Schurer* i 742). 

L. 4. tt^D i.e. Maliku ii, son of Aretas iv Philopatris, 99 3, the " 
last Nab. king but one, A. D. 48-71 circ. He is mentioned by Jos. 
as contributing troops to the army of Vespasian in A. D. 67 for the . 
Jewish war (War iii 4 2). It was during his reign that Damascus 
passed into the hands of the Romans, prob. under Nero, see p. 215 

f * 

n. i. The name WD = eDU was pronounced Maliku, as appears 
from the form MoAixas 2 ; in Jos. MaXi^os or Md\x* > cf. MaXxos Jn. 
18 10. There is not sufficient reason for supposing that ista was a suc- 
cessor of Rabel, usually considered the last Nab. king; see note above. 

1 *O/>or<iX ( = A(5w<ror ap. Herod.) is the actual name of the god otherwise called 
by the title DQshara (p. 218) ; see Rec. v 24. 

8 Ptriplus marts Erythrati (written circ. A. D. 70) Aevw) K&PIJ, Sid i}s oSos lanv 
(is Utrpav npos MaAtxay, /3a?iAca Na/3aratW, Mull. Ceogr. Gr. Min. i 272. 

240 Nabataean [93 

93. El-Hejra. CIS ii 221; Eut. 24. A.D. 49. In situ. 

ivy my *r KIM run i 
ni mro& n-Mi n 1 ? a 
an rm run iTy DK VJISK Jin 3 
n pi *w rra JWUK nn*oi 4 
n:n KIM Pin iTy Y p ntD^ nTa 5 
mm n^y na mK nn*n Tiy 6 
msynny IBM ^D Kate 7 
my trtea viin m KXSKI m^y nn iwm s 

This is the tomb which c A?du the eparch, son of 'Ubaidu, 
made 2 for himself and for his children and for his posterity ; 
and that there may be buried in this tomb 3 Aftiyu, mother 
of the said *Aldu, daughter of Habibu, 4 and Na'ithath his 
wife, daughter of Shullai, and whoever shall produce 6 in his 
hand a deed from the hand of the said 'Aldu. And this 
tomb 6 was made in the eleventh year of king Maliku, 7 king 
of the Nabataeans. 'Abd-'obedath, son of Wahb-allahi, 8 and 
Hni'u, son of 'Obaidath, and Afsa, son of Huthu, the masons, 
did the work. 

L. i. VFJJ 79 i n. N31Dn 87 2 n. nay 140 B i = 

"O^aiSos Wadd. 1977. 

L. 3. VJ1DK 81 3 n. wan = v^j-i, Syr. y^L, Gr. *Ay8t)8o9, 
*A^^os Wadd. 2099 &c. 

L. 4. nnw in Arab, probably would be lijlj from eyli vacillare 
(Nold.). ^P 88 i . 

L. 5. 113^ 84 3 n. 

L. 6. lata See 92 4 . 

L. 7. ^nbsam so n n. 

L. 8. iwn 97 i = ^3U, prob. *Avo?, 'Avatbs Wadd. 2185. 2021 
&c. NVBN 87 8 n. W1H Perhaps = Llj, or L^. = 

Wadd. 1986 &c. 

94] Petra l 241 

94. Petra 1. CIS ii 350. Circ. ist cent. A. D. In situ. 

na >n Nan Krn*i nri 
p-M nray papa * 

a*a&D nm arm na n arnai Kwaijn onwp n atnm a 

ami&i atfiinyi ara 
oana nSa* awn nni Din rhx xnn^n H N'WK Sa M'-IMPI 3 

naniai KIPVI pipfiB Dna na pin 

N3B^n N^I nayn UK NWH nto^i na 
anapa napn* N^I oyiiD Dna n Sa p pan* a&i 5 
napb jn nS a>ro n p 

This sepulchre, and the large vault within it, and the small 
vault inside, within which are burying-places fashioned into 
niches, 2 and the wall in front of them, and the rows (?) and 
the houses within it, and the gardens and the garden of 
the ? , and the wells of water, and the ridge (?), and the 
hills (?), 3 and the rest of all the entire property which is in 
these places, is the consecrated and inviolable possession 
of Dushara, the god of our lord, and his sacred throne (?), 
and all the gods, 4 (as specified) in deeds relating to con- 
secrated things according to their contents. And it is the 
order of Dushara and his throne (?) and all the gods that, 
according to what is in the said deeds relating to consecrated 
things, it shall be done and not altered. 5 Nor shall anything 
of all that is in them be withdrawn ; nor shall any man be 
buried in this sepulchre save him who has in writing a contract 
to bury, (specified) in the said deeds relating to consecrated 
things for ever. 

The fa9ade of the tomb, carved with Gk. columns, Egypt, cornice, 
and Assyr. battlements, like some of the tombs at El-Hejra, exhibits 
the style of Nab. monuments belonging to the ist cent. A.D. ; see 

242 Nabataean [94 

Vogiid JA viii (1896) 486. A ground-plan of the two chambers 
and the atrium in front of them is given ib. xi (1898) 140 f. A good 
description of Petra and the re-discovery of the inscr. is given by 
Lagrange, RB vi (1897) 208 ff. 

L. i. Kmtf 01 3 n. ; cf. the use of NmWD in Palm., 144 3 and 
Vog. 67 2 nwa *l KmyDl N-Op. TOO KW Cf. |D U 147 ii c 47; here 
KM has final N as in Dan. 3 6 &c. (Arab. *U. intrare], elsewhere 
in Nab., U. p-OpD TO Cf. Nn-npD ni Palm. Vog. 64 i. pnnpD 

is a noun ("Op or 'PP) ; the sing. NmapD occurs in 96 i &c. Note 
the double plur. of a compound term ; cf. poin "HB^ 1. 4. nTHJ? 

pniJ Lit. a work of niches, describing pinpD TO ; for pniJ /0f/z' see 
91 5 n. Two /<?<:#//' exist in the tomb ; prob. it was intended to make 
more if required. 

L. 2. K313 the wall surrounding the atrium in front of the tombs ; 
= surround, cf. Jioia fenced city. NniaiJ? Plur. of Nroiy, 

prob. rows of pillars or arcades; cf. Hebr. rD"iJ?D a row Ex. 39 37. 
Vogue* explains by rDly 3 6, but naiy is prob. to be read there. N^J 
Gardens near a tomb were common in antiquity, e.g. John 19 41 and 
the Roman cepotaphia i. e. a grave with fields and gardens round it ; 
Marquardt Das Privatleben der Ro'mer* 369, quoted by Barth Hebraica 
xiii (1897) 275 1 - N3OD JIM Possibly a garden of reclining (033 

N3OD), i. e. a garden for funeral feasts. As Nold. remarks, it is better 
to give JlXi the same meaning as N*?3, rather than derive it from 
KJ? to lie down (ZA xii 3 f.), though it is tempting to compare vo^ 
jfwfttn-^ convivio accumbe &c., Payne Smith Thes. Syr. coll. 2662 and 
744. Nnirrc The meaning of this and the foil, word is very 

uncertain. The Arab. \^> = (i) a cave from which water wells forth, 
so here perhaps water-tank (Barth), cf. g^2 fish-pond '; or (2) the ridge 
of a mountain, a tower on a hill-top ; cf. the place-names Sahwet 
el-Hidr, Sahwet el-Belat in Hauran (Baed. Palast? 205 f.). Either 
meaning may be right here ; but since in 95 2 Dinx is more suitably 
rendered by (2), the latter rendering may be adopted in both places : 
it is unlikely that the same word would have different meanings in the 
two inscrr. Cl.-Gan. renders roof in 95 2, and here terrace, i.e. 
the upper part of the tomb. Nold.'s dry places, from Jo. be thirsty, 
is not probable. NniB Rocks or rocky heights ; or possibly low 

o <** 

walls surrounding the wells and tank, cf. .U> circle, or Jlj go round, 

-nn, m 

1 Strabo mention* the gardens and wells for irrigating them at Petra, 

s . . . (is Tf ISpdav *ai xrjneiav p. 663 ed. Mull. Cl.-Gan. Rec. ii 93. 129. 

64] Petra I 243 

L. 3. NVN Prob. = J2>l landed property, lit. root, lineage', 
a man's whole property. The precise meaning of most of the foregoing 
terms is not clear, nor is the disposition of the various appendages 
of the tomb. Vogue* (JA xi 143 f.) includes them all within the 
atrium in front. Some of them may be placed there, 'the portico 
with its buildings ' (tW131 NJTOiy), the wells and tank (?) a conduit 
has been discovered in one corner of the atrium; but it may be 
doubted whether the space (77 by 66 ft.) is sufficient for the houses, the 
gardens, the hills &c., the most obvious meaning of NTO, N^J, N'HID. 
These may have been outside the precincts ; n!?N K'nnNa n ' which are 
in these places ' suggests, not the enclosed space, but localities 
outside of it. Perhaps the general plan resembled that of the Roman 
garden-tombs (supr.), with their area in front of the sepulchre, their 
aediculae, pavilions, wells, taberna &c. (Earth 1. c.). Winckler suggests 
the arrangement of a Moslem mosque-tomb, and, disregarding the 
natural meanings of the words, takes N^J, 'D JIM to mean a covered 
cloister and shrine; AF ii 60 ff. r6s 87 3 . D"in 

79 8 n. nn = Arab. * j!^ that which is forbidden, unlawful 

The two nouns are so closely connected that they govern a 
common genit. (Nold.). NJN1D ni?X 88 6 &c., 'our lord/ either 

Aretas iv (78 4 .) or one of his immediate predecessors, Obodas ii, 
Malchus i. naniDl 8O 4 n. The form with n, and the absence of 

1 from the foil. K5J>nn, are against taking mni as the name of a deity. 
Nold. favours the explanation that namiD (_*jj) = his council, seated 
round the god ; cf. LlLs.-* council. Cl.-Gan.'s rendering she who is 
seated, i. e. his IlapcSpos (Rec. ii 131), and Winckler's, his spouse (Ethiop. 
wasaba iv = ' to marry '), are etymologically improbable. NB>nn 

Ptcp. pass. emph. st. agreeing with name, prob. = U ^ J >. guard, watch, 
so protected, holy. 

L. 4. nt3B> Plur. constr., 84 3 n. These documents were no doubt 
preserved in the temple archives. fnpa Nom. = jj took, as p31 

Palm. Vog. 74 = Jjao? ; Hebr. Jhj?B, flnaj. UK Plur. of nn, apoc. 
from JtiK ; BAram. pan , |itsn , ton ; Talm. V13K (pi. of VP). Elsewhere 
in Nab. DH CIS ii 210 6; in Aram, ion 76 B 4. NJETT 1 Cf. 

Ezr. 6 n. Dan. 6 9. 18. In this dialect the n stands before the 
sibilant, e. g. jam* 88 4 n. 

L. 5. p?BJV Ethpa. impf. of pfB = Jli extract, disjoin, in iv A? 
separate a part and give it away. DJH3D 75 2 . rfa Bnjtf 

89 5 . pb 79 8 . N3n CIS ii 69 perhaps = Targ. 

Syr. wQL>r agreement, contract; in Nab. NJJ;! may have been 
R a 

244 Nabataean [95 

written for "'JTl. Winckler explains by the Assyr. dannitu 'a piece of 
writing.' "OpD Inf. constr. 89 7 (Lidzb.); or a noun 1. i. 

95. Petra 2. El-Mer. CIS ii 354. A. D. 20. In situ. 

-a I^BH ft i:nn 

nmn "n Sy onay p&BS nirras n i^n r^N *nrn in "p^n 2 

[n^pn nfc]y cm IBM "|S& 
rum rniyen ^rctei form mnjn wbai IBM n^a nnnx 3 

[poa p njn in nmrn m 
n&y onn IBM */?a nnnn 1 ? in in in 3 np^a ..... 4 

This is the statue of the divine 'Obedath, which the sons 
of Hunainu, son of Hotaishu, son of Patmon, made ..... 
2 Teluk, son of Withra, the god of Hotaishu, who is on the 
ridge (?) of Patmon, their ancestor (?) ; for the life of 
Harethath, king of the Nabataeans, lover of his pe[ople, and 
Shuqailath] 3 his sister, queen of the Nabataeans, and Maliku 
and 'Obedath and Rabel and Pesael and Sha'udath and Higru 
his children, and Harethath, son of Hig[ru his grandson] 
* ..... in the zqth year of Harethath, king of the Nabataeans. 
Peace be upon him ! 

The inscr. was found at Petra in an artificial grotto, now called 
El-Mer, once used as a sanctuary. De Vogiie' JA xi(i898) 129 ff.; 
CL-Gan. Rec. ii 73. 

L. i. Nii may The statue was that of 'Obedath, one of the Nab. 
kings. It was a custom among the Nabs, to deify kings after their 
death : e. g. Uranius, quoted by Steph. Byz., "O/3oSa, \<&plov Na/JaTaiW, 
Oupavio? 'Apa^Si/caiv Tcrapra), OTTOU 'OySoSrjs 6 yScuriAevs, ov 0eo7roiovcri, 
Tetfcwmu Fr. Hist. Gr. ^525 (cf. Tertullian Ad nat. ii 8 . . . Obodan 
et Dusarem Arabum); and among the Palmyrenes, 121 3 NrpK 
IDp DmJOabn. 122 3 vffhvt [DUjmn ; cf. 10 7 n., 80 1 1 n. The 
king here was a predecessor of Aretas iv (1. 4), i. e. prob. Obedas ii, 

95] Petra 2 245 

28 to 9 B.C. He is mentioned by Strabo (663 f. ed Miill.) in con- 
nexion with the campaign of Aelius Gallus against S. Arabia, 25-4 B.C., 
and by Josephus in the later period of Herod's reign, when Syllaeus 
his r</rpo7ros was a suitor for Salome (Ant. xvi 7 6. War i 24 6), 
and at the time of Herod's expedition against Trachonitis (Ant. xvi 9 
I. 4). UW1 82 2. It^On = "OTCUO-OS, "Oracros Wadd. 1984. 

2226 ; cf. WQ i Chr. 3 22. Neh. 3 10 &c. J1OB3 Perhaps from 

DCS be fat, or Jai wean, cf. iikU ; for the ending cf. fllpQ, pint. An 
Egypt, derivation, Pet-ammon (69 9 .), is not so likely. At the end of 
the 1. either another set of donors was mentioned, or there was a verb, 
still governed by WJn *32, describing the association of the new cult of 
'Obedath with that of the family god of Hotaishu (Cl.-Gan.). 

L. 2. Knni Cf. O.T. VvTP (Midianite), "W, tori?, and the Minaean 
^nm Glaser 299 3 (Hommel Stid-ar. Chrest. 116), O&tfpos Wadd. 
2537 h\ Yaqut mentions a village in Hauran, ^Jj" N. of Bostra, in 
Nab. country. WBH r&N See 92 3 n. In these cases the god 

is not named as a rule; here it was prob. Dushara, 
88 6. mrwa The Arab. 8^4-0 means both fountain and 

a M/, /<?;<!?r #/>0 a hill. In 94 2 NJiinv may have the former sense ; 
the latter would be suitable here. Cl.-Gan., however, explains ' 
as the roof of the house, where the statue or altar of the family 
god was set; cf. Strabo (p. 667) r/Aiov Tifiwo-iv ri TOU 8<o/Aaros I8pwrd- 
ftevoi /?a>/xov (of the Nabataeans), 2 K. 17 12. Dnoy The context 
implies h'nsman, ancestor. J1DDS was great-grandfather to the 33 
W^H ; hence both here and in 99 2 Cl.-Gan. gives DJJ the specific 
sense of great-grandfather. But though this was the relationship in 
both cases, it is hardly expressed by the word DJJ, which at most 
implies kinsman', cf. Arab. !JE paternal uncle, and the O.T. names 
DJf^K, mrcy &c., Gray Hebr. Pr. N. 51 ff. In n&y Dm the meaning 
is certainly /><?0//<r, not ancestors', Schiirer Gesch? \ 738. n i>y 

1 The name occurs in the foil, inscr. on an altar (disc. 1895) from Kanatha 
(Josephus), now el-Qanawat, NE. of Bostra, in Jebel Hauran : 
obttj ia 'om nm '22 bn TTSI TO 
DbiD WON bwn -a vsp 

'Vowed and sacrificed (?) by the family of the Ben6 Withro, lovers of Gad. 
Greeting! Qasiu, son of Hann-el, the master-workman. Greeting!' iys is 
explained by Cl.-Gan. as Pael of ^^o=to mount, fj^x^ = O.T. nV? in Saadya's 
version ; Rec. iii 10. The vb. J*^ is not actually used in the sense to 
sacrifice, nor is 113 found in Aram, inscrr. with the meaning to vow. Hence 
Lidzb. prefers to read VNiysi "m as pr. nn. (Ephem. i 74), though the names 
do not occur elsewhere. '? = Arab. JJ CIS ii 164 f. Nia=Ti/x'7> whose cult was 
popular in Hauran. See also Rtp. no. 53. 

246 Nabataean [95 

nmn Cf. 102 3 and WB3 "r6 7O 4 ; see 29 1 1 n. D^n here 

practically = o-dm/pia. npP So restored by Vog. Shuqailath 

must have been the second wife of Aretas iv, and, as we learn from 
this inscr., his sister too. Her name appears on copper coins at 
the closing period of Aretas' reign. His first wife was Huldu (1O2 4), 
associated with him for at least 20 years. Probably the second marriage 
took place not long before this zgih year of the king's reign. There 
was another queen Shuqailath 1 , perhaps the daughter of this one, 
sister-consort of Malchus ii (92 4) and mother of Rabel (97 iii n.). 

L. 3. The six children are prob. those of the first marriage. The 
first three are all dynastic names. $>NB Cf. the Palm. ^N^S Euting 
Epigr. Misc. 131, either mas. or fern., cf. teacrytXys, OvXma ^ao-aie'A^ 
Wadd. 1928. 2445. mijrt? Prob. fern., as names of this form 

usually are, e.g. nyUD 89 4. nh3 CIS ii 225; for the name cf. 
ITyt? 89 i n. If these were princesses, one of them may well have 
been the unnamed wife of Herod Antipas (p. 215). VT132 Not 

necessarily sons, but children, cf. Palm. fir6 . . *?2rf?X NJ3 rut Ki3p 
jwn^l Vog. 37, and prob. orwa 102 4. At the end of the line 

Cl.-Gan. restores [mi *n]an. 

1 Mentioned in an inscr. lately found at Petra, De Vogue" JA viii (1896) 496 f. : 
. . . ti TOU robo rVrprc fN nzr. Cl.-Gan. has acutely discerned that n = not 
brother, but grand-vizier ; cf. Strabo p. 663 ed. Mull. ?x 8' & 0affi\tvs imrpoirov 
vSi* traipcuv tiva, KaXovptvov d5eA.<av (Rec. ii 380). 




96. Medeba. CIS ii 196. A. 0.37. Vatican Museum. 

"i KfiPSi mni Nrnnpa an i 

rrQjmy nay n rob xhy 2 

mDK Sawat 1 ? 3 

majnay -n Kmayi wrta H wn^a an 4 

tt^p ^ pnitefep rvaa nri aomDa* 5 

nmn w Sy nen prfen pp jnn p^r 6 

nay onn usna ^ 7 

This is the sepulchre, and the two monuments 2 above it, which 
'Abd- c obedath the strategos made 3 to Aithi-bel the strategos 
his father, and to Aithi-bel 4 chief of the camp at Luhithu 
and 'Abarta, son of the said 'Abd-'obedath 5 the strategos, 
in the seat of their jurisdiction which they exercised 6 twice, 
for a period of thirty-six years, in the time of Harethath, 
7 king of the Nabataeans, lover of his people ; and the above 
work 8 was executed in the forty and sixth year of his (reign). 

It is a peculiarity of this inscr. that the words are separated. 

L. i. KTTOpD See .94 i n. Nn^SJ Tnn 78 i n. 

L. 2. PUD vhy i.e. n3 N;JJ, cf. Dan. 6 3 and Palm. rUB ^ 1 
Eut. Epigr. Misc. 5 3 f . tomDX Cf. CIS ii 195, where a nefesh 

is erected (*ny) by N3mDN IIOV to his brother, the son of It^ny 
JOmDX (A. D. 39). The inscr. 195 comes from Umm-er-Resas, 
1 6 miles SE. of Medeba. These two inscrr., which are almost con- 
temporary, indicate that the Nab. strategos was the governor of 
a small district, and that the office was to some extent hereditary * ; 
cf. 97 ii n. It is not impossible that both these strategoi, 'Abd-'obedath 
and Ya'amru, may have assisted the wife of Herod Antipas in her 

xoi &aai.\tvovaiv ol tic rov yivovs 

1 Strabo says of the Nabs. 
*oi aAAas ap^as &p\ovat p. 666 ed. Mull. 

248 Nabataean [96 

flight to her father Aretas iv at Petra; she was passed on, says 
Josephus, from one strategos to another, KOfjuSfj rwv (rrparrjytav CK 
StaSox^s Ant. xviii 5 i. The castle of Macherus would prob. have 
been in the district of Ya'amru; the boundary between the two 
governors was perhaps the W. Zerqa Ma'in. Cl.-Gan. Rec. ii 202. 

L. 3. i>3WK i.e. ^V^S Bel has brought (i.e. the new-born), Afel 
of NJ1N, cf. the Syr. pr. n. )o^L^^ r , Nold. ZA (1891) 149 n. ; or, 
Bel exists, cf. P$K WK Dan. 2 28 and iWK Neh. 11 7. 
i Chr. 11 31. Bel is the Babylonian deity (p. 269), and not 
another form of the Canaanite Baal. The only other Nab. name in 
which i>2 has been found is blH33 102 5, and that is uncertain ; in 
Palm. i>n and hi are frequent in pr. nn. The second ^3WK was 
grandson of the first ; it was a custom to repeat family names at this 
interval in the genealogy. 

L. 4. KmtPD 140 B 3. 122 5, Syr. ]&l* camp, army ; in Targ. 
JOB>= encamp. Wn^ must have been within the jurisdiction of the 
strategos, and therefore near Medeba. The name suggests JVn?n n?JJD 
Is. 15 5. Jer. 48 5; but according to the Onomasttcon (136 23 ed. 
Lag.) this was between Areopolis (Rabbath-Moab, Rabba) and Zoar = 
Sarfa, to the N. of Wadi Kerak (Buhl Geogr. 272), and therefore too 
far south 1 . Nmiy Site unknown ; evidently a fort commanding 

a pass in the highlands near Medeba or the ford of a river. The 
name recalls the O. T. dHiyn "in=the Nebo range, Num. 27 12. 
In Roman times there were several camps in the neighbourhood; 
e. g. cohors tertia . . in ripa vadi Apharis fluvii in castris Arnonen- 
sibus, Notitia dignitatum xxx. 

L. 6. pin pt Cf. nnjjri pataj Dan. 6 n. ^nr pmn CIS ii 186 3. 

Palm. JtOJD p? 121 5. 

L. 7. Nrmy Noun formed from Pe. ptcp. pass., cf. 94 i. Ezr. 
4 24 &c. NH^ rva nTay; see Marti Gr. Bill. Aram. 86. 

1 If imbrr 'o = Tal'at Heisa, on W. slope of Mt. Nebo, some 5 or 6 m. NW. of 
Medeba, this would answer to the conditions ; but the grounds on which Conder 
(PEF Mem., East. Pal. \ 228. 253), followed by G. A. Smith (Map of Pal.}, bases 
the identification, are extremely questionable ; see Driver Exp. Times (1902) 460. 

07] Dum$r 249 


07. Dumfir. CIS ii 161. A. D. 94. Louvre. 
Col. ii Col. i 

IDTIN DN mn D'pn i wwopj nni 
p vrpfl ma i^ni nn *a i*o[n] 

Col. iii 

K rrva 
p&nJ <i x 
3 x n:^ in 

C B A 

rrorrpi maion toon 

Col. i [This is the c]ippus which Hani'u set up, the freed- 
man of Gadlu, daughter a of Bagarath, mother of Adramu 
the strategos and Neqidu, by adoption sons of *Abd-maliku 
111 the strategos^ in the month lyar, in the year 405, by the 
reckoning of the Romans, which is the 24th year of king 

The place now called DumSr (j*-**o) was the first station on the 
Roman road from Damascus to Palmyra. The inscr. is written on 
the sides of a hexagonal column, a little over 3 ft. high, resembling 
a Greek altar. Round the upper part is a series of busts, each with 
a name below it (A B C F) ; two busts (D E) are missing. 

Col. i. N1JDO See 02 i n. 1NJH 03 8 n. in 13 Lit. 

filius liber tatis, so liber tus\ in Hebr. cf. D'Tin p Qoh. 10 17; in 
Palm. 147 ii b 12 "yyy nn 13 D^p^p, and the inscr. found at South 

250 Nabataean [97 

Shields (Lidzb. 482) an WiJTO nn M K^ri 1 . In Syr. ii Pa. = 
set free, and similarly the Pi. of Tin in NHebr., whence ^ 

Col. ii. m33 See 85 I . ttmx= J,y \ toothless. 1"Pp3 Cf. 
Ezr. 2 48 = Neh. 7 50 &c. i>y |D Lit. on the ground of, by reason of; 
cf. by in 147 i 6 |f>N Nni3 i>y. KyB To be explained by the Syr. 
j.v>^ a graft, yLlFfo grafted; hence used of adoption (Cl.-Gan. 
Rec. i 61). la^Diny It is clear that Hani'u was both the 

freedman and husband of Gadlu 2 . Their sons were adopted by 
'Abd-maliku, prob. a kinsman of Gadlu, in order to secure a social 
position which their father could not give them. It would seem that 
'Abd-maliku transmitted his own office to the elder of the two sons, 
cf. 96 2 n. For 13!?*ny see 80 1 1 n. 

Col. iii. "VX 85 10 n. The sign of the numeral 4 is unusual. 

The date is given by the Seleucid era, which began in 312 B. c. ; see 
9 5 n. iPDimK pDl i. e. NJpi'TiK ftps, for the orthography 

cf. Clement's )uoooo>/ Thes. Syr. s. v.; po lit.= counting. The refer- 
ence, as Cl.-Gan. 1. c. 71 f. has shown, is to the Seleucid era reckoned, 
not by the old style or Macedonian calendar, which was on the lunar 
system, but by the Roman or Julian calendar (solar), which had been 
introduced recently into Syria. ^Nll Rabel, the last Nab. king 

(92 3 n.\ known only from inscrr. (e.g. 95 2 n. 101 9) and coins 8 . 

1 The Lat. part of this inscr. runs : D[is] m[anibus]. Regina liberta et conjuge 
Barates Palmyrenus natione Catuallauna an[nis] xxx. The stone, now in the 
Free Library, S. Shields, was found in the neighbouring Roman camp. 

* The relation was not unknown: Cl.-Gan. quotes Orelli 3024 Ti. Claudius 
Hermes . . Claudiam M. Titi filiam . . patronam opt imam, item conjngem feli- 
cissimam id. 3029 D. M. Lucretiae Eutychidi, Lucretius Adrastus conjugi et 
patronae dnlcissimae. Cf. preceding note. 

* The name occurs in an inscr. lately found (1897) at Petra; see Cl.-Gan. Rec. 
ii 58, Album Pl.XLV ; Schiirer Gesch? i 732. 742 f. 

ran -jto bun n vech\x n:i] 
nS D*pn n ra:u fto n ...... 

nmm NIT ? ? rs< ? "o ...... 

N-roiD [in] n itoa rrra ...... 

[noaa "T>D] wVo nrnnb xvi [rote] . . . 

This statue must have belonged to another king Rabel, for his father's name ended 
in n, and he was succeeded by a king Harethath, who reigned at least for 16 years ; 
Rabel, the last Nab. king, is therefore out of the question. On the strength of 
a passage in Steph. Byz. which says that Antigonus the Macedonian was slain by 
Rabilus the king of the Arabians, Cl.-Gan. dates this inscr. 70-69 B. c., correcting 
Antigonus to Antiochus (i. e. A. xii). Josephus, however, clearly implies that the 
Arabian king who defeated and slew Antiochus at Cana was Aretas (Ant. xiii 15 

97] Dumer 251 

This inscr. tells us that his reign began in A. D. 71; the latest inscr. 
is dated in his z6th year, i.e. A. D. 96 (p. 255 n. i); the Nab. king- 
dom came to an end in A. D. 106. Rabel, as this inscr. from the NE. 
of Damascus shows, must have ruled over an extensive territory. 

The series of busts and inscrr. is not complete. It began with Hani'u 
in the centre, and followed from the left with Adramu, the eldest son, 
and then with Neqidu. Whose wife was represented by F, to the right 
of A, is not certain ; the Corp. restores 137D"Oy for E ; the remaining 
name at D was prob. l^na. 

I. a) i.e. Aretas iii. There is evidently some confusion in the statement of 
Steph. Byz. (Fr. Hist. Gr. iv 525). It is not at present clear where this king 
Rabel is to be placed. 

252 Nabataean 

98. Hebran. CIS ii 170. A. 0.47. Louvre. 

rwr >i&?n ni'i i 

11 ii& ny H Nyin *J 3 
np D^P rta i&i [V]*p 4 

In the month of Tishri, the seventh year of Claudius 
Caesar : this is the gate which Maliku, son of Qas[lu], priest 
of Allath, made. Call a greeting ! 

L. i. nwi The 7th month, Sept.-Oct. ; in 123 5 = Tirepfitpt- 
rtubs. D'ni'p Claudius, Jan. 4i-Oct. 54 A. D. The inscr. dates 

from the interregnum (44-52) between Herod Agrippa i and ii, when 
Hauran and Trachonitis were governed directly by the Roman 
imperial power. For DH7p the more correct form would be D'HPp, 
as D^IIK in Palm. 

L. 2. 10*9 The form with * is derived from the Gk. Koucra/o, in 
Palm, usually IDp 121 3 &c. 

L. 4. V2fp 99 2 is everywhere the name of a person, not of a god, 
100 2 n. 1D3 See 64 i n. r6 80 4 n. np Imperat. ; 

cf. the Arab, formula ..iLJl wJL^ j^. 

99. Salhad. CIS ii 182. A.D. 65. In situ. 

irm na n^x 11 iJ?o 11 inn HDI n wvi 

nil mil ay vxp 11 inii iw *TI in^i i 2 
nnin 11 iai3 ^Sib d^D? yiK'i i^y ro^ i nii 3 

nay [D]ni iwu ^a 

This is the temple which Ruhu, son of Maliku, son of 
Aklabu, son of Ruhu, built to Allath their goddess 2 who 
is in Salhad, and whom Ruhu, son of Qasiu, ancestor (?) of the 
said above-named Ruhu, had established. 3 In the month 
Ab, the seventeenth year of Maliku, king of the Nabataeans, 
son of Harethath, king of the Nabataeans, lover of his people. 

100] Bostra 253 

L. i. inn 140 B 2 = Arab, ^joyous, 'Poveuos Wadd. 2034. 
=Arab. 4^ rabidus. Dnnnta n^K See 80 4 w. and cf. 

CIS ii 336 3 ; the suff. as in Drmoi>B> 96 5. 

L. 2. *ir6v2 'T 92 3 n. This idiom implies that the worship of 
Allath at Salhad was introduced from some other place (24 2 n.) ; 
this appears to have been done by an ancestor of the Ruhu who now 
builds a temple for the goddess. *ir6s is the present is^, in Yaqut 
Jo.^, situated on one of the southernmost heights of Jebel Hauran. 
It has been identified with the O.T. nafo Deut. 3 10. Josh 12 
5 &c., mentioned along with Edre'i as marking the S. frontier of 
Bashan. 3X) The pf. to be rendered by plupf. : the introduction 

of the worship would take place before the building of the temple 
(Lidzb. 150 .). Vp 98 4. 100 2. Iffil DJJ may be rendered 

with R., i. e. the introduction of Allath was the joint enterprise of R. 
son of Qasiu and R. son of Maliku. But in 95 2 Dy = kinsman, 
ancestor (great-grandfather, Cl.-Gan. Rec. ii 373 f.), and this seems 
to be the meaning here. The worship of Allath had been established 
at Salhad for three generations, or about 100 years, before the date of 
the inscr., i. e. at a period which corresponds with the occupation 
of this region by the Nabataeans after the capture of Damascus by 
Aretas iii in B.C. 85 (see p. 216). It is possible, as Cl.-Ganneau 
points out, that the VVp of Bostra (10O 2) was the Wp of this inscr., 
evidently an important person ; if this was the case, the father intro- 
duced his family god (prob. tOJJN 92 2 .) at Bostra, the son did the 
same for Allath at the neighbouring Salhad. 

L. 3. IN The sth month, July-Aug. lata 92 4 n. Between 

the death of Aretas iv in A.D. 40 and the reign of Malchus ii we must 
probably insert the reign of Abias, 6 'A/xi/Jwv /JacnAok Joseph. Ant. 
xx 4 i. Hence the accession of Malchus ii cannot be placed earlier 
than about 48 A.D. (Sehurer 739); his i7th year will then be A.D. 65. 

100. Bostra. CIS ii 174. Circ. 408. c. Louvre. 
"D SfcOtM 

vx n 

Offered by Natar-el, son of Natar-el, to the god of Qasiu ; 
in the nth year of king Maliku. 

254 Nabataean [101 

Bostra, in Gk. Boorpa, now {S^>. , was the chief city of Hauran in 
the ist cent. A.D. The Nabataeans made it a great centre for 
commerce with Palmyra, Babylonia, and the south. Cf. 125 5. 

L. i. N103 i. e. El keeps, Narap/Xos Wadd. 2351 ; an Aram. name. 

L. 2. Vp r6 See 92 3 .; the god was perhaps JOVK, the 
patron of the family (992 .). 

L. 3. "ota The inscr. is evidently an early one, judging from the 
rude and somewhat archaic style of the writing. Hence the king 
will be the earlier rather than the later Maliku (92 4), i. e. Malchus i 
(Schiirer 735, not ii), circ. 50-28 B.C., who appears again in 1O2. 
His relations with Herod the Great are described by Josephus (Ant. 
xiv 14 1-2. War i 14 1-2). He refused Herod assistance at the 
time of the Parthian invasion B.C. 40, and was subsequently fined 
by Ventidius for the support which he gave to the invaders (Dio 
Cass. 48 41). Part of his territory was made over by Antony to 
Cleopatra; after a time the tribute was withheld, and by Antony's 
order Herod made an expedition into the territory of the Nabataeans, 
and in the end succeeded in inflicting a severe defeat upon Malchus, 
B.C. 32-31 (Joseph. Ant. xv 5. War i 19). The last that we hear of 
him is in connexion with a plot against Herod, which led to the death 
of the aged Hyrcanus (Ant. xv 6 2-3). 

101. Imtftn. A. D. 93. In situ. 

nn i 
Ti n z 



hx an** 6 



in 6 9 


1O1] Imlan 255 

en M n j 
r 13 

This is the cippus offered by Mun'ath, son of Gadiyu, to 
Dushara and A'ra the god of our lord who is in Bosra, in the 
23rd year of king Rabel, king of the Nabataeans, who brought 
life and deliverance to his people. 

Imtan lies SE. of Bostra. The inscr. was discovered by Dussaud 
and Macler; Voy. Arch. (1901) no. 36. See also Rep. nos. 83 
and 86. 

L. i. N1JDO See 92 i n. 

L. 3. nj?J See 83 2 n. 

L. 4. V1J In Sin. Eut. 93. 95 &c. ; in Palm. NH3 = Arab. j*L. 

L. 6. JOVN See 92 2 n. 3 n. WfcOO r6tf the god of our lord 

i. e. of the king, as in 88 6. 89 8. 

L. 9. tail 97 iii n. 

L. 12. For the title cf. CIS ii 183 ... 1 nap rw H . . ^31 (25th 
year) and the inscr. below 1 . It may point to some historical act 
of deliverance, or perhaps rather (like the HDP Dm of Aretas iv) to 
a patriotic policy at a time when the independence of the Nab. 
kingdom was threatened by Rome ; cf. the Hellenist title 2o>nfc. 
In the earlier inscrr. of the reign Rabel. has no such title ; it is 
omitted, however, in 97 iii (24th year) possibly for political reasons. 
Af. of "H, cf. the pr. n. i?Kn CIS ii 224 7. For 2PB> see 69 9 n. 

1 Duss. et Macl. no. 62 ; Rip. no. 86 : 

[rftn] Dip 1 ** nub Dca ia 
Vo HD'JD Wanb nc[i )]nra? rorca N 
no aroi nw n IMJ 

D. et M. explain nroi as = Lat. area, i. e. sarcophagus. Cl.-Gan. thinks of part of 
a building, Rec. iv 175 ; but it is prob. that i5o.l couch, bridal w0/=Norvo 70 i n., 
Lidzb. ./A. i 332. At the end of the next 1. Cl.-Gan. plausibly reads DipbN y^vh 
[!Vj] to the god She'a-alqdm ; the reading is brilliantly confirmed by 140 B 4 n. 
The a6th year of Rabel was A. D. 96. 

256 Nabataean [102 

102. Puteoli. CIS ii 158. A.D. 5. Naples Museum. 

..... B>m hy\ n ....... irn[n n] xnainib NT i 

...... ma? aopna n 'mai . . . . S ......... a 

["n leap *]Se nmn "n Sy nSn p ray na vnt * .... 3 

ill] I / n^ atf rm Dn\ja HI UDM naS& hnnx nS[n] 4 

This is the sanctuary [which] ....... restored, and 'Ali 

the copper-smith ..... 2 ...... and Marthi, who is called 

Zubdath .... 3 .... Sa'fdu, son of 'Abath, at his own expense, 

for the life of Harethath, king of the N[abataeans, and of] 

4 Huldu his wife, queen of the Nabataeans, and of their 
children, in the month Ab, the I4th (?) year [of his reign] 

5 ... after the time when the former sanctuaries were built (?), 
which Ben-hobal, son of Bm . . . made 6 [in the 8th (?) year] 
of Mdliku, king of the Nabataeans, they placed within this 

L. i. Nnnn See 79 8n. imn 23 2 n. ^y Arab. 

^Ai, Sin. y6y, 'AAetos Wadd. 2520. NSJTU a worker in bronze, 

Syr. JuLiJ, or possibly, diviner. 

L. 2. THD Cf. Palm. 12O i = Map0v (fern.). NnpnD n 

Ethpe. ptcp., cf. 123 2. JTDT = Arab. j4j. 

L. 3. nX = Arab. I^U, cf. Palm. Nl^ 137 2. my Perhaps 

from -v/iiA-j-fr to play. n^T J i. e. e/c TWV iSiW, cf. Palm. fiD*3 p 

116 4. 122 6. 7 n w n ^y 95 2 n. The usual title noy DHT is 


L. 4. ll^n 95 2 ., cf. O.T. n^n 2 K. 22 14 (fern.) and *^h ^aw/ 
Lev. 11 29; so in the Mishnah NT^n, Arab. llL. Dn*33 Prob. 

children, not merely joj ; 95 3 n. 3K 99 3 n. To fill up 

the space three units are required, and prob. nniai'of', Corp. 

Sanaa nay n nwp Krunnb 'aaN pt TJK ... 5 
laa ian' iDaa nSa laSaS n in [in natra] 6 

102] Puteoli 257 

L. 5. JDT 84 3 constr. st before a verbal clause. "OIK Prob. 

pf. 3 plur. fern. ; but the form is not clear : it has been explained as 
contracted from ^3J1K, or as an internal pass. 'p NJlOinD Both 

plur. fern. fcina Either ^?~ n 3? (96 3 n.) or tefr"f3, Hobal being 

an old Arab deity, J*a at Mekka, the chief god of the Ka'aba ; see 
Baethgen Beitr. 113. For compounds with KJ3 cf. O.T. "nrm 
(? Trrm), T'jn &c. 

L. 6. The Corp. supplies nJSJ>2 and two units to fill the la- 
cuna. 13i>i> i. e. Malchus i, 10O 3 n. The inscr. is too 
mutilated to enable us to make out the general sense with certainty. 
It appears that Sai'du in the i4th year of Aretas iv dedicated some 
object for the life of the king and his family, and deposited it (1. 6) in 
the recently restored sanctuary, which had been built some 50 years 
before. This inscr., like CIS ii 157 (also from Puteoli), is a witness 
to the extent and enterprise of Arabian commerce during the pros- 
perous days of the Nab. kingdom. Nab. merchants had established 
themselves and the worship of their native deity on the shores of Italy, 
at the important harbour of Puteoli (cf. Acts 28 n. 13). 


The Sinaitic inscriptions are written in the Nabataean dialect and 
script l . Most of them are to be seen on the rocky sides of the Wadi 
Mukatteb (' covered with writing'), through which one of the ancient 
trade routes passed ; they occur also in other valleys of the Peninsula, 
e. g. W. 'Aleyyat, W. Leja', W. Feran, W. Ma'arah. For the most 
part they consist of proper names with short formulae of greeting 
('D fii>B>), or blessing ('a Tin), or commemoration ('a "Vai), varied in 
different ways. Very few are dated (see 107. 108 .) ; but from the 
character of the writing, a ruder and more cursive form of the normal 
Nab., we may conclude that they belong to the first four centuries 
A. D. ; not later, for by the 6th cent., when Cosmas Indicopleustes 
travelled through this region, their origin was already forgotten 2 . It 
may be explained in the manner suggested by Euting. The caravans 
which brought merchandise from India to the markets of Egypt and 
the Levant travelled up from S. Arabia by the Red Sea coast, and 
then struck inland through the passes of the Sinaitic Peninsula. 
For the stage from S. Arabia to El-'Oli or El-Hejra they would have 
an escort of Himyarites ; for the next stage, from El-'Ola" to Petra, 
a Nab. escort would take them through Nab. territory. Here the 
caravans would be joined by Nab. clerks, writers, customs officers; and 
these were the authors of the inscriptions. When their services were 
not wanted they would spend their leisure with the Bedouin and their 
camels at the pasture-grounds. This explains how the inscriptions are 
found both along the trade routes and in out-of-the-way valleys which 
only lead to pasturage. Euting has published the standard collection 
of Sin. inscrr., numbering 677; Sinditische Inschriften, 1891. 

1 A few are in Greek, Arabic, and Latin. 

2 *O9ev early ISeTv kv tictivri rq tpriny TOV ^Sivatov opovs tv iraacus uarairavafat t 
a&vras rovs \iOovs rwv avroffi, rovs l rSiv opeaiv anoK\ainivovs, yfypafjijtwovs y\vrrrofs "Efipa'iKois, ws avros 70; irt^evoas rovs roirovs /j.apTvp>. a riva 
Kal rivis 'lovScuoi avayvovrts otrjyovvro f)iJUv Kfyovres ytyp6.<f>0cu ovrcas, dirapats 
rovSf, (K (f>v\TJs rrjaSt, trti r$5f, HTJVI rtuSt, xaffcL ai wap' iJ/*tV ffoAAa/us nvls tv raiV 
(tvicus ypaipovaiv Migne PG Ixxxviii 217 ; Lidzb. 91. 

106] Sinaitic 259 

103. Eut. 519. W. Mukatteb. 

a&n rite na WIK oW \ 

Greeting 1 Uwaisu, son of Fasiyyu ; good luck ! 

The inscr. begins with a greeting and ends with a farewell. o?V 

Lit. peace (106); similarly in Egypt. Aram. CIS ii 152, and in Nab. 

5 t 

at El-Hejra ib. 253 &c. vyi* = J4] 1 dim. of W1K = <J-? #% 

both common names in Sin.; cf. V^KPIN Eut. 566. ^yabBflK 104, 
and the frequent Avoros Wadd. 2034 &c. The pr. nn. in Sin. are 
generally Arabic, seldom Aramaic. VVB Found in various forms, 

"XB, IN^B, NVBn &c.; the Arab, would prob. be ^5. IBl Lit. 

in good, similarly at El-Hejra CIS ii 243 &c.; cf. 3102 rvn Q o h. 7 14. 

104. Eut. 559. W. Mukatteb. 


Greeting ! c Abd-dushara, son of Thantalu, and Aus-alba'ali, 
son of Garm-allahi, son of Haitamu. 

Cf. the Arab. ii? ro//<? ^gg-, from jlJ /o fo/7 
self. ^ya^WK See 103, ^7 o/" />5^ ^a'a/, elsewhere 

The h or ^N is the Arab, art., cf. ^ya^K 105. IBnasi'N Eut. 548. 
IBnnK^N 539 &c. The combination of Arab, and Aram, in this name 
is noteworthy. Y&BTO = T^Ntru Eut. 79 &c., Garmallae (dat.) 

CIL x 2638 ; cf. ^yabwna 106 &c. The prefix 013, which occurs 
frequently before the name of a deity in Sin., may = 1^*. body (cf. 
Hebr. D^a bone), so member of Allah &c. ; cf. the Phoen. mntJ'jna 
6 2 n. Another suggestion is that the word =fear, like the Eth. 
geram ; in modern Abyss, many names begin with germa ( Cook 
Aram. Gloss, s. v.). TOBn Nold. quotes the Arab, names 

zo/'M a 

105. Eut. 327. W. Feran. 

Di mbn na 

Greeting! Wa'ilu, son of Halisat, before the Ba'al. 

s a 

260 Sinai tic [106 

See 38 4 . ('). HVn Like K1, a very common name in 
these inscrr. ; it is found also at El-Hejra CIS ii 307 and in Hauran, 
'AAao-a0os Wadd. 2042. 2047 (but according to Nold.=n^y, ZDMG 
xlii 474). Wellhausen suggests a derivation from Jt&., &* a creeping 
plant resembling the vine, which is prob. the meaning of Dhu '1 
Halasa, the name of a heathen Arab deity. D^n itself cannot be the 
name of the god used as the name of a man, because ialil j 3 is merely 
a title, ' of the creeping plant ' (which perhaps had wreathed itself 
round the sacred stone), the actual name of the deity not being uttered 
(see on JOETJ 79 5); Reste Ar. Heid. 47 f. The pronunciation of 
rttiri was prob. lllli. lityn^N Dip before the Ba'al (104 .) ; 

prob. supply in thought 'may there be remembrance/ as in CIS ii 338 

Dip | fc?ny pnan. For the ellipse here cf. ib. 320 F Dip p 
and Eut. 437 l^tO 12 1BB3 [? < 6y:6]Nl iOK>1 Dip. 

106. Eut. 186. W. ' 


Remembered in welfare and peace be Sa'adu, son of 
Garm-alba'ali, for ever! . . . 

1W CIS ii 231 &c., Palm. 127 3 (in Gk. o-oaSov), also in the Sin. 
names V&m&P 107 and 'bysbvnyv ; rbiyv 140 B 2. vryp = Arab. 
oIi happiness, good fortune. vy3^ND13 104 n. 

107. Eut. 463. A.D. 189. W. Mukatteb. 

nyp nn 

J 66 6 6 

Blessed be Wa'ilu, son of Sa'ad-allihi. This (was written) 
in the year 85 of the Eparchy, in which the Arabs (? ?) 
devastated (?) the land. 

108] Sinaitic . 261 

See 106 n. A similar sign for 20 occurs in an early 

Arab, inscr. from Harran given by Vogue* in Syr. Centr. 117; for 
the usual Nab. form see 97. 101. The date is reckoned from 

the Eparchy (87 2 n.), i. e. the establishment of the Roman governor- 
ship over Arabia in A. D. 106 (see p. 216). This reckoning was 
known as the Era of Bostra (March 22, 106 A. D.) 1 , and was used 
throughout the province of Arabia. JO[2"i]jJ mns So read by 

Eut., Lidzb. (or tony the strangers, Eph. i 339), supposing an allusion 
to some Bedouin attack upon the oases of Sinai. Cl.-Gan., however, 
prefers to[i]y IB^nN a reading certainly justified by Euting's copy, 
Taf. 26 and renders the line ' in which the poor of the land were 
allowed to glean (the fruit)' ; isins he explains as = \jfjs\ (conj. iv), 
or pass. Vl allow or be allowed to gather fruit, and N^y as constr. 

st. = jy with N as in Palm. N^n, Njp (but see below), cf. p "uy 
Am. 8 4 &c. He finds in the words thus interpreted a religious 
institution, analogous to the Jewish Sabbatical year, which assigned at 
fixed yearly intervals the fruit-gleanings to the poor; see Rec. iv 
33 = Rep. no. 129. There is absolutely no evidence, however, that 
such an institution ever existed; and it may be doubted whether 
1D">nX, an Ofal, passive, form, would be used in Nab. instead of the 
usual Ethp. ; v__^p. means only ' to gather fruit fallen on the ground.' 
In the Rev. Bibl. xi (1902) 137 it is proposed to read 'N twy 121HS 
the wells of the land were dried up, N'Oy for N^y ; the objection to this 
is that the plur. constr. in Nab. does not end in N (Lidzb. Eph. i 339). 
The inscr. has recently been examined afresh on the spot by Fathers 
Jaussen and Savignac of Jerusalem ; their investigations confirm Eut.'s 
reading ttiHN, RB xi 467. 

108. Eut. 457. A. D. 2 10-2 1 1. W. Mukatteb. 

I y nK& rop *hy -a 

nrtai ^ ptn 

Remembered be Taim-allahi, son of Ya'ali ! The year 
one hundred (and) 6, equivalent to (the year of) the three 

1 So in Gk. inscrr., e. g. trovt . . TT)J EoffrprjvSiv [scil. lirox^s], or ITOI/J . . 
lTOpx'ov[-as] Wetzstein Ausgew. Inschr. (Abh. Berl. Akad. 1863) 111. 112. 

262 Sinaitic [109 

See 84 i . y = Lo. POT i.e. JJOT ptcp. 

pi. fern, of NOT agreeing with pjp understood ; the usual prep, after. 
NDT is b. The io6th year of the Era of Bostra= 2 10-211 A. D. 

During this year the Emperor Septimius Severus died (Feb. 4th, 211), 
and both his sons Caracalla and Geta became joint emperors; the 
year, therefore, was remarkable for having witnessed three Caesars 
on the throne. With pttp nr6n cf. the form AVGGG (i. e. tres 
Augusti) on Lat. inscrr. (Cagnat Cours dYpi'gr. Lat? 373); it is possible 
that pDV may be the equivalent of the official title Augustus. 
Cl.-Gan., Rec. iv 32 =./?$. no. 128, interprets the date differently; 
for the numeral, which is irregular in form (see 107), he reads 
i>y, and pD"i for fan. Supposing pan to be an error for }n 
lords, or our lords (=Wnio), he renders 'the year 100. For (the 
salvation of) our lords, the three Caesars.' But it may be doubted 
whether an inscr. of this fugitive, personal character would be written 
for the sake of (?y) such august beneficiaries; analogy leads us to 
expect merely a date after the pr. nn. Moreover, there are historical 
objections; the looth year (Bostra)= 204-205 A. D. ; it would thus 
fall well within the reign of Severus (198-211 A. D.) 1 , and though 
Caracalla became joint emperor in 201, he and his brother did not 
share the imperium with their father till 210-211. 

109. Eut. 410. W. Mukatteb. 

n &ODID rm 

This is the horse which Sa'd-allahi, son of A'la, drew. 

Rude drawings sometimes accompany the Sin. inscrr.; cf. the 
pictures on the rocks near T6ma and El-Hejra, Eut. Nab. Inschr. 
8 f. In this case Sa'd-allahi has drawn his horse; cf. Eut. 
416. M'DID The form is Aram., cf. U^oao. K^N=JLc\ 

most illustrious. 

1 The fact that in several Lat. inscrr. from Africa Geta is styled Augustas before 
309 (CIL viii p. 974) is not sufficient to support CL-Gan.'s contention. 


Palmyra, called in Gk. HoA/xvpa, in the O. T. and in the native 
inscriptions Tadmor 1 , lay 150 m. NE. of Damascus in an oasis of the 
Syrian desert. Its situation afforded a meeting-place for the trade 
which crossed from E. to W., or came up from Petra and S. Arabia. 
The city existed for commerce. The 'chief of the caravan/ the 
' chief of the market,' appear in the inscriptions among the principal 
citizens, 116. 121, holding magistracies and imperial posts ; influential 
trade-guilds witness to the importance of the local industries, 126 ; the 
splendour and wealth of the city may be judged from the ruins of 
temples, streets, and tombs which still exist. The prosperity of 
Palmyra began to rise probably about the time when the Romans 
established themselves on the Syrian coast ; for political reasons it 
was desirable to keep the direct route between the Euphrates and 
the Mediterranean in the hands of a vassal power. Probably in the 
reign of Augustus Palmyra became a part of the Roman empire, 
but the exact date is not known ; later on it received special favours 
from Hadrian, who visited the city about 1 30 A. D. and granted it the 
privileges of the jus Italicum, perhaps also the rank of a colony 2 , and 
adorned it with new buildings; from his time it took the name of 
Hadriana Palmyra, nonn twnn 147 ii. With the Romans on the 
one side and the Parthians on the other, the Palmyrenes had a 
difficult part to play 3 , but they always knew how to use the rivalry 
of the two empires for the advancement of their trade, and in the later 
Parthian wars both their policy and their active services were attended 
with signal success. For 150 years, from 130-270 A. D., Palmyra's 
fortunes were at their height. Under Odainath and Zenobia, during 
a brief period, the state held a foremost place in the Eastern empire ; 
after Zenobia's overthrow in 273 it fell into decay and never 

1 a Chr. 8 4 is the earliest reference to the city. The original source had inn, 
a place in Judah, i K. 9 1 8 Kt. ; this was altered by the Chronicler or a later 
scribe to lain (so in i K. 9 18 Qeri) evidently with a view to increasing the 
extent of Solomon's kingdom. Jos. says that the Syrians pronounced the name 
Thadamora, QaSapopa, Ant. viii 6 I : the Arabs call it ~jj. 

2 By the 3rd cent., at any rate, it had become a colony, 121. 127. 

s Pliny 5 21 Palmyra nrbs . . . privata sorte inter duo imperia summa, 
Romanorum Parthorumque, et prima in discordia semper utrinque cura. 

264 Palmyrene 

As a vassal of Rome, Palmyra enjoyed a liberal measure of military 
and civil independence. It was allowed to use the native language for 
official purposes, and, like other communities in the Asiatic and 
Syrian provinces 1 , to farm the customs for the benefit of the com- 
munity, independently of the sovereign power (147). The organization 
of the city was that of a Greek municipality under the empire. The 
government was vested in the Council and People (DO11 N^U), and 
administered by civil officers with Greek titles, the proedros (snmn^Q, 
title of the office), the grammateus (DlB"ti), the archons (N'O'mx), the 
syndics (N^pno), the dekaprotoi (NmtS>y) ; see 147 i and 122. Along 
with these there was, at least in the 3rd cent., a Ras or head of the 
state (t5H 125), virtually a prince, chosen from the leading family, of 
senatorial rank (Np'WpJD 125) and Roman appointment. The office 
was handed on by Septimius Hairan (125 ) to his son Sept. Odainath, 
who received even higher rank, the consular dignity (sp^BH 126). 
After his death, Odainath was actually styled king of kings (130), but 
no inscription contains the title during his life-time. See Mommsen 
Provinces of the Rom. Emp. ii 92-112. 

The language spoken at Palmyra was a dialect of Western Aramaic a . 
In "some important points", indeed, the dialect ^vas related to Eastern 
Aram, or Syriac, e. g. the plur. in N_, NlJn 113 3. tpfo 130 i ; the 
dropping of the final z and in rn5&77nnN, nm (but VH3K &c. also 
occur), nm 113 4. D'pN 113 3. 130 4 (but wpK 114 2) ; the adverbial 
ending dith, rvnaiP 121 6 ; the infin. ending zZ, UBTino 147 ii c 4 ; also 
the words bt3D 121 6. pn 121 3. ND^J 147 i 12. moy life 121 6. Kri^y 
135 i . xW>t3n 117 5 &c. But the relation to Western (Palestinian) 
Aram, is closer. Specially characteristic are the following features : the 
impf. with ", not as in Syr. and the E. dialects with 3 or ^ ; the plur. 
in NJ ; the rel. n as in Bibl. Aram, and in the Targ. Ps.-Jon. 
(Dalman Gr. 85); the conj. H^H3 ; the pers. pron. nn, m, }^N ; H13 121 
6 &c. ; the distinction between \y and D, as in Bibl. Aram., e. g. fiOJD 
and f w, 1HD 121 5. 6. 147 i 4. The bulk of the population of Palmyra 
was of Arab race, hence many of the proper names are Arabic, and 
several Arabic words occur, e. g. *UD 112 3. Din 112 4. ins 136 6. 
The technical terms of municipal and administrative life are mostly 
Greek; even under the Roman government the Greek terminology 

1 See Dessau Hermes xix 528 ff. 

8 Like the Egypt. Aram, and Nabataean. Cf. Epiphanius Hour. 66 13 [PG 
xlii 48] "AXAoi SJ SfjOtv r^v $a8ina.TT]v rS>v 2vp<av Std\tKTov fftfU'vi'ovTcu, fi)v re 
[rf)v] Karct, TT)V TLaXftvpav 5id\(KTOV, avTrjv re al T& avrSiv CTTOJX*"*' f'tKoatSvo 
Si -ravra virap\ti. 

110] Honorary Inscriptions 265 

was retained, e. g. K'OtnBDN, JWD3, ND13, WJ, KOH, MOW, 
NDItM, KDJH, and the titles mentioned above. The Latin words in the 
inscriptions are K^p, "iDp, KntDp, Njy:6, tonpn. On the character- 
istics of the dialect see Noldeke ZDMG xxiv 85-109, cited as Nold. 

The inscriptions are often given in a Gk. version after the Palm.; 
and as a further result of Roman influence many natives bore Latin in 
addition to Aram, names. The writing is a modified form of the old 
Aram, character, and in many respects approximates the Hebr. 
square character. A noteworthy feature is the diacritic point which 
is often used, as in Syr., to distinguish 1 from 1. The letters K, 3, 1, 
1, D, 3, ~i often have ligatures binding them to the letter which 
precedes or follows ; J has a final form. The words are sometimes 
separated, and occasionally the end of a clause is marked by the full 
stop ^ . The inscriptions belong to the first three centuries A. D. ; the 
earliest is dated B. c. 9 (141), the latest Aug. 272 A. D. (Vog. 116; see 
p. 293). The standard collection is that of de Vogiie' Syrie Cenfraki868, 
cited as Vog.; supplementary collections are those of A. D. Mordtmann 
Neue Beitrage z. Kunde Palmyras 1875, cited as Mordtm.; Clermont- 
Ganneau fitudes i 9 ; Sachau ZDMG xxxv 728 ff. ; D. H. Miiller 
Palm. Inschr. 1898; J. Mordtmann Palmyrenisches 1899 & c< 

11O. Vogue* 1. A.D. 139. In situ 1 . 

prrnn /?K K^V 1-ny DM 

13 p*n 13 

pnnna &m M13 p^n? 1 ! 3 

^i3 4 

pn 1 ? 

C H (3ov\r) KOL 6 STJ/AO? 'AatXa/xetv Aipdvov TOV Mo/ctftov 
TOV Aipdvov TOV MaOOa /cat Alpdvrjv TOV iraTepa avTov 
KCU (^tXoTrarptSag /cal iravrl Tpoircp 

r^ TrarptSt /cat rot? Trar/Hots ^eot9 
erovs vv' fjurjvos HavSt/coO. Wadd. 2586. 

1 The Palmyrene inscrr. are all *' V except where otherwise stated. 

266 Palmy rene [no 

The Council and People have made these two statues 2 to 
A'ailami, son of Hairan, son of Moqimu, son of Hairan, (son 
of) Mattd, 3 and to Hairan his father, lovers of their city and 
fearers of the gods, 4 because they were well-pleasing to them 
and to their gods in everything whatsoever : 5 to their honour. 
In the month Nisan, the year 450. 

The honorary inscrr. (110-132) are written upon Corinthian 
columns which were ranged along the principal streets, or stood in 
the courts and porticos of the temples. On the column there is 
generally a bracket for the bust to which the inscription refers. 

L. i. DD11 N^12 i. e. Dfcrn tfjaa. J^K Phir. of nn, regularly in 

Palm. ; see add. note ii p. 26. jliTnn Lit. the two of them, tfrPVTn 

(= flnnri), c f. Ill 2 and the Palest, forms )ininn, prnmn, Dalman 
Gr. 98. 

L. 2. 'D^yN 'AaiXa/x,s. The name is Arab., and may be explained 
as a diminutive of the elative form with the ending "" _ (' relative '), 

- ' o* 

i.e. /"^Jcl from Jc know, cf. jy\ from ^j\ &c. As the Gk. form 
shows, the pronunciation does not strictly represent the Arab. ; 
perhaps this is due to the influence of Aram., which rarely recognizes 
dimin. forms ; cf. also XcctAos = jI^C 2e/u'as = i^s^L &c. The pr. n. 
A?Xa/Aos Wadd. 2086 is similarly explained as = Ju.c (J. Mordtmann 
Palmy renisches 15 f.). pTl = JjlJ^i an ancient name in the tribe 
of the Beni Ham dan (Blau ZDMG xxviii 75), very common in 
Palm. ictpo 78 2 n. 1 NHID The preceding "D is left out, 

as frequently in Palm. a strong proof of Gk. influence ; see the Gk. 
version. NHD is abbreviated from some form like i>13 no (= ^13'jnD). 

L. 3. 'D ' in 3 f. i. e. Jinnno ^rn. nno (u? ii b 7 &c.) = 

NnJHO (from }H) ; in Palm, and Syr. city, Trarpts ; in Bibl. Aram. 
province. For the assimilation of 3 cf. DDK (= ntWN), and in foreign 
words tfplD 147. Mp^obpo Vog. 21 (p. 285 n. i). 

L. 4. HTna 113 4 f. &c. on account of, frequent in Palest. Aram. 
but not in Syr., Dalman Gr. 187. i>H3 is Hebraized ^3 Jonah 1 7 
(= i? nt^N2 v. 8). 12. Qoh. 8 17. no An error for m lit. purpose, 
intention, as in Syr. with a vague sense, matter, thing, Dan. 6 18 ; plur. 
147 i 6. 

1 Final t in Palm, is represented in Gk. by eiy, et, tiv, e. g. 3'13 111 2 "Bapti\eiv ; 
also medial f, e. g. in^po Mowtf/iov and Moxi/tov, KTIT Zf/Sei'fSai' 113 2. Where 
' = diphth. <: the Gk. writes <u, as here, p>n Af/wos, T2 113 3 BaiSa &c.; Noid. 88 f. 

112] Honorary Inscriptions 267 

L. 5. rut? Constr. st. before the number. The name of the month 
in the Gk. version comes from the Macedonian calendar. The date 
is reckoned by the Seleucid era which began Oct. 312 B.C. ; see 9 
5 n. 97 iii n. 

11L Vog. 2. A.D. 139. 

jmin a 

M&prirf 3 

pnma 4 

i'3 5 

*H fiovXr) /cat 6 S^/AOS 'Bapefyew 'Ajapta-afKrov rov 
/cat MOKL^OV vlov GLVTOV eucreySets /cat 
Ti/xiJ? -^dpiv . . . Wadd. 2587. 

The Council and People have made these two statues 2 to 
Bariki, son of Amri-sha, son 3 of Yarhi-bole, and to Moqim[u] 
his son, lovers 4 of their city and fearers of the g[od]s : to 
their honour. 5 In the month Nisan, the year 450. 

The form is identical with that of the preceding inscription. 

L. 2. ana i. e. Benedidus. NKniDN An abbrev. for NEW 1CK 

(see the Gk.) Shamash has promised, cf. the O.T. irrnN i Chr. 24 23 
&c., and the Sab. iBNyn 11 KB ii 54 ; for RW = SB>DB > cf. NB>D l| n, Nt^n^K 
Vog. 34. Prob. the Hebr. pr. n. Ntpjn (sMV^ti) is to be explained in 
this way ; see S. A. Cook Expos. Times x (1899) 525 ff. 

L. 3. N^arrP Derived from the name of the Palm, deity ^lairv 
121 6 n. ; cf. 115 5 n. The nom. of lofM/foJUov would end in -r/s, cf. 
N312 112 2 Bwwcovs; hence the final vowel in both names was 
pronounced e, cf. N7O = f}ov\rj ; Nold. 90. 

112. Vog. 3. A.D. 140. 

p'n in ^[epM n nil N&Sx i 

ii pn 2 
ow Nn.Sa..i DSpS . . . n . n 1 ? nao 3 

268 Palmy rene [112 

[p]Ti . 4 
rji^Ki 5 
//// npp nan] 6 

H ftov\r) 'AcrraXetv Alpdvov TOV Sa/8a rov [At/oa]z/ou 
rov BuzWous Travyei\d^evov avrfj eTriSocnv ai&viav 
[ets] Ovcriav /car' ero? avadepara. [MaXaJx^Xa) KCU 
Tu^T? at/Aetos /cat ['Areyajyaret 7rar/)wot? ^eot 
/cat fjLVTJfji'rjs \dpLV erov5 aw' TTCLVTJIAOV. Wadd. 2588. 

This statue is that of Astali, son of Hairan, (son of) Saba, 
son 2 of Hairan, (son of) Bdnne, (son of) Shabbath, which has 
been made to him by the Council to whom 3 he presented 
... for ever .... and set up 4 consecrated things to Malak-be[l 

and to the Fort June of Thaimi and to 'Athar-'atheh, 5 the 
good gods ...... to his honour. In the month 6 Tammuz, 

the year 451. 

L. i. ^>BN An Ethpe. form from fc6* ? pray, cf. 
118 i. sntr Sometimes K3D, prob. = Talm. N3B>, Nab. 3t? 

CIS ii 215, from ^^ befall, cf. Ba/xra/3/3as Acts 1 23 ; Dalman Gr. 
143 n. 

L. 2. KM Perhaps = [N]N: ^3 ^/ M dear, or = wbn Vog. 95 2 
from wy ^D or :& i?U; but see 143 6 . The Gk. form with 
double v shows that ^ has been assimilated; cf. DD^JD 39 i and 
111 3 n. rat? may be a cognomen. 

L. 3. TID 123 4 = JjsU /0 make a generous gift in Aram, the noun 
is used, N^P a costly gift. After *UD some word corresponding to 
f-n-iSocriv is to be supplied ; Vog. WHO. 

L. 4. }O"in See 70 8 n. bxbo A solar deity who stood at 

the head of the Palm, gods, as the inscr. below shows *. The Gk. and 
Lat. transcriptions MaAax/ft/Aos, Malachibelus, Malagbelus indicate 

1 Rom. 2, in the Capitoline Mus., A. D. 236. 

noin Thxhi tobnb m xrto 

Soli sanctissimo sacrum. Ti. Claudius Felix et Claudia Helpis et Ti. Claudius 
Alypus fil[ius] eorum votnm solverunt libens merito Calbienses de coh[orte] iii. 

112] Honorary Inscriptions 269 

7M?P = 73 ?Jtbp messenger of Bel (Lidzb. Eph. i 256 f.) rather than 
pSDpp .#<?/ is king. The god Bel came from Babylon. The name 
is not found on public inscrr., but only on small tesserae, and often 
accompanied by the symbol of the sun with rays, e. g. Vog. 1 32 ff. 72 
K7H ^2? "pi 11 &c. 143. As a sun-god Bel could easily be adapted to 
B>D5?, undoubtedly the chief god of Palmyra ; he was further identified 
with Zevs, Wadd. 2606 a, 140 A 2 n. Lidzb. suggests that the native 
K>DB> was interpreted as 72 *]N7E, the messenger, or the revealer of 
Bel. If this is correct we can understand how B>DB>, 72, 7237D are 
all really the same chief deity, under various aspects. Malak-bel is 
sometimes associated with 'Agli-bol, the latter, as the moon, being 
named before the sun, 139 6 n., cf. 61 2 n. 'OTl l[37l] or l[y\]. 

Cl.-Gan. reads n[j], in appos. to 7237O (Rec. iii 244 f.), but the Gk. 
has Kai. The two deities are named together on a Palm, seal, 7237D 
"DTnj Mordtm. no. 88. ^Tl 13 = Tv;^ at/xctos, gen. of <u/ms 
(Nold. 88), the patron deity of the clan 'BTl *. The name 'DTI = 
115 slave requires, like ^y, the name of a god to complete its 
meaning, e.g. TDKBTl 84 i. The worship of Gad-Tyche was widely 
popular in Syria and Hauran ; cf. the pr. nn. nnjna Vog. 143, IVTti ib. 
84, and 27 3 n. nnjnny 'AreoyaTis, the great goddess of the Ara- 
maeans. The chief centres of her cult in Syria were at Hierapolis in 
Mesopotamia and Damascus 2 ; outside Syria her most famous temple 
was at Ashqelon 3 . Another temple occupied an ancient shrine at 'Ash- 
taroth-qarnaim, the 'Arcpyanov at Karnion 2 Mace. 12 26, TO TC/ACVOS 
ev Ka/Dvduv i Mace. 643; both here and at Ashqelon Atergatis took 
the place of an earlier Astarte. The name is compounded of "iny = 
"inns? = rnnt?y and nny. As ~\T\?\y (mas.) the deity was worshipped in 
S. Arabia (see 4 i n.). There are traces of the form nny among the 
Aramaeans, e.g. the pr. n. iw\ny Cl.-Gan. fit. \ 118 (WXnny CIS ii 
52 is doubtful) ; it was known to Strabo, who writes it 'A0apa*, the 
6 being a softening of the original doubled letter ; cf. Hesych. ' 

1 Cf. tyn nb -pa ta Mordtm. no. 50. 

* Strabo p. 636 ed. Mull, i) Ba/*/3vw; fy ai 'EStffffav /tal 'lepdv v6\iv KaXovaiv, 
kv if rifiuffi r^v ~S.vpi.av Otbv T^V ' A.rapr^6.Tiv. Her name occurs on coins of 
Hierapolis, Babelon Pen. Ach. pp. liii. 45. For Damascus see Justin xxxvi 3 
Nomen urbi a Damasco rege inditum, in cuius honorem Syri sepulcrum Athares 
[MSS. Arathis] uxoris eius, pro templo coluere deamque exinde sanctissimae 
religionis habent. 

* Diod. ii 4. Near Askalon is a temple of the goddess fjv wo^ovaiv ot 2vpo 
Atp/ttrovv K.T. X. ; her image was that of a woman with a fish-tail. See Schurer 
Gesch.Jiid.VoWu. 23 f. 

* P. 667 'ArafTf&Ttv 8J [iic&\toav] -r^v 'A6apav Ap*Tci; 5' 

2 70 Palmy rene [113 

Trapa r<3 Eav&o />. #&/. Gr. iv 629. A hint as to the nature 
of the deity is given by an inscr. of Asurbanipal, KB ii 220 f., which 
mentions a N. Arabian tribe as worshippers of Atar-samaim i.e. 
Atar of the heavens. The second part of the compound, nny, xny, 
or Tiy *, occurs frequently in pr. nn., e. g. nnyi3T, nnjnn, nuny, and 
with a mas. verb, e. g. finny, 3pyny ; but whether nny was a male or 
female deity is not clear. The Syr. is_x of Adiabene was a goddess 
(Cureton Sptc. Syr. oto 9) ; in a Gk. inscr. from Batanaea, Wadd. 2209, 
a god *E0aos is named, perhaps = Kny. The usual Gk. transcription 
is -yaOrj 2 . Of the nature of this deity nothing certain is known. As 
'Athar-'atheh was specially connected with Hierapolis, it is possible that 
' Atheh was the Phrygian god Attis = Adonis, whose cult was established 
there ; 'Athar-'atheh will then represent a union between the Syrian 
goddess and the youthful god of foreign origin (Lagrange RB x 559 f. 
=.Rel. SSm. 132, following E. Meyer, Hommel &c.); at any rate nnyiny 
denotes 'Ashtart who has assumed the attributes of 'Atheh, cf. |?13i>O 
above. At Ashqelon she was a fish-goddess, but her worship seemed 
to Herod, to be that of 'A^poSiVr; ovpavfy (i 105), and such no doubt 
was her character at Palmyra ; cf. an inscr. from Delos quoted by 
Schiirer 1. c. 24 'Ayvjj 'A^poSiry 'Arapyan. In the Talm. her name is 
Nnyin Ab. Zar. ii b; in Gk. and Lat. it is often AepKerco, Derceto. 
L. 6. Hdvrjfws =non, the loth month, July. 

113. Vog. 4. A. D. 247. 

D^TIK D^V n nan 

KT3T 11 UD'D 11 KTOT a 

? w j 3 
nnp^ ^A^ nay nni n 4 
y ro p'3 n^a pn 1 ? nu^ n 5 

1 The differences are merely orthographical; Lidzb. Ephem. i 84 (against 

3 Athenaeos viii 37 ... T&Ta fj rwv ^vpuv Paai\iacra . . . iw' dyvoias 6t TOIH 
woXXovs aMjv ptv 'Arep^arw 

113] Honorary Inscriptions 271 

'lovXioi> AvpTjXiov Ze/SetScw MO/CI/AOV TOV Ze/3ei8ov 
*Ao-0a>pov BatSa ot crvv avrw /caTe\#6Wes ets 'OXoye- 
eriaSa eWoooi dvecrr^crai' apea-avra avrot? reifirj? yapiv 
rov 771^' CTOV?. Wadd. 2599. 

This statue is that of Julius Aurelius 2 Zebida, son of 
Moqimu, son of Zebida, (son of) 'Ashtdr, 3 (son of) Baida, 
which has been set up to him by the merchants of the 
caravans 4 who went down with him to Ologesias : to his 
honour, because 5 he was well-pleasing to them. In the month 
Nisan, the year 558. 

L. 2. KT3T i. e. Donatus, cf. wUT, 13TOT 133 i ; O.T. TO}, 
V^l, W^pT, N.T. Z/3eS<uos; Arab. I/- ^//, Aram. TIT to pre- 
sent. nint^y Mas. form of mnB>y ; the full form would be 'y 12, 

cf. the name of the Jewish proselytes TinBTJ nn (nya Talm. J. ^/>4^. 
64 a. The long 6 has, of course, nothing to do with the Massor. 
punctuation n^riK'y it is an original long vowel, represented some- 
times by -_, e.g. Phoen. D^iJ? OuAw/xos, Assyr. Hirummu D^H &c. 
The name here was prob. borrowed from the Phoenicians ; cf. 
"inpjmy 22 i n. and WlinDJ? 143 2. See Hoffmann Uber ein. Phon. 
Inschr. 6. 22 n. 

L. 3. NTQ Perhaps abbr. from NTm. QV Afel pf. 3 plur., 

the final vowel being quiescent, as in the Syr. a^JS/'; cf. nru 1. 4 and 
p. 264. N"iJn 147 i 7. ii c 1 6, i. e. N"?an plur. emph., with 

the ending tf_ (shortened from N* ), as in Syr. 1*4^ fr m "I3H Pa. 
to sell. For the form cf. Niny 126 4. Na!? 130 i ; it was prob. 
common in the spoken language (see p. 264). NnT'S? ^J3 114 2 

lit. sons of the caravan, o-uvoSia (Lk. 2 44); cf. 116 2 V 2T a~vv- 
o8tapx^> and Syr. JL'*!*-, Arab, ifjlll ; the Aram, word is perhaps 
borrowed from Arab. (Fraenkel Aram. Fremdw. 180). For f w *)2 cf. 
KHHD U3 122 4. 

L. 4. nn3 Pf. 3 plur.; see 1. 3 n. N^jpfc Vologasias, a town 

on a tributary (Naapo-ap?;, Ptolemaeus) of the Euphrates, about 55 m. 
SE. of Babylon, and 62 Rom. miles S. of Seleukeia and Ktesiphon, 
founded by Vologasus i, who became king of the Parthians in A.D. 51. 
This able ruler succeeded in diverting the trade of Palmyra towards 
his new city, whence it was carried by river to Charax, the great 
emporium of the Persian Gulf (114. 115). 

272 Palmy rene [114 

114. Vog. 5. A.D. 155. 

topna n Di-ijYn thx optb D[^] i 
n KJVW n 1 ? tbpK n Tiy[ibE> 2 
nny nSni KJDSDK *p3 p ri[pSo] 3 

/ y 333 ^iin TUP SK rrvn 

.. [17 S'Trao-u'ov] XapaKos crwoSta / 

Travrt rpOTTO) Sta Zay8Sea^ov9 Za^SSeXa row *Ia- 

[SSatov] crwoStap^ov. "Erovs T^v' prjvbs Xwov. Wadd. 


[Stat]ue of Marcus Aelius Theod[5ros who is called 
2 Shemja'-gad, which has been set up to him by the members 
of the caravan which 3 [cam]e up from Karak Hispasina, 
because he helped it 4 [in everything [whatsoever : to his 
honour ; the chief of the caravan being 5 [Zabde-'a]the, son of 
Zabd-ila, (son of) Yaddai. In the month Ab, the year 466. 

L. i. The restoration is that of J. Mordtmann Palmyrenisches 17 f., 
based upon Mordtm.'s copy. DITPn Again in Sachau no. 1, 

Cl.-Gan. Rec. iii 157. 

L. 2. Tiye> Cf. the Phoen. byiyftW 33 2. '& vn See 113 3 n. 

L. 3. n[p^>D] 115 2. The outward journey to the Euphrates was 
called going down DPIJ 113 4, the return journey coming up. "p3 

N3DBDX = ^Traorivov Xa/>a, the great mercantile town at the mouth 
of the Tigris, near the modern village Bassra, founded first by 
Alexander the Gt. and called Alexandria, then after its destruction 
by a flood called Antioch, prob. after Antiochus the Gt., and finally 
re-founded by 'Yorrao-iVr;?, an Arab chief who made it the capital 
of a small kingdom and gave it his name, early in the and c^nt. 
"p3, X3n3 115 is Aram., from ^13 surround, \oja fenced city, citadel, 
cf. N313 94 2 and Kerak the capital of Moab. NJDSDN '3 = f he 
fortress or city of Hispasina ; in ordinary pronunciation the first 
syll. was dropped, as appears in the Gk. Spasinou Charax (116 Gk. 
version). H"ny i.e. i^Yiy. 

L. 4. rfa nx $>M So restored by Reckendorf ZDMG xlii 397 .; 

115] Honorary Inscriptions 273 

110 4 ; cf. the Gk. nU3"l3 Lit. in the chieftainship^ 'n being 

the title of the office of '& 11 115 2. 

L. 5. shir = N!>N nir, cf. nbnar 140 A 3. >T 115 &c. 'laSSaws. 

The doubled letter indicates a pet name, which is also abbreviated 
from some such form as tajPT ; cf. ^3 Vog. 34 Be'wios from . . . rm, 
3T 130 Za/?(uos from . . . 13T, '? Vog. 116 Ma/occuos from 10'po ; 
Lidzb. Eph. 176. 3N Aaios, the 5th month, July-August. 

115. Vog. 6. A. D. 193. 

o ayn is iinbTi n nn 
*jn n 1 ? n^ n KJTW nn 
n pii TIT p35on nSna K:TO p nay 3 
pn^ nfi^i nxD nSn jpny 4 

Tbv av$p\idvra. djve 
TOV [r]a[,o/3a, 



ft]a[r]a>[z/ /cat dpetrJaiArt avroi? ets reifirjv [avrov] 
'laSSatov Kal 'A/SSt^SwXou vloiv avrou erovs 
Wadd. 2596. 

This statue is that of Taim-arsu, son of Taime, son of 
Moqimu, 2 (son of) Garba, chief of the caravan, which has 
been made to him by the members of the caravan who came 
up 3 with him from Karak, because he saved them (their) 
expenses, three hundred denarii of gold, 4 ancient currency, 
and was well-pleasing to them: to his honour, and to the 
honour of Yaddai 6 [and 'Abdi]-b61 his sons. In the month 
Nisan, the year 504. 

L. i. l"i <i n 14O A 5 0<u/ia/xras, and prob. Themarsa (in an African 
inscr., Cl.-Gan. Rec. iii 1 65) = slave of Rudd t U j, an ancient Arab 
god; 88 i n., and p. 295 n. i 

2 74 Palmyrene [H6 

L. 2. N312 Vog. waaa after Wadd. 2591 Ta/3fta, which, however, is 
prob. to be emended Tapfia; for Nina cf. 147 ii b 27 and aana 
Vog. 141, Hebr. 213 2 S. 23 38 &c., = wa%. 

L. 3. sana 114 3 . foaon 121 5 Pa. pf. with suff. ju' from 

pn, jo.~, Hebr. jfe'n /0 ^0A/ fo<r/&, $>ar*, here followed by two 
accusatives, lit. he held them back from expense, i. e. he paid their 
expenses himself; hence the word conies to = d<eiSeu/ to bestow 
lavishly. Tif i. e. "W expenses for a journey, e. g. 

Krriwb Onk. Gen. 42 25. The Gk. equivalent is 
= Srjvdpia, with Aram. pi. ending. 

L. 4. ppTiy ancient, i. e. belonging to an earlier currency, heavier in 
weight; iraXaia Ifyvapia. In i Chr. 24 22 'y occurs as an Aramaism. 

L. 5. ^miy servant of B61, the Palm, god ; cf. the divine names 

121 6. haby 139 6, and the pr. nn. &6nm> in 3. ^mar 

140 A 6 &c. The form is peculiar to Palm. It has been explained 
as ' the god of the month Bui,' or as a dialectical form of ^3 Bel 
in i>2ata 112 4 or of ^JJl in }K> '2 122 6 ; but the Palm. 6 could not 
have arisen from 'a (Nold. ZDMG xlii 474), and the first explanation 
is very doubtful. 

116. Vog. 7. A. D. 257-8. 

D^V n nil 

*H j3ov\[r) Kal 6 Sijfio? 'IjovXtov A.vpij\Lo[v 
TQV KOL 2aX//,aX]\a#oz> MaX^ TOV ['AySSatov a 
avaKOjjiicra[vTa r^v\ crwoStav irpoiKa e^ tSuuz/ 
erov? ^f<'. Wadd. 2603. 

This statue is that of Julius Aurelius 2 Salm-allath, son of 
Male, (son of) l Abdai, chief of the caravan, 3 which the Council 
and People have set up to him to his honour, 4 because he 
brought up the caravan gratis, at his own expense. 5 The 
year 569. 

117] Honorary Inscriptions 275 

L. 2. rWt? = rfo* D$>B>. For r6x see 117 6 n.; and for the abbrevia- 
tion cf. rtam Vog. 21. n^3V 94. ni>nDK Lidzb. p. 221. N$>D In 
Gk. MoX^s (nom.), ->} (gen.), -T/V (ace.) 122 i, the Aram. N__ repre- 
senting the Gk. 77(5), 111 3 n.; for the name cf. Talm. ""N^O, Lk. 831 
MeXca, Nab. vb'd CIS ii 215, possibly connected with */ybo be full, 
cf. the pr. n. tih& Vog. 85 ; Lidzb., however, suggests that tfta is 
abbr. from ^D, cf. /xe\xa Chron. 458 (Tischendorf on Lk. 3 31). 

L. 4. pDK i. e. P&K Af. of p$D ; cf. 114 3 n. po i. e. fa Lit. 

emptiness, Arab. Ijls?, used like the Hebr. D3n in the sense for nought, 
e. g. Targ. Job 1 9. HD*3 p Lit. out of his purse 117 5. 122 6, cf. 

Nab. r6n jo 102 3. 

117. Vog. 8. A. D. 129. 

[. . . . *a iaN H . . . . H nn 

[This statue is that of ... which the sons of ... have set 
up] 2 all of them to his honour, because [he was well-pleasing 
to them], 3 and made, himself and Lishamsh his brother . . . 
4 . . six pillars and their beams 5 and their coverings, at their 
own expense, to the honour of Shamash 6 [and] Allath and 
Raham, the good gods. In the month 7 Adar, the year 440. 

L. 3. w&t i. e. Belonging to Shamash, cf. Awra/xo-ov (gen.) Wadd. 
2458. For the form cf. Phoen. Aeaorapros (Jos. c. Ap. i 18), 
Arab. 4), Hebr. bb Num. 3 24 Belonging to El, bwof) Prov. 31 
i. At the end of the line J. Mordtmann suggests [N*nD]3Nl in 

this exedra ; Lidzb. NpPD[N]2 basilica 119 3 n. 

L. 4. Nnt? p1y It is a peculiarity of Palm, that the numeral follows 
its noun, cf. 115 3 f. 119 3. We gather from this inscr. that the 
colonnades which lined the streets of Palmyra were built by degrees 
at the cost of public-spirited citizens. pnrP1B> 133 i ; Targ. 


T a 

276 Palmy rene [us 

L. 5. prion = Syr. \*\$ covering from'V^, 133 i. 
For the worship of Shamash at Palmyra see 136, and 61 2 n. 

L. 6. nta See 80 4 n. and 116 n w. Dm The name of a god, 

the attribute Compassionate being personified and treated as a distinct 
divinity, cf. Nm 139, elsewhere NJDrn 138 ; the pronunciation was 
prob. Brn, NJ ?9^ i- e. ..I*,, Nold. 89. The deity occurs in Sabaean, e. g. 
PUD Dm Raham Sujuh CIS iv 40 5 ; similarly porn = &*J\ ib. 6 3. 

L. 7. IIK The 1 2th month, Awrpos, Feb.-March. 

118. Vog. 9. A.D. 162. 

n 1 ? 



Stat[ue of Ha]lifi, son of Ethpani, son of Halifi, 2 [which] 
has been made to him by Halifi, son of Haggagu, [s]on of 
Maliku, 3 [be]cause he was [well-pleas]ing to him, to his 
honour : ... 4 ... on this pillar to set up, and upon it 5 ... 
while (?) he shall live. In the month [Ad]ar, the year 473. 

L. i. wyn Cf. tan 89 i n. ''Jam For the form cf. 

112 i. 

L. 2. wan 140 A 3 = Ili 5 -, cf. N31jn Rfy. no. 148 and ^n Lidzb. 
270, Phoen. tjn, nan, Hebr. *V\festal($\ LXX 'Ayyatos. 

L. 4. lOpoij If the reading is correct, an infin. ^Op, as in Syr. 
c6f>oy, Nold. 104. 

L. 5. NfT "Ha Reading uncertain; perhaps impf. NH*, Nold. ib. 


119. Vog. 11. A.D. 179. 

prr -D wn^ n n^n 
n^ nb'N n 

120] Honorary Inscriptions 277 

piay rtn Kptaa -ttyi 3 
ijn rta pnn^ni 4 
^ 3333 F> //// nxer TIK m*i 5 

H /3ov\r) ^opai-^pv Alpdvov TOV 'AXaivij "Ztffxfrepa 
KOL <iX6Va/r/>iz> KOI ^>tXoTt/x,ov ret/x^s KOI eurota? 
~)(dpiv jjirjvl AvcrT/3a> TOV ^v' erovs. Wadd. 2594. 

This statue is that of Soraiku, son of Hairan, son of * Alaine, 
2 (son of) Seppera, which the Council has set up to him, to 
his honour. 3 And he made this basilica with seven pillars 
* and all their decoration ; and he made the brazier of bronze. 
In the 5 month Adar, the year 490. 

L. i. iy**vy 120 2. 146 2 an Arab, name, db^i friend, com- 

panion ; cf. ttnD 129 4. vaby Cf. Arab. yt^U /a//, Hebr. p^y. 

L. 2. KIDS 2c^^>epa, cf. Hebr. "rtBX LXX SeTr^wp Num. 22 2 &c. 

L. 3. Np^Dl Lidzb. 238 renders most plausibly basilica ; the word 
is prob. to be read in 117 3. In both inscrr. pillars are mentioned in 
the context. 

L. 4. JW3M1 = Syr. \&> ornament, e.g. Pesh. Esth. 2 3. 9. 12, 
from VVns 143 10 ; see also p. 301 n. i. N3133 None of the mean- 
ings of KO.VVV suits the context; nor is the rendering base (N3133=:K33) 
probable. Most likely the word = Syr. JJcoo cooking-pot, bowl, pan, 
PSm. Thes. col. 1762; cf. Hoffmann Ausziige Syr. Akt. Pers. Mart. 
37 n. 312 f. 

120. Vog. 13. A.D. 179. 

Njn* nna >m& [n] 
p^n na D]T n 1 ? o^pw * 
//// ro]^ TTK rm nyS nnSa n 3 

^3333 4 

MdpOew *A\edv$pov TOV Kal *Ia8^ TOV QvaftaX\d0ov 
rov 2vfictJi>ov Soyoat^os Alpdvov av^p avr^s 

M^vet AVCTT/DQ) TOV ^v' erous. Wadd. 2592. 

278 Palmy rene [121 

This statue is that of Marthi, daughter of Yad[e, son of 
Wahab-allath], 2 son of Shim'on, which has been set up to 
her by Sorai[ku, son of Hairdn, her husband], 3 because she 
was ? : to her honour. In the month Adar, the y[ear 4J9O. 

L. i. NHD7X Fern., because the statue is that of a woman ; cf. Phoen. 
J1PDD 13 2 n. njl, however, keeps its mas. form ; contrast m Nt?33 
Vog. 31. THD Cf. N.T. Mdp0a and 102 2. KT 'Ia%, cf. 

>T 'laSSaios 114 5 n. 

L. 2. pyDt? Like THO, a Jewish name. These persons prob. 
belonged to the Jewish colony in Palmyra, or were related to Jewish 
families there. lams' See 119 i . 

L. 3. nn?D Perhaps = Arab. v*i^* she was pleasant, instead of the 
usual lQtJ>; cf. the Arab. pr. n. ist^* (Nold. 106). But the omission 
of "V (the prep, always follows 1st?) makes this explanation doubtful. 

121. Vog. 15. A. 0.242-3. Plate VIII. 

-fi K^niT D^TIK D^V 

bph :t3"ii3D ton *n DIBO a 
wn na ^a^i nop w-naDa^N n^ 3 


JUT 5 

n 1 ? -THD rotaa nw3 rn&y "om 6 


//// ^ 33 ?> y njp nnp^ WDTI ^11 rb Dp s 

C H j3ov\ri Kal 6 S^/xos 'lovXtov Avpv)\iov 
rov Kal Za/8StXav 8ts MaX^ov TOV Nacrcrov/xou crTparrj- 
yr)(ravTa iv eTTtS^/xta ^eou 'AXe^dvSpov /cat v 
trapovcria St^ve/cet 'PovrtXXtou Kpicrireivov TOV rj 
pevov KOI rat? eTriS^/^o-dVaig ov^^tXXaTtocrtv ayopavo- 
fjL^a-avrd re Kal OVK oXtywv d^etSifcravra xprjfJLaT(t)v Kal 
KaXa><? TroXetrevcraMei'oi' a>s Sia ravra 

121] Honorary Inscriptions 279 

VTTO $eov 'laH^SeyXou /cat VTTO 'lovXtov ^^^^= TOV 

Trap-)(ov TOV te/oov TTpaiTvpiov /cat 

TTttT/DtSoS TOV <f>i\OTTaTplV TCt/X^S -^oipLV CTOVS !><'. Wadd. 


Statue of Julius Aurelius Zabd-ila, son of Maliku, son of 
Maliku, 2 (son of) Nassum, who was slrategos of the Colony 
at the coming 3 of the divine Alexander Caesar ; and he 
served when 4 C[r]ispinus the governor was here, and when 
he brought hither the legions 5 many times ; and he was chief 
of the market, and spent money in a most generous manner ; 
6 and he led his life peaceably (?) ; on this account the god 
Yarhi-b61 has borne witness to him, 7 and also Julius , 

who fosters and loves the city : 8 the Council and People 
have set (this) up to him, to his honour. The year 554. 

L. i. NaT 114 5 n. The strategos had another name beside this, 
Zenobios (Gk. text) ; cf. 123. Here and in 123. 127 all three slrategoi 
are called Jul. Aurelius in addition to their native names; the 
emperors [Aurelius] Antoninus Pius and M. Aurelius no doubt made 
these names popular. 

L. 2. 2B1BDN One of the chief civil magistrates. Another title for 
the executive officials of the municipality was N^ISIN 147 i 2 ap^oires ; 
both were equivalent to the Rom. duumviri (Cagnat Cours d'tpigr. 
lat* 150); contrast the Nab. NJmDN 96 2 n. N^^p 127 4. At 

what period Palmyra received the Jus Italicum and the title of Colonia 
is not known; probably it was under Hadrian, when he visited the city 
in 130-1 A. D. (see p. 263). NrvlrVDl An infin. noun, of the 

form iljiiU (see Earth Nominalb. 257), from NJ1N, i.e. NOIW? = p a l. 
Syr. Jio.fc~ adventus Mt. 24 3 : Pesh. JfcLl)j2>. 

L. 3. sn^N = the title divus, given to the emperor after his death ; 
cf. 95 i n. 122 3. DIYUDsta i.e. Severus Alexander 222-235 A.D. 
He stayed at Palmyra prob. in 230-1 A. D., during the indecisive 
campaign against the Persians under Ardashir or Artaxerxes; see 
Mommsen Provinces ii 90. BW Pa. 123 3. pn = Syr. ^Jl ; 

cf. nan 68 5. 

L. 4. NJ1D3V1 147 ii b 15. 24 =^ye/icSv i. e. praeses provinciae. TIN 
i. e. V)K, Targ. O. Gen. 39 14 WK, Af. of NHN. NaS> = Pal. Syr. 

n* The old accus. particle is not found in Palm, elsewhere. 

280 Palmy rene [121 

In this dialect the object is usually not marked by any sign, though b 
occasionally appears, e. g. K?n "W "pi' 1 73 Vog. 1 32. 

L. 5. fJWD p3T i. e. Jtfap fJ3T, cf. $fe> p?3] 147 i 6; 'r is the plur. of 
Nrnj (= WU3J), Syr. )A), U*T fern. AVw; Reckendorf ZZWG xlii 
394 n. Palm., Syr., Mand. (KJTt) use the form with 3, other Aram, 
dialects have 0, e. g. ptDT in Nab. 96 6 n. Note the form \wyy in 
this line; see p. 264, and cf. 143 2. 13. pity 31 dyopavo^cravra, 

i. e. praepositus annonae. pit? = street, O.T. and Targ. ; then broad 
place, market, Talm. 't? pun iDm ov* oXiywv d^etST/o-avra 

XPWa-Twv, lit. ' he spared (others from) many expenses '; for "pn Pa. 
see 115 3 n. Vog. gives pxn = pnt 123 5, accepted doubtfully by 
Nold. 97. Mordtm., however, reads fxn, which may be derived from 

Ijy to make a person poorer in something (two accus.) ; hence lj^ one 
who has been reduced, i. e. by his generosity, so generous, and pNH 
Sa-n-avai. In the S. Arab, inscrr. from Ma'rib NH has the sense of 
bestow, expend (Lidzb. Eph. i 239). 

L. 6. nW3B> moy 13TI /cat /caXus TroXtTero-a/xcvov. For 'j> 13T (Pa.) 
cf. the Syr. o^aoflS, )uo? JJJDCLX to lead a pure life (Cureton *S/>/ir. 
S>r. ^so 21), no doubt a rendering of the Gk. idiom fiiov a.ytiv,vitam 
agere. niDy his It/e=ihQ Syr. jtaooix vicius, modus vitae, from tv> V 
habitavit. Mordtm. reads JVS'Ot MIDy ^z j life purely ; but except in 
the case of \113N, TnnN, M1 s n, \11J3, \niijy, the 3 sing. mas. suff. in Palm, 
ends in " r l-^-; and as he allows that the letters P look like t? in his 
squeeze, we may read HWatf moy, or '3f 'V (Nold. 103). The Syr. 
kJL*, quievit (cf. Hebr. CptJ*) would give the rendering quietly for '3E> ; 
but the expression is jejune, and the reading H^BK' K oXws is more 
likely to be right : Reckendorf 1. c. 395 n. i. Note the Syr. adverbial 
ending dith, p. 264. niai'DD i.e. HJ3 PtSD 147 i 6 on that account. 

The combination is not found in other Aram, dialects ; but 7D1D is 
common in Syr. and Pal. Aram., cf. 1 int3, p 'D because Targ. Ps.-Jon. 
Lev. 815; rn3 is also used in Pal. Aram, for according, as (Dalm. 
Gr. 178), cf. Nab. 81 8 (accordingly) and Syr. lose,, ido^ ^3HT 
Cf. flew /xeyto-TO) 'Iepa/3[o)]Xa> in an inscr. from Egypt (Coptos), Cl.-Gan. 
Rec.'ii 1 1 8. The god's approval was perhaps conveyed by an oracle; 
cf. e7ri/AXr;7^s alpcOels *E<j!>Kas Tnyy^s VTTO 'lapt^StoXov TOV ^eov Wadd. 
2571 c. The name of the deity is composite, like bl3^y, ^33^, and 
the first part of it suggests a moon-god (n"V) ; but what evidence 
there is implies a sun-god, e. g. CIL iii 1108 Deo soli Hierobolo &c., 
and ""fTV = 'HXidStopos p. 301 n. i ; J. Mordtmann Palmyren. 44 f. 
Further light on the subject may be expected from a Palm, inscr. 


Honorary Inscriptions 


discovered at Horns, not as yet published ; RB xi 410 n. 7. Cf. the 
pr. n. KhanT HI 3 

L. 7. Both in the Palm, and Gk. texts a name has been erased after 
Julius } it was prob. Philippus, i. e. Jul. Philip, an Arabian from the 
Trachonitis, who was praefectus praetorio = ra/>xos TOU lepov irpai- 
ruptov (Gk. text) in A. D. 242-3, the year of this inscription. He insti- 
gated the murder of Gordian iii, and succeeded him as emperor (A. D. 
244-249). NBD i.e. NSD ptcp. lit. gives to eat, nourishes; cf. 

Targ. Ps.- Jon. Num. 11 18 tqtpa KM'BDJ JD < who will give us flesh to 
eat? ' Nmo So Mordtm., rather than nniD his city ; elsewhere 

the form is NJVm Cf. NnpIT 131 i. 

L. 8. D'pN Prob. plur., 113 3 . 

122. Vog. 16. A.D. 131. 

n p [? 
wmn [pn 


[*H (3ov\r) /cat] 6 ry/Aos aiv TOV /cat 

tov /cal 'Paatou ypajajaarea yevopevov TO Sevrepov 
ia Oeov *A$pi,avov aXt/xjaa Trapao^ovra ^eVots re 
/cat TToXetrais ev Tracrtv virrjpeTTJa'CLVTa ry re TMV crrpa- 
revfjidT&v V7ro[8o)(]]7 /cat TOV vaov TOV [rov 'HjXtov cruv 
ra> ... 1/aiw . . . [/cat r]ats aXXa[ts] ... TO ... Wadd. 

[The Council and People have made this statue to Male 
Agrippa], 2 son of Yarhai, (son of) [Lishamsh ?] Ra'ai, who 
was secretary for a second time ; 3 and when the divine 

282 Palmy rene [123 

Hadrian ca[me here], he gave oil 4 to the people of the ci[ty 
and to] the strator\es\ and to the strangers who ca[m]e 5 with 
him . . . his [ca]mp with everything. And he built the temple 
6 and . . . [and its decor]ation, all of it, at his own expense, 

to Ba'al-sham[in] 7 and to of the Bene Yedi'a-bel. 

8 In [the month] . . . the year \_4\42. 

The above text is based upon the restoration of Cl.-Gan. .#/. ii 
9 ; cf. Mordtm. 22 ff., J. Mordtmann Palmyren. 19 50. 

L. 2. TTV An abbreviation of N^lim" 1 111 3. V&th The b is 
barely visible ; cf. 117 3 n. DlBtTU ypa/A/xarcvs 147 i 2 = the 

Rom. title scriba. The Palm. 1 = Gk. ev, as in Dlpta 123. nm^3 
124. tfmn n = Syr. Urr?, emph. form of ^DL"; the form 

actually met with in Syr. is UUIT?, Hexapl. Is. 61 7. Jer. 33 i &c. 
jLLii? ^ (Nold. 102 and Syr~Gr. 96). 

L. 3. 'wi nai See 121 2 f. 

L. 4. NJTID a Cf. xnw n us 3 . [K^-nonoDKrrj/rafcrai 

' equerries,' Cl.-Gan. ; [N]loni3DN = orparcv/ia, G. Hoffmann ; 
[N^iniODN = o-TpaTttorai, Vog. N^DSN = ^c'voi, formed with the 

adjectival ending az from eVos. N[n]N Plur., like D^pN 113 3. 

L. 5. After niDJJ Cl.-Gan. reads nm[B> D31S1] and supplied his 
camp (see 132 3 n.) ; cf. the Gk. VTrypeTrjcravra rfi re TUV 

vTroSoxfj. For nnn^o cf. 96 4. jjno i?aa e 
oyno 147 is. ii &c. = DJHJO 75 2 . N^an 147 i 10 

L. 6. ^NJiai So Cl.-Gan., admitting that the n may be n, and that the 
* is indistinct. The Gk. fragment . . . vaua he restores \wpo\va.iv, and 
the Palm., nD'WlS or m'W'iB its pronaos or -vestibule. nrvaxni 

119 4. JOB' i>vn^ The Gk. text of Wadd. given above is to be 

corrected TOV [TO] Atos <rvv TO K.T.\. The reading flOB' ^yab, 
adopted by Cl.-Gan. and J. Mordtm., is conjectural ; Lidzb. prefers 
not? 7-0^ Eph. \2$*in. 

L. 8. The month may be j[o3] Vog. 

123. Vog. 17. A.D. 254. 

D'StlN D^V 1 ? Dtt 
"11 DIpt^D N'lpnO H 

H NWBf my irty 3 

123] Honorary Inscriptions 283 

-raw rtfwieD&a pn 1 ? 4 


/ecu 6 8-^/ios *l]ovXioz> 

Kal] SeXevKov [Sis TOV 'Aio]v TOV SeeiXa Sva[i>- 
/u,<us crr/)aT[77yr7crai>Tci /c]al fjiapTvp^Bei^ra 
l <f)i\~\OTeLp,ir)crd(JLi{ov ry avTff\ Kparia-rri fiovXfj 'Ar[rt- 
rei/Lt^s o/e/cez/ erovs ?"^ / 'TTrepfieperaito. 
Wadd. 2601. 

The Council and People to Julius Aurelius 2 'Ogga, who is 
called Seleukus, son 3 of 'Azizu, (son of) 'Azlzu, (son of) 
She'eila, who served and was well-pleasing * to them in his 
office of strategos\ and he presented to the Council 5 ten 
thousand drachmae : to his honour. In the month Tishri, 
the year 566. 

L. 2. toy Prob. an abbreviation of N^a^ay (Lidzb.), as TH 1 " from 
NSarTV. N"ipn n 102 2. Dlpta For the additional name 

see 121 i ?:., and cf. 122 2 n. 

L. 3- Wy = jjjc strong. The name is found in Egypt. Aram. 
CIS ii 136, in Nab. ib. 311 B, in late Hebr. wry Ezr. 10 27, and else- 
where in Palm. In the inscr. given on p. 295 iwy is the name of a 
god = Ares. N^NS^ 2cAa, with the consonantal value of N preserved ; 
contrast the Talm. K^B> (Dalm. Gr. 124) and the Syr. JL* = SiXas 
(i. e.-t&w) Acts 15 22. The meaning is the same as that of the 
O.T. W. BW 121 3. 

L. 4. TJD See 112 3 n. 

L- 5- PDT = drachmae, 'Am/cas (Gk. text). The drachm was a 
quarter of a shekel in Jewish money ; thus i Sam. 9 8 5)03 I'pB' yai 
is rendered by the Targ. NQDSn tnn NNT. The Attic drachm was the 
universal silver unit in the East; after the Roman conquest it was 
adopted as practically equivalent to the Roman denarius, hence in 
Josephus BpaxfJ-r) 'ATTIKT; or 'Aral's always = denarius. The value of 
the drachm-denarius was about \d. "n^n 'YTrep/JepeTaZbs = 

Sept.-Oct., the 7th month. 





ITTTTIKOV /cat f3ov\VTr)v 
prjvov BrjXa/caySos 'Ayocra TOI> <f>L\ov TCI/AT^S yapiv erovs 
o<'. Wadd. 2604. 

To Aurelius Worod, knight 2 and councillor, of Tadmor, 
made by 3 Bel- c aqab, son of Harsha, to his honour. 4 The 
year 570. 

L. i. im 127 &c., a name of Persian origin, borne by several 
Arsacid kings. Kp2n Here with an Aram, ending, in 129 

3 Dlp'an JTTTTIKOS. For the ending N' = os cf. Kp'Ban 126. Np^e^p3D 
125. KS"I3SN 127. 

L. 2. NDI^a ySovXevny?, cf. 122 2 n. Nnoin Adj. sing. ; the 

plur. has the same form, see Rom. 2 on p. 268, 1. 3. The vowel in 
the second syll. was 5, e. g. TiDin 125 ; the Arab. J*lj, however, has 
preserved what was prob. the original pronunciation. 

L. 3. 3pJ&3 140 B 8 probably Bel follows (? ptcp.) ; this is the 
meaning of 3py both in Arab, and Syr. The name occurs in a Gk. 
inscr. from Coptos, BiyXa/ca/Jos (as here), Cl.-Gan. Rec . ii 1 1 8 ; cf. 
Vog. 32 &c. Ntnn 'A/* = U,L enchantment. 

125. Vog. 22. A.D. 251. 

p^n DV^SD n nn 

125] Honorary Inscriptions 285 

v Alpdvyv 'OScuva^ou TOV Xa/ATr/Dorarov <rvv- 

irrpctiva TCI/AT? /cat eu^a/Dtortas yapw erovs 

This statue is that of Septimius Hairdn, son 2 of Odainath, 
the illustrious senator and chief 3 of Tadmor, which has been 
set up to him by Aurelius 4 Philinus, son of Marius Philinus, 
(son of) Ra'ai, the soldier 5 who was in the legion of Bostra : 
to his honour. In the month 6 Tishri of the year 563. 

L. i. pTl DVBBBD was at this time the head of the house of Odainath, 
the leading family of Palmyra, which by the 3rd cent, had acquired 
almost the position of a reigning dynasty; see p. 264. This Sept. 
Hair&n appears to have been the first of his race to receive the title 
of Ras 1. 2, in addition to his Roman rank as a senator. He was the 
son of Odainath the senator l ; and though the relationship is nowhere 
stated, it is prob. that he was the father of the famous Sept. Odainath 
(126), the grandson bearing the same name (see footnote) as the 
grandfather according to Palmyrene custom. Vogue* suggests that the 
name Septimius was given to the family by the Emperor Sept. Severus 
(193-211 A. D.), in recognition of their services during the Parthian 
wars; it was also borne by Sept. Worod (127), who was probably 
connected with the family of Odainath by alliance or otherwise; 
cf. 129 3. 130 2. 

L. 2. TUHK Cf. the Arab, diminutive iljil a little ear. Np <l t3^pJD= 
(TvyKXijriKos of senatorial rank. NTTU Aa/A7r/x>TaTos=clarissimus, 

a title which went with the dignity of senator ; see Cagnat 1. c. 

89. 131. tn Head i.e. prince; Arab, ^\~ Syr. *}, in the 

same sense ; cf. nun i 20. 

L. 4. 'jn 122 2 'PacuW The Gk. here gives 'HAioSaipov. Nn!>D= 
(nyxmcorqs, from rvD work, serve ; cf. HfPS 75 4 worshipper. 

L. 5. WI^Ti So Mordtm., as there is no diacritic point over the 
first letter. Vog.'s reading jwvab 31 is, moreover, inconsistent with 
the Gk. : the donor is merely orpaTiurn??. For 1 in Palm. cf. nm for 
run Vog. 71. mjn 83 a 3 (corr.). 105 3. rmn 18. The legion 
stationed at Bostra was the iii Cyrenaic ; hence the restoration of the 
Gk. text. N"tt2 The capital of the Province of Arabia; 100 n. 

1 Vog. 21 : TTuawibi [']m3iVi rf? -022 rtam JYTT 12 NP'B'JPD rons ma nn >rap 
The Gk. has Ti fwrj^eiov . . (Knaev . . 3ejrrt'/os 'OSaivaOos 6 \anvp6raros 

\J]TlKUS K.T.A. 

286 Palmy rene [126 

126. Vog. 23. A.D. 258. 
nm DTfiDfiD 

"T pb KpDfin a 

Wadd. 2602. 

Statue of Septimius Odainath, 2 the illustrious consul, our 
lord, which 3 has been set up to him by the guild of smiths 
4 who work in gold and silver : to his honour. 5 In the month 
Nisan of the year 569. 

L. i. rWIX 'D 125 i n. 130. The famous prince under whom 
Palmyra reached the summit of its fortunes (p. 263). He came 
to the front by the effective aid which he gave to the Romans in the 
Persian wars, especially in the defeat of the Persian king Sapor. After 
this event, during the rivalries for the purple, he took the side of 
Gallienus, and to the end, whatever his ultimate intentions may 
have been, maintained his allegiance when the latter became emperor. 
Gallienus, much engaged in the affairs of the West, practically left the 
East to the government of Odainath, who became, ' not indeed joint- 
ruler, but independent lieutenant of the emperor for the East' 
(Mommsen Provinces ii 103); see 130 i n. In the local adminis- 
tration of Palmyra Sept. Worod (127 ff.) acted as his viceroy and 
imperial procurator ; while Odainath himself, by a series of brilliant 
victories over the Persians, succeeded in re-establishing the frontiers 
and prestige of the Eastern empire, A. D. 264-5. He was assassinated 
in A.D. 266-7 at Hemesa 1 . His authority passed to his wife Zenobia 

1 His eldest son Herodes, ' non Zenobia matre, sed priore uxore genitns ' (Treb. 
Pollio Trig. Tyr. 16), was killed at the same time. The same authority states 
that Odainath left two sons by Zenobia, besides Wahb-allath, Harennianas and 
Timolaus. The statement is open to question ; other authorities know of only one 
son, who succeeded his father. Mommsen 1. c. 106 n. 

127] Honorary Inscriptions 287 

(131) and their son Wahb-allath, who endeavoured not merely to 
maintain but to surpass the extensive powers held by Odainath. 

L. 2. Np'BSn NTPO Aa/ATrporaros viraTi/cos=vir clarissimus consularis. 
At this period, and up to the time of Diocletian, the title denoted not 
the office of consul but the consular rank. Note the progression of 
dignities in the family (p. 264). p 130 4 Secnnmjs. The name 

does not necessarily imply a king or ruler, because in 128 it is given 
to a procurator (Sept. Worod) ; cf. pnniD 131 4 TTJV SeWowav, of 

L. 3. oan=Tay/ia, Syr. Joa^T ordo; here the Gk. equivalent is 
owreXeio. N^p i. e. N^E plur. 

L. 4. tnay i. e. N^?y ptcp. plur. constr. For the ending see 
113 3 . 

127. Vog. 24. A. D. 263. 


Dp* H fcTtipn a 

n WTBDK 4 
333 F> y rw 5 

Ovop<a$r)v ro]v KpaTicrrov eiri 

SoaSov TOV Atfjoa] crrpar^yos rrj? Xafjiir porcin^s /coXtu- 
veta? [Tjov eavroi) <f>i\ov rei/x^s eveicev erovs 
Wadd, 2607. 

Septimius Worod, most excellent procurator 2 ducenarius^ 
which has been set up to his honour 3 by Julius Au[r]elius 
Nebu-bad, son of So'adu, (son of) Haira, 4 strategos of the 
Colony, his friend. 6 The year 574, in the month KisluL 

L. i. TH1 D^OtSBD 128. 129. The inscrr. and statues dedicated to 
his honour show that he was one of the most distinguished citizens 
of Palmyra at the time of its greatest prosperity, in position next 
to the prince himself. He held an imperial office under the emperor 
Gallienus (128 2 f.), as well as the highest local dignities. A Gk. 

288 Palmy rene [128 

inscr. (Wadd. 2606 a) mentions that he was the chief of a caravan 
and defrayed the cost of the return journey, and agoranomos (121 5 .), 
and strategos i. e. chief magistrate, and president of the banquets of Bel 
((rv/A7rocrta/3^ov TCOV . . . Aios Br/Aov Upe'cov). He was viceroy, argapetes 
(129 2 n. 126 i n.), of Odainath. The inscrr. say nothing about his 
family ; the name D'toDBD may indicate an alliance with the reigning 
house (125 i .), while TH1 (124 i n.) perhaps points to a Persian 
or Armenian origin (Vog.). '~\ ND"ll3DN=c7rtT/)07ros Sou/oyvapios, 

procurator of the second class (ducenarius), an imperial revenue 

L. 3. Tanj Prob. contracted from 13J? UJ ; J. Mordtm. would read 
"Ofl2J 134 2. In Palm, the god Nebo is met with only in pr. nn., 
e.g. linST 133 i. 133*12 134 2 ; in Aram. pr. nn. it is frequent, e.g. 
12TU CIS ii 139 B, 2. pnDirO=Assyr. Nabd-sar-iddin ib. 29. 
See 106 n. JOTI An Arab, name, cf. }"Vn 110 2. 

L. 4. nom i. e. Horn lit. his lover, 129 5. 140 B 8. 

L. 5. h^D3 'A7TXAatos= Jewish IJJDD, the pth month, Nov.-Dec. 

128. Vog. 25. A. 0.263. 


Wadd. 2606. 

This statue is that of Septimius 2 Worod, procurator 
ducenarius of 3 Caesar, our lord, which has been set up to 
him by 4 the Council and People : to his honour. 5 In the 
month Nisan of the year 574. 

See on 127. 

L. 3. nop i.e. Gallienus. The official in Lat. inscrr. is called 
procurator Augusti. pD See 126 2 n. 


Honorary Inscriptions 


129. Vog. 26. A. D. 264. 

KT WBB&D -K 3 
p'n Dnpa]pakK -a 4 

n JVD nro narpi n&m 5 

333 RyJW 6 

Se7m/uo[V] OvopuSrjv TOV KpaTLOTov liriTpoirov 
ISao~Tov SovKrjvdpiov KOL dpyaTreTrjv 'lovXtos 


aTTO CTTpaTitov TOV <f>l\ov Kat irpoo~TaT'r)v 
i Hai'St/c&i. Wadd. 2610. 

eveieev erous eo 

Septimius Worod, most excellent procurator z ducenarius 
and commandant, (this statue) has been set up to him by 
Julius 3 Aurelius Septimius Yade, knight, 4 son of Alexander 
Hairan, (son of) Soraiku, to the honour 6 of his friend and 
patron. In the month Sivan of 6 the year 575. 

L. 2. KBaaitf d/xyaWr^s, a Persian word, compounded of arg d,l 
* fortress ' and bed ju> ' lord ' or ' chief/ hence ' commander of a fortress.' 
The title is actually found in Persian at this period (Nold. 107); in 
the Targ. it appears as NBlp"iN 2 Chr. 28 7; in Wadd. 2606 a it 
seems to be paraphrased by StxaioSor^s -n}? /Ai^rpo/coXowas. The office 
was an exceptional one in this case, owing to the unique position of 
Odainath as practically emperor of the East. A deputy became 
necessary for the local administration of Palmyra ; hence the military 
command of the city as well as the chief civil authority was committed 
to Sept. Worod. 

L. 3. NT 120 i n. Dlpan Cf. NpBH 124 i n. 

L. 4. ttno Cf. ianp 119 i n. 

L. 5. novp A verbal noun of the form VB, Syr. JciciLo, lit. one 
who stands up (to protect &c.)=the Lat. patronus, Gk. Tr/sooT-a-nys. In 
the Pesh. it occurs in the sense of prefect, e. g. i K. 4 5. 7 ; in 3 Esdr. 
2i2 ?oc*? K2OCUO = 6 TrpooraT^s T^S 'lovSauts. }1*D The 3rd 

month, May-June. The Gk. text gives HavSiKos i.e. }DO, April 


290 Palmy rene [ISO 

130. Vog. 28. A.D. 271. 

rta ma n wapnai 2 
an an am *6>n an arar 3 
op* KBwnp iiznn n 4 

7/3333 ?* y fflP n SN ITO 5 

Statue of Septimius Odai[nath], king of kings, 2 and restorer 
of the whole city. The Septimii, 3 Zabda, general in chief, 
and Zabbai, general 4 of Tadmor, the most excellent, have 
set (it) up to their lord. 5 In the month Ab of the year 582. 

L. i. rffTK 'D See 126 i n. safe -|te 113 3 n, is an oriental 

title borrowed from the Persian kings, 71 3 n. There is no evidence 
that it was adopted by Odainath himself; this inscr. was not erected 
till after his death, at a time when his generals were organizing a revolt 
against Rome 1 . It is perhaps not without significance that there is 
no Gk. version of this inscr.; the Romans would scarcely have 
allowed Od. to be called ' king of kings ' had the title been publicly 
exhibited in a language which they could understand. That Od. 
assumed the title of king is not unlikely (Hist. Aug. xxiv 15 2 
adsumpto nomine regali); but that he ever usurped the name of 
Augustus, or received it from the emperor as Treb. Pollio asserts 2 , 
is not borne out by the evidence. As a reward for his distinguished 
services Od. received from Gallienus the title of avroKparvp or imperator 
in 264 A. D., a dignity which no doubt implies a position beyond that 
of a governor or vassal-king ; it was probably this which gave rise to 
Pollio's statement. The absence of Augustus from the coins of Od., 
and the designation vir consularis, viraTiKos (126 2), only possible for 
a subject, are sufficient, in Mommsen's opinion, to prove that the 
assumption of the imperial title is imaginary. After the death of Od., 
Zenobia is called /Joo-iXuro-a, and her son Wahab-allath governed 
Egypt under Claudius with the title /Jao-tXeus. In 270 A.D. his coins 

1 A Gk. inscr. lately found at Palmyra is dedicated [/3a<r][A.]? [fia]ai\ew, and 
may refer to Od. ; but the text is too fragmentary to justify definite conclusions. 
Cl.-Gan.'s reconstructions in Rec. iii 36 can hardly be supported ; see 126 I 

1 Vit. Gattieni 10 Odenatus rex Palmyrenorum optinuit totius Orientis imperium. 
Ib. 1 2 Gallienus Odenatum participate imperio Augustum vocavit. 

131] Honorary Inscriptions 291 

display v(ir) c(onsularis) R(omanorum) im(perator) d(ux)R(omanorum), 
and his head appears beside Aurelian ; in an inscr. from Byblus (CIG 
4503 b, Vog. p. 32) Aurelian and Zenobia are mentioned together 
as SejSaoros and Se/Jaon? J . Then, during the year 270-1, the breach 
with Rome becomes apparent. In Palmyra Zenobia is still /3a<ri'<ra 
(131= Wadd. 261 1, cf. 2628 2 ), but in distant quarters, as in Egypt, both 
she and her son claim the dignity of Augustus; Wahab-allath (sth 
year) begins to issue coins, struck in Alexandria, without the head 
of Aurelian and bearing the imperial title, and Zenobia's coins bear 
the same. The assumption marked a definite rejection of all allegiance 
to Rome ; it was strenuously avenged by Aurelian, the true Augustus, 
in 273. See Mordtm. 26; Mommsen Pron. ii 103 f. n. ; Cl.-Gan. 
Rec. iii 28 ; Bury's Gibbon i Appendix 18. 19. 

L. 2. WJpno A verbal noun formed from Pael ptcp. of }pn make 
straight, establish, with the ending an, i. e. WJipritp. It is the equivalent 
of KTibmjs, a title used by the Arsacid kings ; in Syr. JaioJ^so is used 
in the same sense, and of God as conditor, stabilitor. Cl.-Gan. (1. c.) 
proposes to make the whole title rta KITHD "H 'D:=the technical 
corrector totius provt'nciae. 'D may well mean corrector, but Roman 
titles are avoided in this inscr., and native ones ostentatiously substi- 
tuted. tfOBBD SeTrrtfuoi, in 131 KVBBBD, with the Gk. plur. 

ending, cf. KIBDBIp 181. Perhaps they were related to the family 
of Odainath, 125 i n. 

L. 3. Cf. 131 2 f. K11T Za/3Sas, like vjj Za/3/?(uo<? and mr 133 i, is 
abbreviated from some name beginning with "OT, cf. K^12T for 13T 
N!>N ; see 114 5 n. 'I! occurs in the O. T., Ezr. 10 28. Neh. 3 20 ; cf. 

arra isi i. 

L. 4. NDDBIp Plur., referring to the two generals; either for 
WDDBIp, or a plur. in K_, like N^D 1. i. D 1| pX=1 l >pN 113 3 n. 

L. 5. 3N i. e. July-August ; 131 4. 

131. Vog. 29. A.D. 271. 


1 This may have been allowed to pass, for Augusta was an honorary title, while 
Augv.stus belonged to an office. 

a Att inf/itrry Kal virtjKoy ^ woXs virtp ffojTrjptas 2eirrj/'as Zrjvof3ias 
@affi\iffffi)s fjajrpds rov Xap.irpora.rov BaaiXfws OvafSa\\d6ov 'AGrjvoS&pov. 

u a 

292 Palmy rene [131 

2,TmfJiiav ZyvopCav rrjv \ap,TrpOTdrr)v evcreftr} (Sacri- 
Xiora-av SeTm/x-ioi ZajSSas 6 fteyas crr/mTTjXcmjs /cat 
Za$8atos 6 evddSe crrpaT^Xar^? ol Kpartcrrot TTJI/ 
$<nroivav erovs ^TT^" /u/rpel Aet><u. Wadd. 2611. 

Statue of Septimia Bath-zabbai, the illustrious and the 
pious, 2 the queen. The Septimii, Zabda, general 3 in chief, 
and Zabbai, general of Tadmor, the most excellent, 4 have set 
(it) up to their mistress. In the month Ab of the year 582. 

L. i. noV 120 i n. 3Tni For the form cf. nTatm Vog. 84, 

'amw, wnm &c.; for -QT see ISO 3 . The queen is better known 
by her Gk. name Zyvofiia, which perhaps marks relationship with 
Zrjvoftios ; several persons of this name are mentioned in the 
inscriptions. 'll NmTtt = clarissima pia ; see 125 2 n. NDpIT = 

K J?t?' l>: !?? > for the omission of * cf. xmo 121 7 : here perhaps the i was 
pronounced short in a shut syllable. The final N can be faintly traced 
on the stone. 

L. 2. After the death of Odainath in 266-7 Zenobia succeeded to 
his position, and practically governed the state on behalf of her young 
son Wahab-allath = Athenodorus (p. 291 n. 2). Not content with 
pursuing her husband's policy, she determined to make Palmyra 
mistress of the Eastern empire ; see 130 i n. Under her general 
Zabdas, the Palmyrenes possessed themselves of Egypt in 270, 
garrisons were pushed even into the W. of Asia Minor, and Zenobia 
still professed to be acting in concert with the Roman government. 
But when Aurelian became emperor (270), he detected at once the 
object of this aggressive policy and took strong measures to arrest it. 
At the end of 270 Egypt was recovered for the Empire by Probus, 
but not without a struggle. The Palmyrenes were now in open 
conflict with Rome. Towards the close of 271 Aurelian marched 
through Asia Minor, overthrowing Zenobia's forces in Chalcedon, and 
capturing Ancyra and Tyana, and passed into Syria. The main army of 
the Palmyrenes in vain endeavoured to check his advance at Antioch ; 
they were driven to Hemesa (now Horns), where a great battle was 
fought; again, under Zabbai and Zenobia herself, they were de- 
feated, and compelled to fall back upon their native city. Undeterred 
by the 70 miles of desert, Aurelian led his army up to Palmyra and 
laid siege to it. In the spring of 272 the city surrendered; Zenobia 
and her son were captured on the banks of the Euphrates as they 

132] Honorary Inscriptions 293 

were flying to Persia for help ; the queen was carried a prisoner to 
Rome to grace the conqueror's triumph. A few months later, in the 
autumn of 2 72 \ the Palmyrenes again revolted; Aurelian instantly 
returned, surprised the city, and without mercy destroyed it in the 
spring of 273. 

L. 2. KVDBBD, MDDtnp For the plur. forms see 130 2 n. 

L. 4. pnmD See 126 2 . 

132. Eut. 102. A.D. 21. 

Krte na KPJ i 

Dp n p Snnib rt K-i&a >Ja n 1 ? nay * 
piwa RB^ nap pntna 3 
rta m *?aa ppflbia 4 
pja ni*a mp^ 5 

Necra rov BeuXXa rov eTTi/caXov/xeVov ' 

v 6 ST^/X-OS evvoias eve/ca. 
Wadd. 2578. 

Statue of Hashash, son of Nesd, son of B61-ha Hashash, 
which 2 the Bene Komara and the Bene Matta-bol have made 
to him, because he stood up 8 at their head and made peace 
between them, and superintended 4 their agreement (?) in 
everything whatsoever, the great and the small : 5 to his 
honour. In the month Kanun, the year 333. 

L. i. wyr\ 'Ao-ao-ov, mm iJ3 Mordtm. no. 57 ; cf. Arab. J,Ui bad 
fortune. The Gk. ~M.dX.ixov = 13^D is difficult to account for ; perhaps 
it is not correctly copied. N{J>3 147 i 3 prob. abbreviated from 

$WJ Nao-a^Xov Wadd. 2070 c. Krfcu 144 4 prob. = NHK hn 

B. is brother (Lidzb.), or = xrb ha B. washes away (sin), Syr. jLiw, 
cf. jkA^co Wright Martyrol. 10 (Journ. Sacr. Lit. ser. 4, vol. 8). 
Cl.-Gan. rightly corrects KflMA in the Gk. text to BHAAA, Rec. 


L. 2. N1D3 '32 i.e. <f>v\rj XofjMprjvwv, again in Cl.-Gan. t. i 118 
(inscr. G) ; cf. 140 A 3 and the pr. n. X<yipou (gen.) Wadd. 2389. 
The Gk. forms point to *O3, c f. Targ. N'JOO, Syr. Jiioco priest. 

1 The ktest inscr. is dated Aug. 272, Vog. 116. 

294 Palmy rene [132 

In the Palm, text the 'a '33 are the joint donors of the statue ; in the 
Gk. they are the tribe to which B61-ha belongs, and the dedication is 
made by 6 &7/x,os. Cl.-Gan. 1. c. rightly renders the Gk., ' of the tribe 
of the Palmyrene Chomarenians ' ; the expression IlaX/xvp^vwv 6 
Sfjfj.o<s = ' the People of the Palmyrenes ' is unsupported. Possibly, 
as CL-Gan. suggests, the mention of 6 8rjfws without the usual ^ /JovAr/ 
KOI implies that the local senate was not yet in existence ; it may not 
have been constituted till the time of Hadrian (circ. 130 A. D.), and 
the grant of the jus Italicum. This inscr. is dated A. D. 2 1, and after 
141 (A. D. 9) is the second oldest known. i>nnD '33 i. e. Ma00a- 

/fraXuov <j>vXij Wadd. 2579, not named in the Gk. text ; h3DD = 

!>i3 jno. 'i JD = n hia 110 4 n. 

L. 3. D31S In Syr. unJ^d = administravit, aluit, cur am gessit; in 
the Targ. it is used for nourish, feed, e. g. Eze. 348 = njn ; cf. 122 
5 . The rendering given above is indefinite, owing to the uncertain 
sense of the following word. 

L. 4. }in3D'i3 Evidently not Aram. It is perhaps a noun (with suff. 
an) from the Arab. ^> twist, in conj. iv to twist two threads, so to 
make firm, consolidate ; thus jJUjl ^>1 he established the contract. Prof. 
Margoliouth, in a private communication, suggests a connexion with 
the Persian ^Up mandate, order &c., ' firman/ which gives a fairly 
good sense : * he administered their government.' n^3 11 P33 

110 4 &c. 

L. 5. J133 The 8th month, Au>s, Jewish j1Wi, Oct.-Nov. This 
inscr. was published by Euting Sitzungsb. BerL Akad. (1887) 410. 

133] Votive Inscriptions 295 

133. Eut. 4. A. 0.67. 

pp n ptya p n pnp 

a rnroo *nm rn wn hy jnaen 2 

/// y F333 ^ /// 

These five pillars and their beams and their coverings 
Zabdai, son of Zabd-nebu, (son of) Qahzan, who is of the 
Bene Ma'ziyan, offered to Ba'al-shamin, the good 2 and 
bountiful god, for his life and the life of his sons and his 
brothers ; in the month Elul, the year 378. 

L. i. 'oni jinmt? See 117 4- 5 n. anp Cf. 7O i. 136 3. 

Rom. 2 (p. 268 n. i). nat Cf. N13T 130 3 n. 13JT2T 127 

3 n. jrnp An Arab. pr. n. from ^s or J)JS push, strike. ptyo 
The name of a tribe, in Arab. prob. ^loji* or ^l^xl Nold. ap. Eut. 
SBBA (1885) 669 ff., where this inscr. is published. }Dt? byib 
Elsewhere in Palm. 134, where he is called NlD^y N"n, and the inscr. 
on p. 296 n. i=Zcis /leyurros Kc/aawtos, and in 122 6 (rest). In name 
and attributes the Lord of Heaven transcends all other deities. He was 
not, however, included among the national gods of Palmyra (see 112 4), 
or officially recognized in public documents ; and though he probably 
had a temple there, his worshippers seem to have been few. See 9 i n. 

L. 2. Ni:DB> i.e. Wjafe' 140 B 4, lit. giving reward, Hebr. "3b> 
reward, wages p3B> Pi. not used). The jn3B> NH^N is a god cbvnw 
W*n 31D 13B> Talm. B. Berakoth 4 a, quoted by Lidzb. Eph. \ 
202; cf. the Minaean pr. n. ^NiaE* Hommel Siid-ar. Chrest. 113. 
136. In the inscr. below the word is written NJ13D plur. 1 , as DH3D 
for & in Ezr. 4 5. 'W mn b Cf. 29 u n. h^K Aug.-Sept. 

rn'i 'mn m >nrn V KJQITTI 3 
NDi^j Tn T3T 500 rora 4 

' To Arsn and 'Azlzu, the good and bountiful gods, (this) has been made by Ba'al 
. . . , son of Yarhi-bole, augur (?) of 'Azlzu, the good and compassionate, for his 

296 Palmyrene [134 

134. Vog. 73. A.D. 114. 

why ana pp ^JD^ i 

atom naroa a 

-a nanaa na 3 

"in pn w [n] 4 

rut? *g mn 5 

To Ba'al-shamin, lord of eternity, (this) has been made 
by 2 Nebu-zebad and Yarhi-b61e, sons of Bar-nebu, 3 son of 
Nebu-zebad, son of [M]ale Arnabi, for 4 their [l]ives and the 
life of their [sojns and their brothers; 5 in the month Ab, 
the year 425. 

L. i. |DP ya 133 i n. tsxy mo Similarly in the inscr. from 

et-Tayyibe (near Palmyra) 1 ; cf. Deus Aeternus of Jup. Dolichenus, 
Opt. Max. Caelus Adernus luppiter in Lat. inscrr. of this period. 
But, as Lidzb. has pointed out, the other possible meaning of the title, 
lord of the ivorld, is prob. implied at the same time, and influenced by 
the Jewish pJfofn Jten, dbty ^ Jian. The latter formula has made 
its way into Islam as ^UM ^ ; cf. the sar kiBati ' lord of all things,' 
assumed by the Assyr. kings (Eph. i 258). 

L. 2. nnriii 127 3 n. t&arrv in 3 . 

L. 3. inns So Vog.'s copy; ? from \JLj9J" = a hare. Mordtm. 28, 
however, reads *333N Acnebiensis ; J. Mordtm. compares the family 

life and the life of his brothers : in the month Tishri, the year 500. Remembered 
be Yarhai the sculptor.' ISIN Vog. 139, cf. 1ST 115 I n. irw = Ares, the god of the 
Edessenes, ]jLJL^> o>( Coreton Sfic. Syr. ^ 24. *A/;y, "Aftfos Xe^J/tei'os iwd 
rSiv OIKOVVTOJV rijv "tteaaav Svpcov 'HAt'ow irpoiropvefai Julian Apost. Orat. iv 154. 
Deo Azizo p(uero conserva)tori CIL iii 875. 0a.Tfi.os 'Afalfo eiroiijffa Wadd. 2314. 
N"?3BN 80 8 n. probably borrowed from the Assyr. abkallu ' a specially wise man,' KB 
vi 320 ; Delitzsch Assyr. HWB 9. Here the word is a priestly title, such as temple 
magician; the Arab. jXjl gives no suitable sense. See Rtp. no. 30 ; Cl.-Gan. 
Rec. iv 37 ; Lidzb. Eph. i 201 ff. 349. 

1 Atl fifylffry Kfpawiy virtp fforrypias 1pa[iavov] 'ASpiavov 2[a<TTo5] TOV Kvpiov 

i ISituv &viOr)Ktv. "E-rovs ffiv' p.7)vfa A&ov ( = 134 A. D.). 


= a vaulted niche for a statue ; Vog. 70. NUrw See 70 I n. The inscr. is in 
the Brit. Mus. 


Votive Inscriptions 


TWV Xewa/?a (ZDMG xxxv 747 f.) ; but if 7 N is a gentilic name we 
should expect N^aUN. Lidzb., Eph. i 198, reads <I "63N (surname or 
title), which is supported by Mordtm.'s facsimile; the name thus 
written has been found recently in an inscr. published by Sobernheim 
(Lidzb. 1. c.). 

L. 4. This line, omitted from Vog.'s copy, is supplied by Mordtm. 

135. Vog. 75. A.D. 125. 


-ny 3 
D'pni 5 

//// rut? s 

To him whose na[me] is blessed for [e]ver, 2 the good and 
the com[p]assionate, 3 (this altar) has been made by Parnak, 
freedman 4 of Lishamsh, son of Shamsi-geram, 5 (and by) 
Narcissus, freedman of Male, 6 (son of) Borefa, for their life 
and the life of 7 their sons : in the month Kisltil, 8 the year 437. 

L. i. NE&J& nQjEfJvt^ A common formula in Palm, dedications; 
grammatically the phrase 'yb 'V *]H1 (138) is treated as a single adj., 
and b prefixed. It is remarkable that, like other epithets of the Palm. 
gods (cf. 134 i n.\ this has a distinctly Jewish character ; cf. *p12 
D^J& TTQ3 DP Ps. 72 19, also 113 2. Dan. 2 20, and the Hebr. or 
early Samaritan inscr. di?yi> 1DP 7113 Lidzb. 440. Out of reverence 
the actual name of the deity was not used (cf. p. 21), and can only be 
conjectured: most likely it was ^2=!?a3i'=B'tJ > (112 4 n.). Though 
avoiding it in this formula the Palmyrenes did not object to use i>l in 
pr. nn. (fcrOf, fejJ*T, i?312y &c.), any more than the later Jews, who 
read "OIK for mrr, objected to such names as ID W, JW^ &c. In Gk. 
the title is rendered Zevs vi/rrros xai VTT^KOOS Vog. 101. 124 &c.; 
it implies a monotheism such as appears sporadically in the worship of 

298 Palmy rene [136 

Zeus ityio-Tos, cos vi/r. from the ist cent, onwards 1 . The spread 
of monotheistic ideas was in part due to the Jewish Diaspora, whose 
influence no doubt made itself felt in Palmyra (cf. pp. 45. 278. 296). 

L. 3. *]3ia Sachau, ZDMG xxxv 737, suggests <E>apvaKr;s as an 
equivalent; cf. the Pers. JU1D = Saturn, and the O.T. ^3"}3 Num. 34 
25. Vog. reads lilB ; Mordtm. ins. t-|n -Q See 97 i n. Strictly 
the phrase = son of a freeman, }i\L , i. e. liber not libertus = 
m|? , but in ordinary speech it was used in the latter sense. 

L. 4. m3K>)DE> 145 i ? Shamash has appointed, v*^; in Gk. 
yepa/x.os Wadd. 2564, 2a/>u/ayepa/x.os a king of Hemesa, Jos.yl#/. xviii 5 4. 

L. 5. 0^*13 Na/DKicro-os, a common name for a freedman in the time 
of the Empire. Here '3 is the joint donor of the altar ; the conjunct. 
1 must be supplied. 

L. 6. NSia Cf. KBTfl Vog. 109 = NSn fe. 

136. Oxoniensis 1. A. D. 85. Ashmolean Mus., Oxford. 

rn wnjn nai ftoan / y [ ?] 2 


rn^D on inu 6 
ni nSx 7 

[In] the month Elul, the year 396, this sun-pillar and 
this altar 3 have been [m]ade and offered by Lishamsh 
and Zebid[a], 4 sons of Maliku, son of Yedfa-bel, son of 
Nesa, 5 who was called son of 'Abd-bel, who was o[f ] 6 the 
family of the Bene Migdath, to Shamash, 7 god of their 
father's house, for 8 their life and the life of their brothers 
9 and their sons. 

1 Thus Gk. inscrr. from the Bosporus (Tanais) contain the remarkable expression 
elairoirjrol a8t\<j>ol fft@6ii.fvoi Ot6v fyiarov, cf. Acts 10 a. 22. 13 43. 50 &c. Jos. Ant. 
xiv 7 2. See Schiirer SBBA (1897) 200 ff., and Gesch? iii 123 f. 

137] Votive Inscriptions 299 

L. i. hbx The 6th month, Aug.-September. 
L. 2. won A pillar dedicated to B>Dt?, standing beside the altar; 
see 37 4 ., and cf. on^yo rbyth nt?K D'nm D^yin nimTD 2 Chr. 

34 4. NJvK altar, common in Syr. 

L. 4. ^3yT 14O A 6, in 122 7 the name of a tribe, ' 
cf. O. T. bNJpT i Chr. 7 6 &c., and Sab. foyr (Hommel 
Chrest. 101) ; JPT perhaps = JoLZl notable, illustrious one. 
147 i 3 = Neo-a. 

L. 6. ins Vog. 32. 33 =^5 lit. thigh, cf. Gen. 46 26 &c., a 
division of a tribe. The word implies a clan whose descent is reckoned 
by the male line, just as the Arab, batn is a clan of female ancestry; 
see Rob. Smith Kinship 33 f. DUD The name comes from the 

V j^js* 112 3 n. ; cf. the Sin. pr. n. V*HD, Syr. y*s^o (Lidzb. 305), 
the Edomite TMTUB Gen. 36 43, Sab. ^JHJD. vnyy The sun-god, 

whose worship was predominant at Palmyra, as appears from 
numerous pr. nn. and dedications, e.g. 117 5 n., Vog. 108 Wvh 
N2B Nr6x, the inscrr. on tesserae, e.g. Vog. 135 Nm ps? wyy, see 
further on ^aa^D 112 4 w.; ^UHT 1 121 6 w. was also worshipped in 
connexion with the sun. The great temple of the sun-god is still the 
most imposing building among the ruins of Palmyra. 

L. 7. fnn rvn n^s Cf. 61 29. 95 2. 

137. Vog. 76. A.D. 135. 

X // y 33 F> //// jw jw n^n x 3 

To him whose name is blessed for ever (this) has been 
made by Shalman, son of Nesa, 2 (son of) SaYda, (son of) 
Baraq, for his life and the life of his sons. 3 In the month 
Nisan, the year 447. 

L. i. p!>t? Again in Vog. 33 a. Q 49 &c., 2oAa/xavr?s Wadd. 2147, in 
Nab. CIS ii 294. 302 = Arab. ^^UL, Assyr. salamanu Schrader COT 
441. The name is not distinctively Jewish. 

L. 2. KT From T>V to hunt, 102 3 n. p-D Either nomen or 
cognomen, in Sab. Dp13, Pun. Barcas, surname of Hamilcar, Hebr. 
pna Jud. 4 6ff.; cf. pna 140 A 6. 

300 Palmyrene [138 

L. 3. The cross at the beginning and end of the line may be the 
Christian symbol, somewhat disguised. It is questionable, however, 
whether the cross was used in this way in the first half of the 2nd 
cent. ; nor is it likely that a Christian would write such an inscr. upon 
a pagan altar, though in itself the formula in 1. i might not be 
objectionable, 135 i n. The inscr. may have a Jewish origin; the 
name p"tt has a Jewish sound ; but no Jew would ' make ' a Palm, 

138. Vog. 79. A.D. 256. 

DOB] vtihi 
n . . . i n . . . 

arn 1 ? mxh 3 
NPMI xtfi 4 

nn i inmp n 5 

// y 333 [ ^ y] rap W nro 6 

Blessed be his name for ever, [the good] 2 and the com- 
passionate ! offered in thanksgiving by ... (son of) 3 Lishamsh, 
to the compassionate one who de[liv]ered (?) him 4 by sea and 

land, and an[swered him] 6 who invoked him, and 

6 In the month Elul, the [5]6;. 

L. i. 'in 7-0 135 i n. 

L. 2. KDm 139 3 is perhaps a mistake for the usual N3Dm 
1. 3. tOID Afel ptcp. of NT (H^N) confess, used in votive inscrr. 

with the special sense vt giving thanks for some benefit, e.g. Vog. 101 
6O1D1 12J? evxaptWcos dve^/cev. 

L. 3. n[o]p i. e. no5 Pael of D>p, so Vog. Nold. (99), however, 
restores Vj[H]p = **OMifi, which has the support of the Syr. form. 
As in Syr., the final was prob. not pronounced, hence it is usually 
not written, e.g. rwy 1. 4. Vog. 92. 103. rmp 103. In 1. 5 inmp is a 
form contrary to all analogy, and is prob. incorrectly copied. 

L. 4. NBQ . . NB> Cf. Gen. 1 10. [fw]jn The restoration is 

based on Vog. 92 &c. iT3jn r6 [NJlp n ; in Gk. eu^a/xevos KOI e?raKou- 
cr^cis ave6r)Kcv K.T.X. 

L. 5. h!?N 136 I . 

139] Votive Inscriptions 301 

139. Vog. 93. Circ. A.D. 230. 

DV ^ pb i 


o- jinn hy KTW KID 4 
... i ran KTI . 5 
.. 33 y nap .......... 7 

Giving thanks every day, Nadar-b61 2 and Moqlmu, sons 
of Dada, son 3 of Moqimu, (son of) Daniel (?), (dedicate this) 
to the compassionate one, 4 the good and the merciful, for 
their life. 5 . . . . this and their ..... 6 all of it ... to the 
gods (?) * Agli-bol and Malak-bel 7 .......... the year 54 . . 

L. i. pID Ptcp. plur.; 138 2 n. ^miJ IBdlhas vowed. 

L. 2. NTT AaSos Wadd. 2081 &c. = )?? paternal uncle', cf. the pr. n. 
t6n Eut. 103 i &c. = JLL maternal uncle. 

L. 3. ^Kf\ ? = Hebr. V?"?, in Nab. CIS ii 258. But such a form 
in Palm, may be questioned ; Nold. (88) reads ^wn ="Aw^Xos Wadd. 
2320 &c. NDHI 138 2 n. 

L. 4. Sfm . . NDm = the Assyr. remfnu taidru (Lidzb. 153 n.) ; 
the latter word = pitiful ( VSin) in Assyr., see Delitzsch HWB 604 f. 
703. In Eph. i 79, however, Lidzb. suggests Wn, as in Mand. with 

L. 5. Perhaps read rfa pn[n][3) }]^nj[2] [m], J. Mordtm. from 
his father's copy, and Cl.-Gan. Rec. ii 37. The only objection is 
that the sign after pnn 1. 4 usually marks the end of a clause. If nyi 
is right, the preceding word ought to be a sing, noun ; the suff. pn' 
must refer to the donors. 

L. 6. The suggested reading >[l3] as well as to 'Agli-bdl and M., 
carrying on KDmi> 1. 3, is doubtful because it ignores the full stop 
at the end of 1. 4. h'izbw The Palm, moon-god, associated with 

Malak-bel, the solar deity (112 4 n.), e. g. 14O A 2. Vog. 140, and the 
inscr. below J from a stele which represents the god as a young Roman 

1 Rom. i , in the Capitoline Museum : 'A.y\i&uj\<i> oi MoAax^Ay war/xl/cis 0eoTs 
K<U rd alyov apyvpovv ffv* vavrl K6<rn<p dj/t^we T. Afy>. 'H 

Palmyrene [140 A 

warrior, with a large crescent attached to his shoulders (cf. Syr. Centr. 
pi. 12. 141). The meaning of the name is uncertain; the Vbay = 
be round, in Pa. to roll, so perhaps chariot of B61, in Aram. Kfi^SJ, 
J&i^sr*- chariot; cf. ^33"! 61 2 . }!?N Apparently for fr6 

69 20. 76 C 7 ; we should expect 

140 A and B. Littmann 1 and 2. A A. D. 29 ; B A. D. 132. 
Discovered 1900. 

nay] m 



In the month Shebat, the year 340. This altar [has been 
made] 2 by the following [members of] the thiasos to * Agli-bol 
and Malak-bel [their] gods : 8 . . bai, son of 'Athe-nuri (son 
of) Audu, and Haggagu, son of Zabd-ilah (son of) Komara, 
4 [and N]ebu-zebad, son of Maliku (son of) Mathna, and 
Taimu, son of 'Ogelu (son of) Rababat, 5 [and] Maliku, son 
of Yarhi-b61e (son of) Hattai, and Yarhi-b61e, son of Taim-arsu 
6 (son of) Abrdqa, and Zabdi-b6I, son of Yedi'a-bel (son of) 
Alihu, and 'Og^lu, son 7 of Nurai (son of) Zabdi-b61, and 
Maliku, son of Moqimu (son of) Taimo-'amad. 

'ASptavbs na\iJtvpr)v&s tK ruv ISioav virlp atarripias avrov xai ri)s avpfiiov Kal TUIV 
riicvav trovs iuf>' nyvfo Htpniov. 

asm NECD n xnnDDi taatoi bia'jayb i 

u 'D'"jn -a. TTC no'3 p nay n;v a 

m 'nvn h$ TTSTO tDnc 1 ? -ia vn 3 

547 row nac rn>a TTBI 4 

msD=a standard, arj^tTov, signum. nrvasm 1194 * <nT Note='HAj<55/x)y ; cf. 
122 2 = 'Iapatov. T:n 86 10 n. 

140 B] Votive Inscriptions 303 

These inscrr., engraved on small altars, were first published by 
Littmann, Journal As. (1901) ii 374-390. 

L. i. D3tJ> The nth month, Jan.-February ; cf. p. 302 footnote. 

L. 2. NfinD 133 The idiomatic expression for members of a. guild, cf. 
KJ1TP 133 113 3 n., and the O.T. nip '33, DW33H 33. For mno see 
42 1 6 #. ; the existence of religious symposia at Palmyra is proved by 
the inscr. Wadd. 2606 a cru/ATroo-iap^ov rS>v . . . Aios B^Aou tepewv 
(127 i n.). bxbcfa bftbwb 139 6 n. 

L. 3. Restore prob. i3H1 = M^iCm. iiuny Already known 

in Palm.; cf. Cl.-Gan. t. ii 96 and 112 4 n. my = 3^c, ASSos, 

a name common in Sin.; cf. ib- 3^c Wellhausen Jfo/* 6. wan 

118 2 n. n^T3T 114 5 . tntD3 132 2 fl. 

L. 4. 137133 127 3 . N3n Prob. abbreviated from f>133n, cf. 

132 2 .; Lidzb., Eph. i 344, compares the Pun. K3n=[D]!>N3n, and 
the Talmudic nJDD = iTJno. 1Dn Cf. 112 4 . p'OV 'Oy^Aou 

Vog. 70 i ; for the V ^W see 139 6 n. ram = ijlSJ from 

i^lJT a ze;^z'/(? cloud; cf. the fern. pr. n. D231 in Sab. (Lidzb.). 

L. 5. K&Uffrp 111 3 w. inn Perhaps abbreviated from the 

well-known Arab. pr. n. jli. Wlt^n 115 i n. 

L. 6. P113N Prob. a variation of the name pT3 137 2, cf. the Talm. 
$$~& flashing light (cf. "VND) ; the latter form is found in Palm., Lidzb. 
Eph. i 206 inscr. D. Littmann explains the name as = jKj y\, and 
compares the name of the place jlj tt. 73yHi 136 4 w. ini?N 
Cf. the Safai'te n^N, Littmann Zwr Entziff. d. Safa-Inschr. 39, where 
the Gk.'AAaos, 'AXeov, and the Arab.'Ulaiha are suggested as possible 
parallels. The fern, form nnbtf used as a mas. pr. n. also occurs 
in Safai'te, e.g. Littmann ib. 57. 

L. 7. ni3 Abbr. from some such name as ^3113 Vog. 124; cf. the 
Talm. 1-113 = nnU. ^VDin Vog. 124 cu/xoa/ie'Sou. 




NitD NHN B)p8jn 4 

"ni nvn hy nibn Nnty 5 

304 Palmyrene [140 B 

rm rra r^rjpn 'prm mjn 6 

///33 s=>//// rosy % 7 

onp nomi JTV:I npjta *a pjw 8 

KI& Nn^N tftfogrtf 9 

6 . 10 


These two altars have been made by 'Ubaidu, son of 
'Animu, 2 [s]on of Sa'd-allath, the Nabataean, of the Ruhu 
tribe, who was a horseman 3 in the fort and camp of 'Ana, 

4 to She'a-alqum, the good and bountiful god, who does not 

5 drink (?) wine, for his life and the life of Mu'ithi 6 and 'Abdu 
his brothers, and Sa'd-allath his son ; in the month 7 Elul, the 
year 443. And remembered be Zebida, son 8 of Shim'on, 
son of Bel-'aqab, his patron and friend, before 9 She'a-alqum 
the good god ; and remembered be every one 10 . . visits (?) 
these altars, and says, 'Remembered be n all these . . for 
good ! ' 

The inscr., though written in Palm., is thoroughly Nabataean in 
character. The donor of the altars, the deity to whom they are 
dedicated, and most of the pr. nn. are all Nabataean. 

L. i. Nrvy = )loS < . nay 93 i n. io^y 91 1. 

L. 2. rbiy& = ni>N-njnJ> ; see loe n. ionn i. e. a member of 

the family of imi 99 i. 2 n. ens Not a member of the equestrian 
order, span ITTTTIKOS, but simply a soldier in the cavalry. 

L. 3. N)Wn= Ji'i* camp, cf. Arab.Jf* sheep-fold', but perhaps 
this is the name of a place ^. Jl, on the Euphrates. NJVIB'D 

96 4 n. iy The name of a place ; Littm. suggests "AvaOa, now 

iiLc, on the Euphrates. 

L. 4. DlptajW A Nab. inscr. from Hauran contains a dedication to 
this deity, see p. 255 n. i ; in the SafS inscrr. he is frequently mentioned 

as opnyp, e.g. n&m po-^yii niy-nai npn-y^i (n^N=) rhn a Littm. 

Safd-Inschr. p. v. The name = AJUl i^- protector of the people, 
the god who accompanies the people, prob. the special deity of the 
caravan ; for the conception cf. Ex. 23 20. 23. 33 14 f. Is. 
63 9. N-OB> 133 2 n. 

140 B] Votive Inscriptions 305 

L. 5. KntJ>, or KnB> Af. ptcp. who does not allow wine-drinking, 
inserting a letter at the beginning of the line. The worshippers of 
this deity were prohibited from the use of wine, very likely as a 
protest against the Dionysiac cult of Dushara (see 795 .)*. Similarly 
in the O.T., the Nazirite vow and the principles of the Rechabites 
(Jer. 35) were protests against the degenerating influence of 
Canaanite civilization. As a custom among the Nabataeans, 
abstinence from wine is mentioned by Diodorus xix 94 3*; it was 
inculcated in Arabia before the time of Mohammed (Robertson Smith 
Prophets 84. 388). wyo A Nab. pr. n., Dussaud et Macler Voy. 
Arch. no. 59, in the Gk. version IVtoeiflov; similarly Wadd. 2483. The 
form wye is endearing and diminutive, cf. 'Q'an, WSJ, W>, H2T &c. 
(Lidzb. Eph. i 2 18) ; the Arab, equivalent is \j^*.I from <>U to succour, 
cf. the Palm. pr. names ny>, iny i.e. CLyL> (Rep. no. 85), my 143 2. 

L. 7. h!>N Aug.-September. 

L. 8. 3pyin 124 3 n. mJ For 13 guest in Phoen. and Palm. 

see 17 2 n. Here, however, the word must denote not the receiver, 
but the giver of hospitality ; cf. the pr. n. Kocryrjpos from Memphis, 
not ' Kos is client ' but ' K. is patron/ K. being a deity (Nold. SBBA 
(1882) 1187 .). Thus "iJ like .U. denotes both sides of the relation; 
it has the double sense of the German Gastfreund. The Gk. equivalent 
of nemi iTVJ would be rov avrov %ivov KOL <{>iXov his host and friend 
CIG 2502 &c., cf. HCVpl nom 129 5 ; Cl.-Gan. Rec. \ 45 f. Zeblda 
discharged the obligations of hospitality towards the Nab. soldier at 
Palmyra. nom 127 4 n. 

L. 10. Tyo or T>y Ptcp. Afel or Peal of my = lie, conj. v S^Jo to 
visit; Lidzb. I.e. 346. At the beginning of the line n is to be 
restored. Another proposed reading is Tyo N^ H or Ty who does 
not change (86 8 n.) ; but there is hardly room for N$>. 1DN1 

Ptcp., i.e. T9W. 

L. n. At the beginning of the line Cl.-Gan. restores NDt? names, 
pi. constr. or emph. a doubtful form ; Lidzb. better NE>JK or 

1 Cl.-Gan. ingeniously discovers a parallel in the straggle between Dionysos and 
the fabled ' anti-bacchic ' king of the Arabs, Lycurgos (cf. [0e]<P Avovpyq> Wadd. 
2286 a) ; the scene of the legend is placed in Arabia. Rec. iv 398 ff. 

* Ji6fios 8' (ffrlv afcoTs n^rf oirov aveipttv furjrf. (pvrtvuv /nj8Jv <f>vrbv KapiHxpopov, 
re olieiav 

306 Palmyrene [141 

141. Vog. 30 a. B. c. 9. 

n run map i 
n i^ro na jrony z 

jwi ro 4 
na tt p *n 5 
//// ?/// n? ptt rrva 6 

This sepulchre is that of 2 'Athe-nathan, son of Kohailu, 
which 3 has been built over him by his sons 4 Kohailu and 
Hairan, his sons, 6 who are of the Ben Maitha. 6 In the 
month Kanun, the year 304. 

The characteristic form of the Palm, sepulchre is that of the tomb 
tower. One of these, called Kasr eth-Thuniyeh, is in ft. high, 
33 ft. square at the base, 25 ft. 8 in. square above the basement. 
It contains six stories, and places for 480 bodies. Opposite the 
entrance is a hall (cf. 143 8) with recesses for coffins; it has a richly 
panelled ceiling ; underground is an immense vault (cf. 143 i ). Illus- 
trations of this and another well-preserved tower are given in Wm. 
Wright's Palmyra and Zenobia (1895) 81. 85. Within the towers are 
found the busts so characteristic of Palm, art (cf. 142 3). The form of 
these monuments is of Asiatic origin ; but the decoration is in the 
Roman style. The inscriptions outside the towers are often bilingual, 
within they are Palm, alone. 

L. 2. puny See 112 4 n. ^na 79 i n. 

L. 3. snm In the corresponding inscr. (Vog. 30 b) on the N. side 
of the tomb, this is twice written <mi = mi his son ; but the form 
with the final vowel is so singular that VN33 is prob. to be preferred as 
correct (Nold. 98). 

L. 5. NJVD '33 Vog. 32 4, the name of a clan; cf. 132 2. 133 i. 

L. 6. pa The 8th month, Oct.-November. The facsimile gives pn, 
which is to be corrected to pJ3. This is the oldest Palm, inscr. known. 
The writing is rather more archaic and angular than that of the later 
inscrr., especially the form of n. Palm, writing shows extraordinarily 

142] Sepulchral Inscriptions 307 

little variation during the period of 280 years for which we have 

142. Chediac i (Cl.-Gan. fit. ii 5). A. D. 94. QaryatSn 
(between Damascus and Palmyra). 

-a ^rro ^ ^riib -ny nn why ra i 
now ^ Syi 

This house of eternity has been made by Matnai, son of 
Nur-bel, son of Maliku, 2 son of Taim-sa, over Nur-bel his 
father and over Nabbai his mother, to their honour, 8 and to 
the honour of his sons, for ever. These statues are those of 
Matnai, son 4 of Nur-bel, son of Maliku, son of Taim-sa, son 
of Matnai, son of Bonne, son 5 of Matnai who is called Mahui, 
and of Nur-bel his father, and of 6 Nabbai his mother. In the 
month Ab, the year 406. 

L. i. xoi>y D2 Frequent in Palm, as a term for the grave, e.g. 143 
&c., in bilingual inscrr. /w^/mov aiwvior, aiwvios TCW^OS Vog. 36 a, b; cf. 
in the O. T. ID^y JV3 Qoh. 12 5, in Pun. CIS i 124 D^y m Tin, and 
among the Christians of Edessa VwN.v. &*o . The idea may go back 
to the Egyptians, who, according to Diodorus, called the graves of the 
dead diSibvs O'KOVS (i 51 2). 'ODD Prob. an abbreviation from 

hzrjno. ia-iu Vog. 124 NOV^XOV, cf. nuny 140 A 3. 

L. 2. NttDTi Vog. 33 b, cf. NVnDN Vog. 51. The divine name NV 
perhaps =NX[l]= 1X1 (Lidzb.), 115 i n. ^33 occurs elsewhere, 

Lidzb. 321 ; the name is evidently abbreviated, but the derivation 
is obscure. 

L. 3. NE&y H An unusual expression for NC&yi> 112 3 or NC&y ny 
145 5 : but cf. ND^y T\2 *i pmp^ Vog. 34. 

L. 4. W13 112 2 n. 

L. 5. mpnD Usually NIpHD; for the variation cf. r6n3T and fc6l3T, 
nnyi3 and Nnyin &c. inc Again in the inscr. given by Cl.-Gan. 

Rec. iii i%$=Eph. i 85; the derivation is obscure. 

X 2 

308 Palmyrene [143 

143. Muller 46. A.D. 193. QaryatSn. 

xthy ra >*? m 

n 1 ? EwS -in mxh *n 3 
arm |mn 4 

jyo -a ran 6 
na na p 7 

roan w 

nn *rma 12 
ia t^tt^ 1 ? mi 13 
TIK ma ^K*xfi 14 
yntf) nD 15 

This vault of the eternal house has been made by 2 Fasai-el, 
son of 'Ast6r-ga, son of 'Auth, 3 son of Lishamsh, son of 
Lishamsh, for himself, two corridors, 4 the one upon the 
right as thou 5 art entering, and the other lying opposite. 
6 And Zebida, son of Ma'n, son of B61-nur-'athe, 7 (has made) 
the corridor as thou art entering on the left. 

8 This exedra on the opposite side of 9 the vault, which lies 
opposite to the door, has been digged 10 and ornamented 
by Sau'an, son of Taime, son u of Abgar, for himself and his 


sons and his grandsons ? ? to him Shegal, 13 daughter of 
Lishamsh, son of *Asht6r-ga, son of u Fasai-el. In the month 
Adar, the year five 15 hundred and four. 

L. i. smyo 144 3 the burial cave, excavated in the side of 
a hill, entered by the door of the tomb tower (p. 306), Vog. 35 &c., 
TO (TTrrjXaiov Wadd. 2625; in Hebr. mj Gen. 23 19 f. 

143] Sepulchral Inscriptions 309 

L. 2. iwya $oo-<ueA?7 Wadd. 2445; so Lidzb. 479, instead of ^NTlD 
D. M. Miiller Palm. Inschr. 19, where this inscr. was first published 
(1898). Nninoy 1. 13. Lidzb. suggests that the form is abbre- 

viated from D13 nin^y (see 135 4 .). For the form ninety see 113 2 n. ; 
for the interchange of D and t? cf. D and \y in 121 5. my =cic, 
Tavros Wadd. 2019 &c.; the full name is ^NJiiy Eut. Sin. 72 &c.; 
see 140 B 5 . 

L. 3. fppt? So Lidzb. Cf. Syr. IAA*. wa angusta, pi. |>nn. ; in 

ITarg. V%$=strut. 
L. 5. ^y Ptcp. sing, of &y */*r; cf. 147 ii c 16. 'B The 

conjunction *, here in Palm., as in Nab. and Old Aram., 61 
3 . K$>3pD i. e. tfbapo Afel ptcp. fern. abs. state, from i>2p to 

meet', so the infin. h^\h=before, in the presence of 67. 147 i 10, in 
Afel to be opposite (144 6). 

L. 6. )yo=the Arab. pr. n. ^Ll; in Nab. and Sin. wyo, in Gk. 

Mavos, Mawos Wadd. 2042 &c. 2584. nnjnw^a Cf. nwiy 

140 A 3. ^anw 142 i. Lidzb. (500) suggests that this may be the full 
form of the abbreviated names WQ, tM^n. 

L. 8. N*nD3K 144 6 e^e'Spa, i.e. a hall with recesses, such, for 
example, as the fore-court of the great temple at Ba'albek, which 
has recesses or chambers on each side; see the plan in Baedeker 
Paltist? 343. Here the exedra is the hall with recesses for coffins, 
in the centre of the tomb tower, leading to the vault ; see p. 306. In 
the Targ. and Talm. 'N=a porch, or covered passage before a house, 
e.g. Judg. 3 23=r^v irpooraSa; Tamid 28 b pa ^ mtrVTWK ex. of 
masonry round the temple-court. N?2pD here is mas. emph. 

state, as in 144 6. 

L. 9. fcG2 Not otherwise found in Palm., common in Targ. and 
Talm., rare in Syr. The Arab. v_>b is derived from this word ; see 
Fraenkel Aram. Fremdw. 14. 

L. 10. HIV Pael, cf. the noun pnrWMn in 119 4 &c. JJW 

Prob.=2avavov Wadd. 2537 a, cf. cl, plpl first watch of the night. 

L. 11. *i:QN "A/fyapo? Wadd. 1984 d &c., v^^a common Syr. 
pr. n.-=lame. 

L. 12. nn ? meaning. Lidzb. (503) suggests ""TD which 147 i 4 &c.= 
Bibl. Aram. ^ HD, and renders nm she bore (a denomin. vb. from 
*W?rn love). The word may be read npm she gave birth to, Arab. 
<jj>*; this is to be preferred. *?yy A common fern. pr. n. in 

Palm. ; cf. perhaps &yyy 69 16 . 

L. 14. TIN Feb.-March. 

3IO Palmyrene [144 

144. Nold. A.D. 1 88. Imp. Mus., Constantinople. 

y rop ps ma i 

*n EwS nana* a 

p K&n *ti 3 

tt waS m 4 

-a *m 11 5 

MT?D3 p nmnriN 6 

*ptf p *wbn j*nw 7 

pi JDIK s 

la the month Kantin, the year 5' 2 Lishamsh, son of 
Lishamsh, 3 son of Taime, has given a share of this vault 
4 to B6nne, son of B61-ha, 5 son of B6nne, son of Yaqrur. 

6 I have given him a share of the exedra lying opposite, 

7 eight niches, on thy right hand 8 four, and on thy left four. 

The inscr. was published by Noldeke 2T./4 (1894) pp. 264-267. 

L. i. jm 141 6 n. 

L. 2. "DP1N Afel of "nan tojoin> associate', cf. 1. 6. 

L. 3. KmyD 143 I n. 

L. 4. H^3 132 i . 

L. 5. inp 11 = JtoiAT toad\ cf. the pr. nn. rnin Vog. 74 weasel, 
1133y /woa^, J..115 hedge-hog &c. 

L. 6. nniariK i. e. PiPPjanU Af. pf. i sing, with suff., cf. the infin. 
Vog. 71 BM n3 Jnianfc6 = KOIVWOV avrou irpoo-Xapelv in the Gk. 
version. N^lpo Af. ptcp. mas. emph. ; N1TD3N is mas., 143 8 ; 

cf. Kj^D3 118 3 (Cl.-Gan. ^/. i 130). 

L, 7. pnD3 loculi ; see 91 5 . (Nab. 

145. Cl.-Gan. I (^/. i 121). ii-iii cent. A. D. Louvre. 


145 ] Sepulchral Inscriptions 311 

n 1 ? Kirv xh N&Sy iy nrr 4 

&Sy ny nil jnt 5 

ny wiw n p 1 ? 6 

jw Kth pi Drta 7 

Alas ! Shamshi-geram, son of Nur-bel 2 Mar-agra. And 
he built this sepulchre. 3 And let no man open over him this 
niche 4 for ever ! Let him have no 5 seed or fortune for ever, 
nor let there be any prosperity 6 for him who shall open 
it, for ever, 7 and with bread and water may he never be 
satisfied ! 

L. i. ^3n An interjection of grief very common in funeral inscrr. 
and on busts (p. 306); in the Talm. P3H, Tan, Dalman Gr. 
192. D13t?DB> 135 4 n. 

L. 2. N13N1D Cognomen or title; if the latter, perhaps=)t^ s /''JiJ 
dominus mercedis, i. e. qui militibus stipendia pendet, paymaster ; Thes. 
Syr. col. 30. Cl.-Gan. suggests the general sense of treasurer, El. 
\ 123. 

L. 3. IWK Cf. 69 20 ; l?UN in Nab. 86 6. 90 7 &c. For similar 
prohibitions see 4. 5. 61. 64 f. 69. 'n^y nna 11 t6 See 

5 6 n. NnU 91 5 n. 

L. 5- *W fortune, as in the pr. nn. 1>n 13 Vog. 84. NHJ? 13 
143 &c. BB>p' The roo\.=be firm, right in Aram.; hence Bitfi?, 

KtWjp, Sy r . J^j^cLD=/rM, righteousness &c. Taking the verb here 
in a neuter sense, we may render ' let there be no right to him who ' ; 
for the construction cf. Hebr. p 3^^, p XT &c. 

L. 6. VPnns^ For the form cf. the Syr. *,cya*5kjxJ. 

L. 7. }D=) I| D 75 3, bread and water, i.e. the elementary necessaries 
of life. Winckler renders bread and manna, i. e. food for the dead, or 
divine food, ambresia, which is his explanation of JO m Ex. 16 15 ; 
Altor. Forsch. ii 322 f. It is much more likely that }D here=pD, 
although the form is unusual. ND!> must have the sense of 

a prohibitive negative. It may be explained on the analogy of the 
Hebr.jTP^(Driver Samuel 123 f.) as 

in Arm._wJieji-cottfteete<t br*1 with the preceding clause it comes to 
mean_/gj/, W& ^, J^aa^f, in Targ. Onk. and Pesh.=Hebr. |S, e.g. 
Gen. 42 4. Num. 16 34 &c. 

312 Palmy rene [146 

146. Constantine: Afr. i. ii-iii cent. A. D. 

D[is] m[anibus] s[acrum]. Suricus Rubatis Pal[murenus] 
sag[ittarius centuria] Maximi [vixit] ann[is] XLV mi[lit]avit 
an[nis] xiii. CIL viii 2515. 

n run 


nap 4 



This monument is that of Soraiku, son of Rubat, the 
Palmyrene archer, century of Maximus, 45 years old. Alas ! 

L. i. Kt?M See 78 i n. Here 'J takes a mas. pronoun ; in Nab. 

either mas. or fern. 


L. 2. lanp lie i n. nan=x5jj, Nold. 89. 

L. 3. KBPp sagittarius=Syr. jfcLio or J4*; the 13 and n (Hebr. 
nB>p), the p and 3, are interchanged in this word, Nold. 97. Besides 
this inscr. there is further evidence that a contingent of Palm. 
archers served in the Roman army in Africa. An inscr. discovered 
by Prof. Flinders Petrie at Coptos contains a dedication to the Palm. 
god c Iepa/J[a>]A<j>=?1D,rn% made by Avpi^Xios B^AaKa/Jos 'lepapos or -ov] 
ovi^iAAaptos 'A.8ptavS)v TLaXp.vfrr)v>v 'Avrtoviviavaiv TO^OTWV. In Rec. ii 
42 Cl.-Gan. rightly sho\vs that 'Afy>. IIaX/x,.=nDTn Wmn 147 ii. 
The fame of the Palm, archers was remembered by Jewish tradition ; 
according to the Talm. 80,000 of them assisted at the overthrow of 
the first temple, 8000 at that of the second! Neubauer GSogr. du 
Talm. 303. 

L. 4. "H^i?. centuria. For the assimilation of 3 in foreign words 
according to the law of Semitic speech cf. K\?w\?Q=o-vvKX.r)TiK6<s 
p. 285 n. i, D?prnK = 'Aya0avyeAos inscr. of et-Tayyibe p. 296 n. i, 
D^"i*lN3;>N 147 i 2, tfipTD ib. ii, and, in native words, the common 
KITHD = Nnn &c. D1OD3ND Nold. (p. 86) notes this as a 

unique instance of the vowel letter N representing a ; to avoid the 
anomaly he corrects the reading to D1DD3D NnBp. In the original N is 
uncertain, perhaps erased. 





147. A. D. 137. In situ. 
The following plan shows the arrangement of the inscription :- 



2 11. Greek 
i 1. Palmyren > 














\\ 1. Greek 
l + il. Palm. 

Greek Text, 

2 'ETT! BfuzWovs BcuzWovs TOV Alpdvov irpoeSpov, *AXe- 

dv$pov TOV 'AXe^avS/aou TOV 

3 <btXo7raro/)os ypa/A/Ltarefy? ^SovX^s /cat ST^/XOV, MaXt^ov 

'OXaiov? /cat Ze^SetSov Netra ap-^ov- 

4 Tft>v, )8ovX^s vofjiifjiov dyojaeio)?, &jJT) 

^ e[v r]ots iraXat ^yoo 

TrXetcrra TO>V vTroreXwi/ OVK 

ra VTTO- 

5 ev TW 

aveXtj^Or), e7r/)aor[o"r]o 8e e/c <Tvv7)0eia<s, ev- 

6 ypafopevov rfj p,Lcr0a><TL TOV TeXwvovvTd TYJV 

7rot6tcr^at a/coXou0a>5 raJ vo/xw Kat T^ 

7 crvvrjOeia, crvvefiaivev Se TrXetcrraKt? TTC/H TOUTOV 

8 7rpo9 TOVS reXoWg' SeSd^^at, rovs eveo-rol>Tas 

314 Palmy rene [147 

9 TO- fir) avei\7)iJip,va TG> VOJJLO) Ivypdifrai TQ Hvyurra 
/uo~06>o-ei Kat vTrora^at e/cacrrw etSei TO 

10 CK (rvirrjOeias reXo?, KCU e7rei8ai> KVpcoOy TO> fjacrOov- 

HevG), cvypaffivai ftera TOU Trpwrou i^o- 

11 /Ltov 0-717X17 \i6ivri rg overt) avriKpvs [t]e/)[ou] Xeyo- 

pevov Pa/8ao-t/)i7, ef^^eXetcr^at Se rovs rvy^a- 

12 voiras /cara Koupov ap^ovra^ /cat Se/caTrpwrovs xat 

crw8t/c[ous rov] p.r)$v TrapaTrpaicr&eiv 

13 TOP iiicrOov^vov. 

(Aramaic text, 11. (i-i i) 14-24.) 

25 Fo/xo9 /ca/3/H/cos TraiTo? yeVovs' TGcrcrapcov 

/caja^XtKwv TC- 

26 Xos tTrp&xOi)' (Aramaic text, 11. (12, 13) 26-7.) 


['ETU avroKparopos Kaicrapos 0ou Tpatavov 
KOU vto[v #e]ov [Nepova vtcovov Tpcuavov 'ASptaz/oG 
Sej8ao~Tou 8i7/xap^tK7y5 e^ovcrtas TO Ka' avroKparopos 
TO ^8' v7r]aTov TO y' irarpos TraT/otSo? v7raT<w[i/ A. AtXtov 
Kato~ayoos TO yS' II. KoiXiov BaXjStvov]. 

(Aramaic text, i line, and columns a, b, c.) 

iii a. 
(1-47 = Aram, iia 1-31.) 

1 irapa, T[WI/ TrcuSas eto-ayovrwv ets HaX/u-vpa] 

2 -17 ets TO, o[pta 

4 Trap o3 

5 / QV9 

6 Trap* ov[eTe/3ai/ov ?] ote 

7 /cav Ta o~o5/ia[Ta] OTO 

8 ayrjTai e/caorov o~<u/xa[T09 

147] Tariff Hi a 315 

9 o avro9 

10 Trpa^et e/cdo-TOU yo/xo[v 

1 1 ei07co/uo~[#e]jTOS 

12 e/c/co/uo-#[eVr]o9 [yo/xov 

13 e/cdo-Tov vacat 

/ . r e r T 

14 youov ovi/clov e/caoTojv 

1 6 TTOp<f)Vpa<S fJif)\(i)T'YJ\Js] KCl[o~TOU 

17 T09 

19 yo/xov K[a/A^Xt/cov] /xvpov [TOU 

20 T/XH9 

21 Kttt TO 


23 y[o/xou KajJLiqXiKOv javpov TOV ei> do"/cot9] 

24 atyetot9 [etcr/coju,wr0>TO9 Trpd^et] 

25 [e/c/cofito~^eW > o9] [yo/xov 61 

26 TOV ei> dXay8do"Tp]ot9 


29 yo/xov ot't/cov /a[vpov TOV ev d< 

30 atyetoi9 

31 e/c/co/xto"! 

32 yojbtov eXoypov TO[V ev do-/co]t9 [Teo~crap]- 

33 crt atyetoi9 

34 TO9 vacat 

*\ * 


36 yo/x,ov cXdiTjpov TOV cfv do"/colt9 Svfo"! atl- 

37 yetot9 CTTI /ct 


40 yo/xov cXeJTjpov TOV eir* ovo]v 

3 1 6 Palmy rene [147 

41 TO[S 


43 yo/*[ ou TOV iv dcr/cots 

44 cuyeH9 Tr/xa * ty 

45 KKo/u[<r]0e[Wos] * iy' 

46 yd/xov K [TOV ev] d[cr]Kois Sucrl cuyetois 

47 eir 

iii b. 

(21 =Aram. ii a 41 ? ; 27-30=11 a 46-49 ; 31-45=1! b 1-12.) 
Of the first 18 lines only unimportant fragments remain. 

19 XXTjs vacat 

20 fJL7)\OVT(T (T 7^9 

21 [^]/)efi/>taTO9 17 eo- o 

22 8 

23 8 caS eov e 

24 6 auTO9 8[^ja]ocrt<wi^9 c/cacr 

25 Tra/3* K[a0To]u TU>\V TO] eXatov KaTa[fco/ui,t^oKra>v ?] 

26 7TOZ> [lTft)Xo7;]lAr6>V 

27 6 avr[o9 8iy)u,ocrto5vTy9] 7T/3a[^t} Xet 

28 09 

29 [Xa/t)8a]i/ov(riz> IT 

30 ao-o~a/na, OKTW ty 

31 [do-]cra/3ta e ei/ /cao-r 

32 [6 avro9 

34 e/c (rvmrjOeias CKaicrTOV 

35 xat epyacrTi)piov CKOLO-TOV vacat ^ a 

36 Trapa Ttov Seyo/x-ara eto~KO/x,t^o^ro>^ 

37 -^ 7r<u]XowTa>z> e/cdo-rov S/)/xaro9 do-o-d[/)ta Svo] 

38 6/otoia>9 t/x.aTto7Toi>Xat /xeraySoXot 7T&)X[ovi>]- 

39 T69 ev r^ iroXet rw 8i;/xocrto>jo7 TO IKO.VOV T[eXo9 ?] 

40 ' 

147] Tariff in c 317 

41 6 avro9 7jy>a[]ei yo/xov irvpiKov OLVLKOV oyy' 

42 pcav Kai TOIOVTOV yeVov9 eWdorov yopov 

43 KapyXiKov Ka#' 6Sov e/cdcrnji' K a' 

44 KafiTJXov 09 /cei>09 etcra^^ Trpd^et ^ a' 

45 Ka#ajs KtXi^ Katcrapos direXev^epos eirpaei>. 

iii c. 

(22-24= Aram, iib 22. 23.) 
The first half (about 20 lines) is almost entirely obliterated. 

21 verot) vacat 

22 69 az/ d\[a9] 17 ev 

23 IIaX/xv/)i7[v]ci) 

24 aruavri e[t9 e/c]acrroi/ /xoStov do"o r d[/)toi/ 

25 09 S' ai/ ov 7ra/>a/ieryo^cr[ctT6>] 

26 ov e^cov TO Siy/io 

27 Trap' ov av 6 S[^/w,oo~t](uw79 [ 

28 xpa> ^tffty] 

29 aTroSfc) o~ivo 

30 SI^/AO rytov 8t7r[Xov] o i/cavov 

31 J'eTft) -776/31 r[o]vTOV 7T/3O9 TOV 

32 TOV StTrXov e[tcra]yecr0<y vacat 

33 Tre/al ov av 6 $?)iJ.[o]cri.a>vir)<s TLVOL audiTy irepi re. 

34 ov av 6 S7)fjiO(TLco[yr)<s] d,7ro Tt^o9 d,7ratT^Tat irepi 

35 TOVTOV StKatoSo[Tto-]^<u Trapa T<U ev HaXjLtv- 

36 pot9 TTay/x,eVa> vacat 

37 TO> Srjuocritovr) Kvp<\ov\ e[cr]T<u Trapd Tail' /x^ d,7r[o]- 

38 ypa\_<f>oiJLva)v e]ve^ypa [Xjafja^dvet]^ St* eavTov -^ 

39 VTaTa [eVe'Jxvpa i7/xe/)a[t] 

40 [e^ r eo"TW 

41 [e^ TO7T6) 

42 SoXov TTO 

43 ^ So^^at eSet, TT etv T<uS 

3 1 8 Palmyrene [147 

44 /cat trriv TOV vopov TO) vacat 

45 Xt/xeVos TT [TnjJycSv vSarcuz' Kaicra/DO9 

46 ra> fjiLO-Oayry evros 

iv a. 
(27=Aram. ii b 43; 34-3? = " b 45-48 ; 4i-57= c 3-22.) 

2 efecrrco ftifre rt 6><^o- ai>0/3 

3 T TtVt [6l>]o/ACm TOO" 7T 

4 rouro 7roiijo"fl rje 

5 S[t]irXovi' 

[four lines illegible] 
10 Taiov 

1 1 avn 

12 /LteTa[^]v naXjjiV/j^i'cSv] 

13 z/ovs ecrrl 

14 yetvecr^at *X ot 

15 ecr <7aro fi 
1 6 ocra Se e^ 
17 a> 

1 8 a 

19 TO) a 

20 T<W reXtuziy a> vacat 

21 ot 8' av e 


cr as 

aff 7)v avXoy (?) 
25 TOV 8e e^aycu at 


29 TT etX 

30 y Stay 

147] Tariff iv a 319 

31 opoi /larov fteV opt 

32 ayeuyts # <r' TOW 8e ^ 

33 d^iovvTos TO i/ov et /cat ft?) o~ 

34 [trJaXt/caV eay[oi>Ta>]i> irpdcro-etv voTfepoi' a>s o*vv]- 

35 <f>ct)VTJ0r) IJM) L [a]vTaV ta.y6\yT(av\ 

36 Socr^at vacat 

37 jLivpov roG ej^ dcrKop? cuyet]ots 7rpo[^t 6 

38 /caret TOP v6po\y\ cure 

39 Tty/ta yeyovev TO* irpore e CIK 

40 [wcTTre/) ev ra>] eo-</)ayio-jLi/<w vo/iw Tera/crat vacat 

41 TO TOV <r<f>dKTpov TeXos ets $r}vdpt,ov o^etXet Xo[yeue- 

42 /cat TeppavLKOv Katcrapos Sta Trjs -rrpos 


43 ToXiys SicurcK^craiTos OTI Set TT/OOS oLcrcrdpiov tTa[Xt- 

44 KOI/] TO, TeX^ Xoyeveo-0at TO 8e e^Tog SyvapCov TeXo[?] 

45 (rvvyOeia 6 TeXwi^s 7T/>6s /ce/o/ia Trpa^et Tai[v Se] 

46 Sta TO vtKpifJLala etvat /oetTTTOV/xeVcuv TO TcXo[s OVK 

47 TOJI/ j3pa)To>v TO /ca[Ta] TOV v6jj,ov TOV yd/xov 

48 elarrrjiJLL TT/aacro-ecr^at orav ea)0ev TO>I> op&> 

49 Tat] -^ e^ayTyTat vacat TOUS Se et? ^<u/)ta ^ aTro 

50 [xo)]/>t&>v KaTaKOjMi^ovra^ aTeXets etvat 

51 vrja-ev aurots vacat KO>VOV /cat TOJV 6fiouui> eS[o]- 

52 ^ev oo~a ets e/tiro/oetav <f)eperaL TO TeXos ets TO 

53 pofopTov avdyecr0aL is /cat ev Tat$ XoiTrats 

54 /ca/i^Xwi/ edV TC Kevat eav Te eVyo/utot etoraya)vrat 

55 Twv o/3a>z> 6^>etXeTat ^vdpiov e/cacrT-^? /caTa TO 

56 vo^ov a)<s Kat Kovpj3ov\(t)v 6 

57 . aWaTO e/ T^ Trpos Rdpfiapov e 

320 Palmy rene [147 

iv b. 
[About 30 lines almost entirely illegible.] 

5 [e]T<u'/xy["] 

30 T<XS (TVV<f>Ci)V 

31 T\<t>[ylflv yeivecrdcu, [TO IK row] 

32 v6fjLO\y] re'Xos Trpos Si7t'a|J3]iov <f>[r)fjii ? Xoyevecr#ai] 


34 e [T]<SZ> Se erri 

35 v 6fy>e/AftaTG>z> 

36 pi<racrOai TO- Ope^ara lav dikf) o 

Decree of the Council, in the month Nisan, the i8th day, 
the year 448, during the presidency of B6nne, son 2 of B6nne, 
son of Hairan, and the secretaryship of Alexander, son of 
Alexander, son of Philopator, secretary of the Council and 
People, and the archons (being) 3 Maliku, son of 'Olai, son 
of Moqimu, and Zebida, son of Nesa. When the Council 
was by law assembled, it established 4 what is written below 

147] Tariff i 321 

Kin n pnM wry p paana nni ipDK *& KD:D& (5) is 

n rwa aruna 

pat niataw KYJW wdibtt YPI KU NIPII KD^D (6) 19 

nnns N>D:D& wp *nan wa wi piano (7) 3 
KmBqfci (^ M^WK 
ob xS n Dyia p n (8) 21 

^ 1 ? af^i winn N'^N 

MTJ; p n HD^D RBJHD (9) 22 

Kin^ *nDK :n n *ran ?ap7 n (10) 23 
attnpyi pi pa pn H 

Whereas in former times by the law of taxation many goods 
liable to 5 taxation were not specified, but taxes were levied 
on them by custom, according to what was written in the 
contract of 6 the tax-collector, and he was in the habit 
of making levies by law and custom, and on this account 
many times about these matters 7 disputes arose between 
the merchants and the tax-collectors It seemed good to 
the Council of these archons and to the Ten 8 that they 
should make known what was not specified in the law, and 
(that) it should be written down in the new document of 
contract, and (that) there should be written down for each 
9 article its tax which is by custom, and what they have 
established with the contractor, and they have written it 
down together with the former law on the stele 10 which 
is in front of the temple of Rabaseire ; and that it be made 
the concern of the archons who shall be (in office) at any 
time, and of the Ten, n and of the syndics, that the contractor 
do not demand any further levy from any man. 

322 Palmy rene [147 

(Greek text, i 1.) 
K5WK 1 ? Pta DM KD^ H Dip py& (12) 26 

*aj NDDD (13) 27 

(Greek text, 2 11.) 

nrjn Tzrrn Kwn n KtoS >n ND:J& n 

iiia; 4i=iiib2i?; 46-49=^527-30.) 

(Greek text.) 

12 A waggon-load of any kind of goods whatsoever, at four 
camel-loads 13 the tax shall be levied. 


(Greek text.) 

The law of the taxes of the custom-house of Hadriana 
Tadmor, and the wells of water ...... Caesar. 


From importers of slaves who are imported into Tadmor 
2 or its borders the [tax-collector shall levy] for each person 
22 denarii. 8 From a slave who ......... [for] export, 12. 

4 From a slave- veteran who shall be sold . . . . 10 ; 6 and if the 

buyer ........ he shall give for each person 12. 6 The 

said t[ax-collector shall l]evy from a camel-load of dry 

147] Tariff iia 323 

[?//] /n ta;i ppb >n ......... N^yfc 1 ? 7 

/// T popsjA [Ntaj py&] ja s 
^y&S *nan [py]& p 9 
tab N&ta Kflpiji p 10 
///y pD &op[S]&^ii 
pqtap p]jte p 13 
y 3 i K[w&]pp] bytffiJb 13 
mn Di . h ..... n a^ u 

i^ tap] . . . ) . 5 . [lepjsfitfc 15 

p i<5 

ion pjqe p is 
h[^tD]^a 19 
on pye p 20 
rpa ^yn^ 21 
j[pa n NHJTO n pyo p 22 

goods, 7 for import ......... of the camel-load, 3 (?) 

denarii. 8 From [a camel-load] for ex[port], 3 denarii. 9 From 
a donkey-l[oad], for import [and for export] .... 10 From 

purple fleeces, for each s[kin, for import] . . . . n and for 

export, 8 assarii. 12 From a cam[el-lo]ad of sweet oil [which] 
13 is imported [in] the f [lask], 25 denarii. 14 And for what 
...... this 15 for export ...... [c]amel, for the load 13 

denarii. 16 From a camel-load of sweet oil [which is imported] 
17 in goa[t-s]kins, for im[por]t 13 denarii, and for expor[t 
7 denarii]. 18 From a [donkey-loa]d [of sweet] oil which 
is imported 19 in the fl[as]k, [for import] 13 [denarii], and for 
export 7 denarii. 20 From a donkey-load of [sweet] oil which 
21 is imported in skin[s] . . . [for ex]port 7 denarii. 22 From 

Y 2 

324 Palmy rene [147 

/// s=> i K[*?23]i pytD [Syib 1 ? TV n 23 
[///] ; i Kapatta 24 
TV n jrnn p p[n] n [KW]D n pytb p 25 
[// y] n K3pfa [// y] -i atei *i KPWJD [|]^ttS 26 
//yi [xhyiph wa H nan [j;py& p 27 
ppra n wm pyc p 28 
/// ^ T W^VD ^ t^ 29 
TV [H j]rnn pD n wm pyca p 30 
[//yi loptojj^ //yi wSyj^ Sj pya^ 31 
//yn] w^tt 1 ? nan n wprr] pyb p 32 
n wiyb 1 ? *n*f?a p l o] pye p 33 
' . prua p&b pi ^ p x^VD 1 ?] 34 
. . . a 1 ? atei H wiyfiS ........ 35 

in n KD:D& KM* K ......... 37 

a load of oi[l which is in] four goat-[ski]ns, 23 for import, 
the ca[mel]-load, 13 denarii, ^ and for export i[3] denarii. 
25 From a load of o[il] which is [in] two goat-[sk]ins, 26 for 
import, the camel-l[oa]d, [7] denarii, and for export [7] denarii. 
27 From a donkey-load of oil, for im[port] 7 denarii, and for 
export [7 denarii]. 28 From a load of fat which is in f [our] 
goat-skins, which 29 is a camel-load, import 13 denarii, and for 
[expo]rt 13 denarii. 30 From a load of fat which is in tw[o] 
goat-skins, 31 for the camel-load, for import 7 denarii, and for 
ex[port 7 denarii]. s2 From a donkey-load of [fa]t, for import 
[7 denarii, and for export] 7 denarii. 33 From a load of 
salted [fish], for the [camel]-load, 34 [for import] 10 [denarii], 
and from an exporter of any of them ... 35 ... for the camel- 
load ... 36 ... of the donkey-load, for import 37 . . . the tax- 

147] Tariff ii b 325 

1 ?> "IN* ............. 38 

&K p ............... 39 

// p[DK] ...... JT ............. 40 

in &ODN -rn wn ..... [tebyth anaa? ....... 41 

// ........ kN^wpptoJp^ 

// . . pb[N] ........ K :nK p . . . . 43 

1- .................. p44 

wa pro XI.T n pa ............. x 45 

p NJTK p KD:ia NP t) . . . pDK KaBa 46 

nK p in Kin W [IN] *OH N^p H p 47 

N^an pox N^p^ H p pi 48 

N^an pDK Nii 49 


(i-i2=Greek iiib 31-45; 22. 23=iiic 22-24; 43 = iva 27; 
4 5 - 4 8=iva 34-37.) 

n p pi i 

n[D]n m ........ vox ^ 3 

collector shall levy 3 denarii 38 . . . 10 denarii . . 39 . . . from . . 
40 ... 2, assarii 41 . . . lambs, for im[port] . . . one head, one 
assarius. 42 From a camel-[loa]d . . . 2 43 . . . from ? . . assarii . . 
2. 44 From ... 45 ... from one (?) who shall sell sweet oil 
46 assarii . . Also the tax-collector shall levy from women, 
from 47 one who has taken a denarius [or] more, one denarius 
from the woman. 48 And from one who has taken eight 
assarii * 9 he shall levy eight assarii. 


1 And from one who has taken [s]ix assarii 2 he shall levy 
[6] assarii. 3 Also he shall levy . . . and of the shop and 

326 Palmyrene [147 

6 . . . . 4 

p [n]T [S^] 5 

// pDK OHD 1 ? pT v IX ^pKn[] H ^0 [Si p] 6 

}!T Knnaa pan n wmb* ... 7 
n []a n pin py tw^nS] s 
KBH n aoiytb 1 ? KDSD Naap] 9 
r6] an no Sp]i 10 
pno ^n* na N 1 ?^ 1 ? u 
nn na Dpbp [K]I [n] 7.1 1* 
n wn^jn ^nn n a*b .......... b 13 

nwnni wnnp] . a* .... ^01 14 

^TB D*7p m [n] *[D52D] K 15 

//// n jpstfi AS/ n N^J n pyts .......... 16 

////n fedjfc%h ^Sy^ ^o S^ ^b ......... [JJB 17 

p yrD n ^n pn*?a x*Dii p 

general store * ... according to custom, 5 [every] mon[th] 
from the shop i denarius. 6 [From every] skin which shall 
be imported or sold, for the skin 2 assarii. 7 . . . clothiers (?) 
who shall barter in the city, their tax shall vary. 8 For the 
use of two wells of wa[ter] which are in the city, 800 denarii. 
9 The tax-collector shall levy for a load of wheat and wine 
and straw Il0 and suchlike, for each camel, for one journey 
i denarius. u For the camel when it is brought in empty 
he shall levy i denarius, 12 as Kilix, freedman of Caesar, 
levied. 13 . . . of Tadmor and the wells of water u . . . the 
town and its borders, as 16 . . the [taxes] for [which] they (?) 
contracted before Marinus the governor. 16 . . . the camel- 
load, 4 denarii, and export, 4 denarii. 17 From ... a fleece, 
for each skin, for import 4 denarii, and for export 4 denarii. 
18 [Also the tax-collector shall l]evy from goods of all kinds 

147] Tariff iib 327 

ptDDp H KHB 1 ? in fcODKi Kp . . !M3 . . . 19 

. n KB . . . [W]i 127 20 

|B K1B ^ yt$>h . . . . > . 21 

pBftfa rte n 1 ? wn JB 2* 

|[nS] jiv 

as it is written above. 19 . . . one assarius for the modius of 
costus-roots. 20 [Six]teen . . . what shall be desired, he shall 
give [to th]em for use. 2l . , . nine for every modius by this 
l[a]w, 4 sestertii. 22 Whoever shall have salt in Tad[mor] . . . 

23 the T[admoren]es, he shall measure it ... at one assarius 

24 ... the governor. 25 . . a reckoning . . . the Tadmorenes . . 
26 ... cus Maxi[mus] Cae[sar], 27 he is not liable . . . ^ Alkimus 
. . . the law, he shall pay the t[ax], ^ participating ... he 
shall 30 pay to the tax-collector. Whoever imports any persons 
into Tadmor 31 [or] its borders, and exports (any), for each 
person ... 32 ... [ex]port, he shall pay to the tax-col [lector] 
1 2 [denarii] 83 . . . who . . . [sla]ve-veteran . . 8 denarii 34 . . . for 

328 Palmy rene [147 

// y pqapaai 5=ni n Aya . . 35 

pai oby pfiD H p s 6 

wo ppn . . 37 

//// y n jnfi 3 8 

... 39 
. . . vh ojno 40 


*y n p&K n i tfn&y HI 43 

may tfinn jna b5b . . pjnn 44 

psb 1 ? XDOD n 45 

KTD y K 1 ? . . . . [jjfio iin WD tf 

tipBtb pa wnp] 47 

y n ppD [H Ka^p n^b 48 
n pyaa nbnn 49 

ii c. 
(322 = Greek iva 41-57.) 

p . . . . . [K]D:D& Ny& H sro i 

each . . . this . . 35 . . import . . . and 10 denarii, and export, 
7 3C . . . whoever exports a slave-veteran 3T . . a reckoning . . . 
written in the law ^ . . . pay 9 denarii 39 ... is not written, 
because 40 anything . . 41 is not like . . . 42 and import . . . 
43 and of wool . . . which he exports, 3 dejiarii. 44 Tadmor , . 
the tax . . . she shall pay. The wool 45 of (?) . . . the tax for 
export afterwards 46 as they have agreed . . . Italian modius, 
47 shall he pay ... to the exporters. 48 [Sweet] oil [which] 
is in goat-skins shall the tax-collector 49 . . . because by- 
mistakes in the 

ii c. 

1 document which the tax-collector committed ... 2 ... in 

147] Tariff tie 329 

y ^ n NSPI . NDiOtt IB> . . p 2 

:rn in SK axp H KDDO 3 

ittp dipaonj S|K H -p ttpnno 1 ? 4 

H ps D^&DD 1 ? nro H MVUK3 5 

. . H 1B>3 NH 6 

p HOI p^ 7 


H n 

p ii [^yxnp wn* HO 12 

NHp p ^b [l] M[Hpf? pfib H p 13 

pfiD Yin t| H 7n n*n *h D^D 14 
H *inn pn 1 ? NDn HOI K^^ahBOM 15 
p^nb ^y H W? 16 
Kin H n ^a* 1 ? n 17 

the ? law, 15 denarii. 3 The tax on slaughtered animals by the 
denarius must 4 be reckoned, as also Germanicus Caesar, 5 in 
the letter which he wrote to Statilius, explained that 6 it was 
indeed right that . . the taxes (should be) levied by the Italian 
assarius, 7 and what is under a denarius, the tax-collector 
must according to 8 custom levy in small coin. 9 Dead 
bodies which are thrown away are not liable to taxation. 
10 As to victuals, it (is said) in the law: For a load I have 
ordained n that a denarius shall be levied, 12 whenever it shall 
be imported from without the borders, or exported ; 13 whoever 
exports to the [villages or] imports from the villages 14 is not 
liable to taxation, as also they agreed. 15 Pine-cones and 
such-like, it seemed good that 16 for all that comes into the 
market the tax shall be 17 as for dry goods, as has been also 

330 Palmyrene [147 

MvnnN 1 8 

p' ppno pi pye jn K^aa 19 
^ yn Kainn p -n p^na 20 
n 7m Ntnbtt 7n nil Saj 21 
nro n wmaatt arrow pS:np 22 
H i-ifab t . bn whti H anto Sy 23 
prr n nnn rri ____ []wy o- pa S 24 
n*K nbnn [D]ao pn 25 
H 7n na^ n ND^D 26 
^ p 6[Da a]y ND^D in 27 
mnn TDH pi Npn xn]^S n*n 1 28 
w aW [p KM] K^p [njin na 29 
jns xin^i N^[TO p] 7,1 Niin* H nnnx 30 
hy o- pye j . . paWi . . . wufefii 31 
*S nnn[] . . . p 32 

(the rule) in 18 other cities. 19 Camels, whether they be brought 
in laden or empty 20 from without the borders, each camel 
is liable 21 for a denarius, as is in the law, and as 22 the 
excellent Corbulo established in the letter which he wrote 
to Barbarus 23 about the camel-skins ? ? that they do not levy 
24 a tax. Herbs ... it seemed good that they shoukl 25 pay 
the ta[x], because they are an article of merchandise. 26 The 
tax of female slaves, as I clearly (?) explained the law, 27 the 
said tax-collector shall le[vy the t]ax from female slaves who 
take a denarius 28 or more, for (each) wo[man a denari]us, 
and if she take less, 29 what she has taken [he shall levy. 
From] images of bronze, statues, 30 it seemed good that (the 
tax) be levied as [from bronjze, and the image shall pay 
31 half . . . and images ... a load. For salt 32 ... it seemed 

147] Tariff ii c 331 

pn:i]n p pi ppwno H ina witna 33 


ns "p ib-ira 36 

ptb Kin* K[n]bSi SipnD 37 

H KD[DD] 38 

p 39 

n pta 4 o 

^5; [KMjbi H ^n xDDto 43 

i[^] i^ // pDK 44 

pBD lin t|[N MID] K31^ 45 

. Nibinn p n . . . . 1 . n aoy 4^ 

p 1:6 jn IK n*n KDDD K 47 

yn ^ D3& T^ 1 ? wnnb . . . hy 4 s 

pn pjv ^n n pi Kniapi] a 49 

good to me that in the public place it be 33 sold, in the place 
where they assemble ; and whoever of the merchants 34 shall 
buy (it) at its reckoning, he shall give for the modius an 
Italian assarius, 35 as is in the law, and also the tax of (?) the 
salt which is 36 in Tadmor, as ... by the assarius it shall 
be 37 admitted, and by the mo[di]us it shall be sold, 
according to custom 38 . . . the [ta]x on purple, because 
39 ... four and a half ... 40 ... kings (?)...? 41 ... which shall 
be 42 ... shall be levied, 43 the tax as the law . . . For import, 
skins (?) 44 2 assarii . . . [he shall l]evy, and for export 45 ? . . . [as 
al]so they have agreed. 46 Sheep (?)... from the borders . . . 
47 ... the tax is liable, or if below 48 . . . the city, to shear, 
a tax is not liable 49 . . . the shop and because, as they shall 

332 Palmy rene [147 

W . . . K . . ITl WDlfctt *pn K ND3& 50 

H | . b bx N^nib xin* ^ ! 

be (?) 50 . . . the tax ... as in the law a denarius . . . the tax 
shall not be levied except . . shall be brought in ... [Tadjmor, 
if he wish, the tax shall be. 

The most valuable commentaries on this inscription are those of 
Reckendorf, ZDMG xlii (1888) 370-415, and of Dessau, Hermes xix 
(1884) 486-533 (Gk. text). With this Tariff are to be compared the 
Gk. Tariff of Coptos A. D. 90, Hogarth in Flinders Petrie Koptos 
(1896) 27 ff. f and the Lat. Tariff of Zarai, CIL viii 4508. The T. 
of Palmyra is that of a local octroi, the T. of Zarai refers to an 
imperial douane at the port, the T. of Coptos is distinct from both. 


L. i. t6n "H NSJT The Senate promulgates this important decree 
(Soy/Aa) on its own account, without reference to Rome. The earlier 
tariff, however, of which this is only a readjustment, was in all 
essentials drawn up by the Roman authorities, see ii b 12. 15; 
c. 5. 22. Krfi"nrpB3 The office of irpoeSpos; i> is written instead 

of "i especially after a, cf. the Talm. P*nrpB and pTima Trpoe'Sptov, 
P^lD^a Trpaisrwpiov &C. 

L. 2. fcPDDTa The office of ypa/x/tarevs, D1BD13 122 2 n. DTID^K 
with 3 assimilated, cf. 146 4 n., but without the assimilation in 121 3 ; 
cf. Np^pD Vog. 21, but 'pJD 125 2. tfOimK apxovres, probably 

the same as orpari/yoi in 3rd cent, inscrr. ; see 121 2 n. 

L. 3. i>y 'OAatous (gen.) = ^U. NCW 132 i n. '131 Din 13 
^SouAfc vop.ip.ov dyov/tevT/s. For SD1O3 } cf. NTV JD <5y custom 1. 5 &c. 
The vowel of the first syllable of ND1DJ coming before the 6 was 
prob. o y as in Gk. ; but in Syr. UOC^QJ , in Arab. ^..^Vo. fll^N ii 

c 21, Afel of *nt?, Syr. Mb?* lit firmum fecit. 

L. 4. no ii c 7. 27, n NO a 14, inBibl. Aram. <l<! ! HO Dan. 2 28 &c., 
Talm. T HO. H^ll 110 4 . KWB KJ3?! ev TOIS iraXai xpovois. 

N32T x/ 3 o v 5 is mas., but 'f TrXciora/cis 1. 6 is fern., 121 5 n. Distin- 
guish between KCOD fax, cf. D3D Num. 31 28, and N !??P, lrfnv> /a^r- 
colkctor 1. 6 &c. J"! 11 ^ Plur. of NHT'ny 96 7, here in the sense 

of articles i.e. of merchandise. f$? Cf. 121 5 J^D and 

fNW. ^p?P 1?*D The adject, absol. governing the accus., as 

often in Syr.; cf. 3W^3 D'-xbo D^3 Deut. 6 n. 

147] Tariff i 333 

L. 5. *PBK VV Afel 3 plur. mas. from pi>D go up, rather than Pual 

The subj. is indefinite, lit. they did not bring (them) up i. e. on 
to the tariff; Gk. OUK aveXij^Orj. IV]! or lin? Perf. 3 plur. mas., 

although used with a fern. subj. JT3JJ, a grammatical solecism. P5?? 
Mas., if it is to agree formally with lim, but 32n if it is to be of the 
same gender as JT3J7. The pass, construction is used elsewhere with 
this vb., e. g. ii c 1 1. 42. 50 ; N3J = collect, exact tribute. *njj[ P 

3y custom, )Zx. The expression is varied, thus NTJO . . T'"l ! 6- 
KTJJ TH ii c 37. Nrny -pn ii b 4. n |JHD3 Lit. at the rate of 

anything which }jno = NDJHO 1. 8 (see note). NJ"pK rjj 

fturOwrti Knag *W& 1. 8. 13K, ^* = to hire, of taxes to collect, 
farm ii b 15, N"jfaK 1. n />$<? contractor. In Palmyra, as elsewhere 
in the Rom. empire, the taxes were not collected by state officials, but 
by persons who entered into a contract to raise them. As a self- 
governing state within the empire, Palmyra was allowed to levy its own 
taxes and reap the profits. In the same way subject kings and tetrarchs 
levied taxes within their territories, e. g. Herod Antipas in Galilee, Mt. 
9 9 &c.; see Schurer Gesch? i 475 ff. In the Gk. version the collector is 
called 6 reXwvwv 1. 6. 6 /uorflov/xevos 10. 13. reAwv^s iva 20 &c. p.ur6(anfc 
iii c 46. STJ/AOO-IUVTJS iii a 9 ; cf. /uo-domu in the T. of Coptos 1. 2. 

L. 6. N !?3$ This system of farming out the taxes naturally led to 
abuses. The publicani were notorious for their extortions and dis- 
honesty, e.g. Lk. 3 12 f. 19 8 &c. In the Talm. the poaiD appear 
in a very unfavourable light, e.g. Baba Qama 113 a; for a typical 
instance of injustice at Askelon in the time of Ptolemy Euergetes see 
Jos. Ant. xii 4. 5. The absence of any fixed scheme of rates was 
a fruitful source of disputes, as at Coptos, Hogarth 1. c. 28. In the 
promulgation of this tariff at Palmyra we have a rare instance of an 
attempt to deal with abuses by cancelling the loose system of taxation 
'by custom/ and specifying fixed rates in detail ; cf. Tacitus Ann. xiii 
50. 51. N?3 wm The subj. is the preceding ND3O. noteo 

121 6 n. H$af 110 4 n. 

L. 7. P?3")P or "ID from 31 D to scold, dispute. In the Targ. ?3"|p is 
an adj. (Earth Nominalb. 207 d), and the noun is KrMSfip, 
)L'ooi. N"?3n ii c 1 6. 113 3 n. nfWK Elsewhere the 

construction is H nnns ii c 24. 30; so here n ought to be followed 
immediately by the verb, Nmctyl tfWlK J133 11 ^ 7 K, as in the Gk. 
e<>x&u TOVS cveoTciTas ap^ovras KCU Sc/caTrpeoTous SiaKpei'vovras (Recken- 
dorf 397). As it stands ^T can only be rendered as the gen. 
sign. K?"]?^ Emph. st. of N"}^ ; numbers denoting a company 

or college take this form in Syr., e. g. JlYm^il, the Twelve (Nold. Syr. 

334 Palmy rene [147 

Gr. 151). The Se/caTrpuTot decemprimi were specially concerned with 
the revenue. 

L. 8. fian 11 Af. impf. of p3, i. e. JU^ lit. cause to understand. pDO 
Af. ptcp. pass., rather than a ptcp. Hofal, TO. ^ a.veiX-r) ; the pass, 
ptcp. (^Bp) in the Aram, dialects is frequently used of past time, 
especially in Syr. and in the Talm., e. g. <&o ye'y/xiTrrai : Nb'ld. Syr. 
Gr. 278 a, Dalman Gr. 231. Other instances of the pass. ptcp. in 
the Tariff are baao (not 5oao) 1. 10. PINO (not p?ND) ii c 12. '23 
1. 13. pa ii c 7. DTD^I The pass, of the tenses is normally 

expressed by the reflexive stems in the Aram, dialects, hence we 
should prob. point 2n|? Ethpeel (cf. 3Ti3n j. g) ? &n ^ } w j t h t h e same 
assimilation of n (*l), ??t? Ethpa. ii a 4 &c., fail? (or f?]D Pael ptcp. 
pass.) ii c 37 (cf. fcWnmD ii c 33) ; see Duval Rev. fit.Juiv. viii 57-63. 
Others, however, such as Sachau ZDMG xxxvii 562 ff., Wright 
Comp. Gr. 225, regard 2TI3* and the ptcps. in the note preceding as 
Hofal or Pual forms, 3J|p* &c., on the analogy of Hofal forms in 
Bibl. Aram., e. g. ropnn, riSDin Dan. 4 33 &c. But, as Duval points 
out, these forms are artificially modelled upon the Hebrew, and prob. 
were never used in actual speech, certainly not in the vulgar dialect 
of Palmyra. Moreover in Bibl. Aram, these forms were only used for 
the Per/. 3 pers. ; for the impf. and for the other persons the reflexive 
is employed to express the passive. Duval further tries to explain 
)K>K and 3J13 1. g as passives, but in spite of the difficulty of the 
construction it is better to treat them as actives. 
1. 5 n. 84 3 n. ' Kjni? eKa<rni> ISei ; see 75 2 n. 

L. 9. anal '*& IPK n1 The Gk. has KCU cTrciSav KvpwOfj TW 
/ie'vo), evypcw^rat. This, however, is not the strict meaning of the 
Palm. H may = when, e. g. ii c 12, like the Syr. ? JJo whenever, but 
elsewhere it = that which, e. g. 1. 4. The two verbs must be taken as 
active, ">Kto Afel of *nt!> (not Ofal, see above), and since 303 cannot 
be pronounced as Ethpeel, it must be Peal ; the verbs may be either 
3 plur. defectively written (113 3 n.}, or 3 sing, with ' the Council ' 
understood as the subject. The perf. 2031 cannot=a</ that they should 
write ; this would require awi or nro 11 ; the latter is read by Bevan, 
correcting the text, Daniel 215. N^a2 Lit. a round, so generally 

of drafted stone, e. g. Iv? J3N Ezr. 5 8. 6 4 ; the Gk. has or^X?;. 

L. 10. N^DV) tcpov. NTDK 3T 'Pa/Sao-eipi;, apparently a divine 

name (p. 198). Both the Palm, and the Gk. texts imply that the new 
tariff was to be exhibited not merely in the same place but on the 
same stone as the old. Hence it ought to be possible to compare 
the new with the old, point by point ; but the fragmentary state of 

i 147] Tariff ii a 335 

j both texts renders this difficult, the more so as we cannot tell for 

j certain where the new ends and the old begins. The new code 

| appears to extend from ii a i to ii b 1 2 ; it is not unlikely, as 

j Reckendorf argues, that the old code begins at ii b 13, which R. 

j restores "|*in H ND[3 *H ND1O3] ; references to it are found in ii b 

I 15. 28. 37. 49. ci f. 19 ff. The following table gives such comparisons 
as can be made out : 

Old Tariff New Tariff 

Slaves ii b 30-36. ii a 1-5. 

Sweet-oil b 48-49. a 12-21. 45. 

Victuals c 10-14. b 910. 

Camels c 19-22. b ii. 

Women c 26-29. a 4^~ D 2> 

Purple c 38. a 10. 

7133D Pael ptcp. pass., eVt/x-eXeio-flcH TOVS ap^ovras. The ptcp. is 
used impersonally with^ and pers. pron. in the sense /'/ concerns, 
^ < %*^o ; this construction is frequent in Aram. D.n H The 

ptcp. used of the future. pT pD Cf. Jn. 5 4 ^ ^sjia. 

L. ii. N^fno (rwSiKovs. For the assimilation of J cf. 146 
4 n . N33 Peal ptcp. 

L. 12. fiyo yo/>s, a qat&l form like NtPin^; in Syr. Ui^ load, 

freight, Targ. WJflB. Dip Kappixos = carrus. N 9f? Here 

an adj.; in Syr. ? j^v** whosoever, as often as; in Palest. Aram. 

D^2 = HD ^3 something, anything, in questions and after negatives, 

Dalman Gr. 90. Pp^3 A camel-load = about 6 cwt. 

L. 13. ^ Peal ptcp. pass., ii c 7 pJ, cf. in Bibl. Aram. v|. Dan. 
2 30. nfc Ezr. 4 1 8. 


^ , Xi/ieVa accus. of Ai/7v portus, ' custom-house.' ^^ll 1 ! 1 
See p. 263 and 146 3 n. 


L. i. vY? Afel ptcp. plur. constr. from i^y ^w/^r, in the Tariff with 
the meaning to import, elardyav, erKOfu'eiv, as opposed to p Afel 
from pa3, to export, CKKO^CLV. xwty Lit. youths, i.e. slaves, 

s, cf. D^V. i S. 20 22 ; Targ. N\Sy, fern. KPBpiW; Syr. Muiix, 
. The fern. plur. wiD^y ii c z6=harlots. ifyx 

Ettafal ptcp. 

L. 2. n^nnb Plur. with suff., ii b 14. 31, TO. opia; sing. 
^3T L 5, plur. ii b 30 pb"),=Arab. J^-J a man; eKa 

336 Palmy rene [147 

iii a 8. 1 is the initial of 131 8r;vapiov (represented in the 

Gk. by #), originally, as its name implies, the equivalent in silver of 
ten copper asses. Its value at this period was 4 sestertii (ii b 21) or 
1 6 asses, i. e. about $%d. Government dues and official payments were 
calculated on the Roman denarius-as system, see ii c 3 ff. ; Kennedy 
DB iii 429. 

L. 3. tUiJQD Emph. st. of }i?Bp b 16 export, as opposed to fy, 
KjStyD import. 

L. 4. ptDI D!>JJ b 33. 36= the Roman mancipia veterana, a class of 
slaves, distinguished from mancipia novt'a'a, who by Roman law were 
not only free from taxation, but did not need to be ' declared/ Con- 
trary to the usual practice, at Palmyra these slaves were sold ; Dessau 
1. c. 505. l?r b 6 Ethpa. ; see i 8 n. 

L. 5. Wta} Cf-tfifoKi ii. 

L. 6. in ii c 27 6 avros=Syr. ooi, which frequently comes to be 
used merely as a rendering of the Gk. article; Nold. Syr. Gr. 173. 

L. 9. *n>?n fWB yd/Aos 6viKos=half a camel-load. 

L. 10. KBPD K ?jn^ Top<vpas /i^AamJs, i. e. wool died with purple; 
the form NJJfjN occurs in Dan. 5 7 &c., Syr. Ua^j/' In the old law, 
ii c 38, 'purple' alone is mentioned, without details. "3 = 

[Sep/AaJros iii a 1 6 f. 

L. ii. pDN Plur. of &ODX 1. 41 (Wa/nov Mt. 10 29. Lk. 12 6, 
Mishnah "it? 1| K, Syr. )/*= assarius, a by-form of as, but apparently 
not of the same value. For the as was j^th of a denarius (supr.) ; 
while the assarion was ^th of a silver denarius, according to 
the Mishnah, e.g. P|D3 13^3 nymsi tfH&yo THN 1DW1 Talm. Jer. 
Qiddushin 58 d. In the 2nd cent., therefore, there was a considerable 
difference in value between the Hellenistic assarion and the official 
Roman as, which in this inscr. is called NpPD 1| K "IDS ii c 6. 34; see 
Schiirer Gesch? ii 54, Kennedy, 1. c. 

L. 12. Ntp" 1 ^? ^0^9 " ^ 4** f- pvpov, oil for anointing, distinguished 
from NTO'D 1. 22 oil; cf. Lk. 7 46 )ul*aa cXatoi/ and 

L. 13. K0?'9?fr [roO eV dAa^((r]Tpots; cf. Mt. 26 7 
^sg\^^y <iXd(3a.<TTpov [wpov. 

L. 17. TJ? ^ fipta ev do-Kois aiyeiots. ppt, sing. NJ5T, is fern.; Pi?t3 
^1" 1. 25. 

L. 19. KnB'BP3 Perhaps rather K^BB'S mas. 

L. 22. NntJIO H flVB yd/iov cXeT/pou iii a 32. 

L. 26. NJpS^I An error for 'soh. 

L. 28. ram Syr. JJoo?, Targ. wn^ and Kjn^/a^w, Arab. ^1/z/. 

147] Tariff ii b 337 

L. 32. The odd numbers in the foregoing lines (13-32), 25, 13, 7, 
imply that i denarius was charged on the beast (see ii c 21), and 24, 
12, 6 on the freight. In the Rom. imperial tariff (Zarai, see p. 332) 
beasts were not taxed, ' pecora in nundinium immunia/ 

L. 33- Kwfo N'JW or wu Cf. Neh. 13 16 JOT DW3D . . 

L. 41. KnipN (Schroder), Syr. )ia*r, Targ. ifJOK, Arab.^IL 

L. 46. WPN 1. 47, cf. ii c 26-29. K 9^> Ktf^j is the form in the 
Targ., = Nr;i3K; the vowel of the ist syllable is short, in spite of 
the vowel letter. Elsewhere in Palm, the form is nnnN his wife, 
e. g. Vog. 33 a. The women here referred to are mupai ; for 
references to their taxation in antiquity see Dessau 517, and cf. in 
the tariff of Coptos 11. 19 f. TwaiKuiv TT/JOS erai/>Mr/*ov Spa^nas CKOTOV 
6/cTO) (see p. 332). 

L. 47. X*vn ii c 3 &c. 115 3. The transcription *UH (only here) is 

L. 48. N$pn Fern, with the mas. plDN. 


L. 3. Nnun The reading in 1. 5 is certain, lit. a vaulted room ; 
cf. Hebr. nn cell, in plur. Jer. 37 16, and Syr. Jloti=Hebr. MStfb 
2 K. 23 ii ; generally a shop, bazaar, sometimes (e.g. Jer. 37 1 6 Aq.) 
as here=epyacrn7piov iii b 32. 35. N7SCDB TrajToirwXeiwv OTKVTIKWV 

(shoemakers) iii b 33 ; the Aram, equivalent of the latter word is lost. 
For 'BD see 146 4 n. 

L. 6. f? Reflexive, i 8 n., the same form as i>JJKJV. 

L. 7. NTIJD^ Perhaps to be restored NTUD'fn] i/ttmoiruXat iii b 38 ; 
N^nrU is a possible reading. T??0 ^ fiera^SoXoi, lit. who change, 

i. e. trade. frp c 1 9 = fln* c 49 = j^ W 76 D 3. ND3O BIO Lit. 

/>$y j^a// ^^ unsteadiness (i. e. unsteady) in taxation, i. e. /Ar /aj; shall 
be undetermined, the noun (Syr. J^xi) in appos. instead of an adj.; 
cf. the Hebr. idiom, Driver Tenses 189. 2. The Gk. has TO IKOLVOV 
T[C'XOS] iii b 39. 

L. 8. t?'l?B'r6 Targ. N^D^n, Syr. )k*vir. [*]o must be 

taken as a sing. = po; there is not room, according to Reckendorf, 
for the restoration [N\]D 1. 13. The amount of the tax obviously 
implies more than a single use of the wells; the Gk. has x/npeos 
TTT/yoiv ft cKaorou CTOVS : a/ (i. e. 800 denarii) iii b 40. Palmyra was 
renowned for its supply of water ; thus Pliny 621' Palmyra urbs 
nobilis situ divitiis soli et aquis amoenis.' 

338 Palmy rene [147 

L. 9. NBn Syr. ]fc^-, Targ. pt?n. Possibly here the word is plur. 

L. 10. HD here includes the relat., thai which, ii c 29. The old 
law corresponding to 11. 9. 10 appears to be given in ii c 10-14. 

L. ii. ty$*?. ^3 i.e. os (='T with the subjunct.) fia-axOy iii b 44. 
In the old law the tax was charged on laden and unladen camels 
(ii c 19-22), in the new only on the latter, because for a laden camel 
the tax was charged on the freight; cf. ii a 32 n. 

L. 12. D'pbj? KiAi, prob. an imperial chief commissioner of 
taxes in the province of Syria. The final is divided and the 
vowel transposed ; Reckendorf compares ^"]iD3 = copt'a in the 
Midrash R. >"in "13 97 i n. 135 5. 

L. 15. 13N Prob. 3 plur. m.; cf. i 9 n. 

L. 19. Before tnDK3 perhaps KJJ[2Up] 1. 20, Reckendorf. NHO 

1. 21 VHfo=modius. }toDp=KocrTos a root used as spice, Syr. 

tDCL^D&o, ]fcl*,CLO, also, as here, ^Q^AOA. 

L. 20. ntin ~wy. 81 9 n. The thing numbered must have been fern. 

L. 21. ptftW Plur. of Kt3"]BDD. 

L. 22. ri7 os av oAas, see the regulations of Corbulo ii c 31-37. 
For the salt-tax cf. i Mace. 10 29 TT}S TI/AT/S TOV dAds. 11 35. There 
are salt-lakes in the neighbourhood of Palmyra. 

L. 23. K[lDT]n From the Gk. HaXiu>pi[v]<ov iii c 23. 
Afel impf. 3 sing. m. of 713, with nun energic, Trapaptr p^o-arto ib. ; the 
Syr. form is^*o?. The lacuna following may be supplied K 
[iS exjaorov yadSiov iii C 24. 

L. 25. I3^n 1. 37. U c 16. 34, cf. ii c 4; Syr. 
The form is uncertain. 

L. 29. ^^^9 Ethpeel ptcp., lit. binding himself to, associating; in 
Syr. the reflexive takes the form ,air6&ri act. ^0*!., Duval Gr. 
Syr. 8 1 f. 

L. 30. V1B Peal ptcp.; cf. fern. NJHB 1. 44. ppn ii a 2 . 

L. 33. pB1 D7V ii a 4 n. 

L. 43. tnoy Jtao-, piW iv a 27. 

L. 45. "V?3 mpEb=cay[ovT(i>]v Trpacro-eiv v(rr[epov d>s O-WJC^OJVT/^T; 
(jiBD ttn ni3) iv a 34 f. nn3, from 3 and "IHN //a^, is a prepos. ; the 
Gk., however, suggests an advb. Lidzb. takes ni3 1D3 together, after 

L. 46. PSD C 14. 45 = o-vyu,^>a)voi, cf. Dan. 3 IO n i JQ <l D=o-v/>i<a>vi'a. 

L. 47. NpS? Afel ptcp. plur. mas.=avrwv t&xydfmuv] iv a 35; for 
the plur. ending cf. Ni:n i 7 . 

L. 49. 

147] Tariff ii c 339 


L. 2. NQTl or NB^V. The Gk. has \tv TO>] eo - <payi<r/AO'a> vofjua. 

L. 3. ^?^5 In Syr. j^_o = slaughterer j TO TOV <r(f>d.KTpov TtAos 
iv a 41. "til! "*? eis Srjvdpiov iv a 41, cf. ">BN 'BK 1. 6. 

da-ardpiov iva 43 ; in Syr. *BX is preceded by a prepos., e. g. )^3/ r 
See ii a 2 n. 

L. 4. toBWiDp The inf. ending as in Syr. ; cf. the infin. ending J"fl' 
in Bibl. Aram., e.g. nVT^nn Ezr. 7 16. ^yiini) Dan. 4 15 ('binding 
forms'), and in Targ., Dalrrf. Gr. 228. Germanicus Caesar, 

the nephew and adopted heir of Tiberius, was sent on a special 
mission to the East, A. D. 17-19, with command of all the provinces 
beyond the Hellespont. During his administration he succeeded in 
establishing excellent relations, in which no doubt Palmyra was 
interested, between the Roman and the Parthian powers. Statilius, 
like Barbarus 1. 22, was prob. an imperial procurator of the province 
of Syria ; cf. b 1 2 n. 

L. 5. p&?B 1. 26, Pael koia exposuit. 

L. 6. Nn, like the enclitic oo in Syr., is here used to give emphasis ; 
cf. the use of in in Vog. 36 b NC&y TYQ "Ip" 1 in 'I nJT WOT this 
monument which is a tomb of honour', also M in 1. 10 WlDyD? 
M. Np^N "1DN See i 1 1 n. 

L. 7. J?a Peal ptcp. pass, plur., agreeing with NJD3D 1. 6 which was 
prob. preceded by Ji"iJ. p 13 CVTOS iv a 44, lit. within. In other 

dialects 13 usually takes a prep., e. g. o^ &c. ; cf. >ss 1. 3 ., and 11 
outside 1. 12 = Syr. ^*X. In 1. 47, however, we find p 1:6. 

L. 8. |S")y KtpfM iv a 45, cf. Jn. 2 15 yOooaicLX = TO, Kep/^ara. 
Here JSiy is the small copper coinage struck locally ; for higher 
values the imperial coinage was used. Kn*=K1TP. 

L. 9. P13S The Gk. has T)[V 8c] 810. TO veKpi^aia etvat petTTTOV/iO'Ctfv 
iv a 45 f. The reference is to the bodies of old or sick animals which 
could not be brought to the slaughter-house. H 1 ??'?? Ethpe. ptcp. 

of Kit?. 

L. 10. ^0?V^- T ^ v PputTutv, Syr. J^y^ ^ t or '^xJ taste, a re- 
past. ni?' l pN Af. pf. i sing. 

L. 12. HD=? Joe i 9 n., orav iva 48. pSKID Afel ptcp. pass.; 

as a rule the K is not retained in this form. KOinn Sing., or 

plur., cf. 1. 7 n. 

L. 13. PI?P=pBSD. NJ!y=)ucu3 plur., ets vcopta iva 49. 

L. 15. NJ/ l ? il C9^ =<rr / :)< >/?iAoi, here = KWVOV iva 51 ; the kernel of 


34-O Palmy rene [147 

the fir-cone is still esteemed in Syria as an article of food. The 
' similar ' fruits would prob. be nuts and almonds. 

L. 1 6. ty For the uncontracted form cf. P^y Dan. 4 4 &c. Kt., 
T?V Q e "- y?t?Q Dan. 4 9 ; similarly in Talm. f^jj, }Wn &c., Dalman 
Gr. 274. This form is specially common in the case of ^!>y. f? 1 ^? 
T!!? 1 Lit. everything that enters into the reckoning of the merchants, Sera 
eis tyMTopci'av ^eperai iv a 52. 

L. 17. B^3? Syr. j*zJ, fypofoprov ; cf. iia 6. 

L. 19. pp^lD See ii b ii . 

L. 22. }l!>3"lp The famous Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, consular 
legate of Cappadocia and afterwards of Syria A. D. 57-66, in the reign 
of Nero. ^7^3 = Kparioros as a title. 

L. 23. NJv.3 Syr. Ji^^, Arab. JJL*. j&, once in Hebr., Job 1615; 
perhaps the camel-hides used for packing merchandise. "f * . . Pf 
Prob. ''TnnN intervened, as H implies ; cf. 1. 3 1 f. 

L. 24. Reckendorf proposes N[pN 1<! !] [t]?^ herbs of the 
physicians \ cf. Baba Bath. 74 b mn nnDD N3^y N1HH /^a/ ^^r3 
wr for plaisters. 

L. 26. NriO7y eraipSv iv b 5 ; cf. ii a 46-b 2. ND1BJ Perhaps 
an error for ND1D33. NH1D Nold. conjectures' N?np Afel ptcp. 

showing, as a correction. 

L. 29. KJBYIK dvSpiavrcs, Syr. J^JuV, Targ. KOn^K iVfo/. The 
word here is a, further description of NB>ro *obv. 

L. 31. 111:62:1 1. 39. The word is perhaps incomplete; ? 1 for a. 

L. 34. IDS NHD^ The price seems too small; perhaps it is the 
amount of the tax, not the cost of a bushel of salt. 

L - 35- K T)O Pt cp. fem. 

L. 38. N3inx See a 10. 

L. 43. txrbw The rendering is uncertain, honey-comb or skin the 
Syr. U\. has both meanings ; or weapons, Targ. N!?^, Arab. ~'&~> i , 
Hebr. rfe 


148 A. BenS Hezir. Chwolson 6. Circ. i cent. B. c. In situ. 

pnv ijpjw mirv -)iyv rwn nty^ 1 ? spjEWi -op nr 

. 3 

This is the tomb and resting-place of Eli'azar, Hanniah, 
Yd'azar, Yehudah, Simeon, Ydhanan, sons of ...... and 

Eli'azar, sons of Hanniah ... of the sons of Hezir. 

This inscr. is written over the entrance of the so-called Tomb 
of St. James at the foot of the Mt. of Olives, opposite the SE. angle of 
the Temple-area. The writing exhibits a form of Hebrew which 
is advancing towards the square character. Thus K, n, 7, y, 1 are 
very near to their later forms ; 3, 1, n, Q still resemble the Nab. and 
Palm, types ; 1 ajidj^arejndis^inguishable ; 3 has a final form, and 
when * follows joins on to it with a ligature; in the case of *J3 
all three letters are thus united ; cf. the use of the ligature in Palm. 
The form of i is peculiar, A; this is different from the Nab. and 
Palm, forms, and resembles the archaic ^V, without the two lower 
strokes. A somewhat similar appears in Jewish ossuaria. Facsimiles 
of this and the following inscr. are given by Driver Samuel xxiii and xxv. 

L. i. Chwolson, Corp. Inscr. Hebr. 66, supplies the art. before 
"Op, following de Vogue*; the facsimile shows no , trace of it. If the 
art. is written with 33K>D, as appears to be the case in spite of Lidzb.'s 
text (p. 485), it is required with -pp. The reading 33B>D is not quite 
certain ; the last letter looks more like 1 or 1 than 3 ; for the word 
see 4 8 n. 

L. 2. Chwolson reads sp[V7l] ... 2 ... p t]DV ^3. But PJD1 11 is 
very doubtful ; the fifth letter may be D, it is certainly not 1. 

L. 3. inn "03 In i Chr. 24 15 "Vjn is the ancestor of a priestly 
family, in Neh. 10 21 "W is one of the Dyn *B>&n. It is not unlikely 
that the persons mentioned in the inscr. belonged to the priestly 
family of Hezir ; de Vogue' conjectures further that Simeon, Yo'azar, 
and Eli'azar were the high-priests of the same names, belonging to the 
family of Boethos, who held office in B.C. 24-5, 4, and 4 ff., respectively 

342 Jewish [148 B 

(Schiirer Gesch? ii 217). The tomb is an imposing one, with an 

architectural fa9ade in the Gk. style. It may be dated in the ist 
cent. B.C. or A.D.; most probably it was executed in the reign of 
Herod the Gt. It cannot be later than A.D. 70, for a tomb on such a 
scale could not have been designed after the destruction of Jerusalem. 
The evidence of the writing is not decisive, but Meyer considers 
that it points to a date earlier than the ist cent. B.C., Entsteh. d. 
Judenth. 143. 

B. Kefr Bir'im. Chwolson 17. ii or iii cent. AD. In situ. 

nov IP* Hip& M rim 
.iwyaa nana Nan PITPI spppn 

Peace be upon this place and upon all the places of Israel ! 
Yoseh the Levite, son of Levi, made this lintel. May a 
blessing come upon his works ! 

This inscr. is written over the door of a ruined synagogue at Kefr 
Bir'im, a village near Safed in Galilee. The writing has a more 
finished and formed character than that of A; it is obviously later. 
The architectural style of the ruins perhaps belongs to the and half 
of the 2nd cent. A.D. (Renan); Lidzb., however, suggests the 4th 
cent. {Jewish Ency. i 444). The X has a form which is characteristic 
of later inscrr., with the left limb descending perpendicularly. The 
1 and * are mere strokes, and only differ in the slight slope of 1 to 
the left. The T has a short stroke to the right, P ; a takes a final 
form *\. It is to be noticed that the scriptio plena is employed through- 
out. npV This forrn^ a diminutive of S)DV, occurs in the recently 

discovered Hebr. mosaic at Kefr Kenna in Galilee, Lidzb. Eph. i 314; 
it appears also in the Jer. Talm. HDV and KDV, otherwise usually *DV ; 
in the Bab. Talm. epV. The form seems to be Palestinian. f)lpE> 
= the O.T. e)!pB> Ex. 12 7. 22 f. B>VyD The stone-cutter left out 
the t? after y and then added it to the end of the word. After K> is 
perpendicular stroke, the meaning of which is not evident. 


149 A 1-6. Aramaic Coins : Tarsus, iv cent. B. c. Brit. Mus. 
Plate IX A 1-6. 

The coins nos. 1-6 were struck in Cilicia. The legend nr6jO 
connects them with Tarsus, the most important city of the province, 
and under the Persian empire a -great military and naval depot. This 
money was issued by Persian satraps, not as governors for the use of 
their provinces, but as military commanders for the payment of their 
troops when occasion required. Thus, for example, after the occupa- 
tion of Cyzicus in 410, Pharnabazus gave his soldiers two months' 
pay and large sums to the chiefs of the allied fleet (Xen. Hellen. i. 
24-26). Besides the satraps on special occasions, various towns and 
petty dynasties who acknowledged the suzerainty of Persia, all of them, 
it is to be noticed, near the shores of the Mediterranean, were allowed 
to coin money of their own (e.g. 61-3. 5-7. 9. 10. 13); and this 
local money was current simultaneously with the imperial coinage. 
See Babelon Pers. Ach. xxii f. 

A i. 


M. Obv. nr6ja Bdal of Tarsus. Type : the god seated on the 
diphros, wearing the himation over the left shoulder and 
about the lower limbs, his right hand resting on a sceptre : 
linear circle. 

Rev. 1DJ1D "1^3 Cilicia, Pharnabazus. Type : a bearded male 

head wearing a crested Athenian helmet, perhaps the head 

of Ares : linear circle. Persian stater. Hill Brit. Mus. 

Catal. of Gk. coins of Lycaonia, Isauria, and Cilicia 

(1900), p. 165, no. 21 ; Babelon PA no. 169. 

For the term Tin i>JD see 6 18 n. Pharnabazus belonged to an 

Iranian family which was closely connected with Hellespontine 

Phrygia, and produced the satraps who governed this province ; he 

succeeded his father Pharnacus in 413 B. c. Outside his own province, 

in Cilicia, he conducted military operations at three periods, B. c. 398- 

3<)4, 301-380, 379-374, to the last of which his coins are generally 

assigned. After years of preparation (391-389), the expedition 

against Egypt took place ; Pharnabazus had for his colleague in the 

344 Aramaic Coins [149 A 2 

command Datames (nos. 2-4), who afterwards succeeded him, and 
this association accounts for the close similarity between the coins of 
the two satraps. Pharnabazus appears to have introduced the remark- 
able types of the heads of Ares (?) and Arethusa (no. 2). 1D31S is 
a Persian name, cf. !D > in (Hill I.e. 164, no. 12); the final l' is 
explained by Marquart, Philologus liv 494 Anm. 35, as the vulgar- 
Persian ending of the genitive from which the normal $ has fallen 
away, Farnabazo being = Frana(h}bazauL Instead of ~|^3 some of 
the coins have *]^n (never on the coins of Datames) ; for the inter- 

|i change of 3 and n cf. 'OJK and 13H3K. J )rt T2_and, J^ &c. (Konig 


. h'458). 

The Carpentras stele 75 affords the nearest parallel to the Aram. 
characters on coins 1-6. 

M. Obv. Type : head of Arethusa with streaming hair and fillet, 

wearing earrings and necklace : circle of dots. 
Rev. 1D*nn Tar damn. Type : as no. i, with circle of dots. 
Persian stater. Hill I.e. 167, no. 30; PA no. 183. 

The obv. type is found also on coins of Pharnabazus ; it was copied 
from the famous Arethusa coins of Kimon of Syracuse (see Hill Coins 
of Ancient Sicily 106 f.). The reading of the satrap's name is not 
certain, owing to the similarity of 1 and 1 ; it may be 1D*nn or IDYrn. 
The satrap belonged to a Karian family, and Tardamu was probably 
the original form of his name in Karian, with the ending amu as in 
Havap.vr)s, *Eafuar)s ', the Gk. form Aarafw/s, well known from the 
historians, probably represents the Iranian pronunciation of the name 
(Marquart I.e. 493) J . Datames succeeded (circ. 386) his father 
Kamissares in the satrapy which comprised ' partem Ciliciae juxta 
Cappadociam quam incolunt Leucosyri ' (Corn. Nep. Dat. i, corrected 
by Meyer to ' partem Cappadociae juxta Ciliciam,' PA xxxix). His 
coins were struck in Cilicia in 378, under the same circumstances 
and in the same mints as those of Pharnabazus, at the time when the 
troops of the Great King were being equipped for the expedition 
against Egypt. Datames succeeded Pharnabazus in the command 
of this war. In 369 he laid siege to Sinope, and struck coins of 
Sinopean type with the legend A AT AM A (PA no. 200; Bevan House 
of Seleucus i 80. 82). After taking part in the great revolt of the 
satraps in 362, he was assassinated towards the close of the same 

1 For other explanations see Hill 1. c. Ixxix ; Babelon PA xxxviii. 

149 A 4] Tarsus 345 

Tarsus. A 3- 

M. Obv. Tinf'Sn Type : Ba'al of Tarsus seated on the diphros to 
right, wearing the himation about the lower limbs; his 
right hand holds a sceptre surmounted by an eagle with 
spread wings, his left an ear of corn and a bunch of 
grapes ; beside him is the thymiaterion ; below the diphros 
a lotus flower: the whole enclosed by a circle with 

Rev. lOTin Type: the satrap Tardamu wearing the Persian 
head-dress, an under-garment with sleeves, a cloak, and 
Persian trousers ; on his knees is a quiver ; he holds in 
both hands an arrow, which he examines ; before him is 
a bow, and in the field above the winged disk of Ormuzd : 
circle of dots. Persian stater. Hill I.e. 167, no. 32; 
PA no. 187. 
The obv. type is meant to suggest that the god is seated in his 

temple, the projections round the circle being intended to represent 

columns. The rev. type indicates that the satrap is preparing for the 

campaign against Egypt. 

Tarsus. A * 

M. Obv. nni>ja Type : as in 3, but the face and upper part of the 
body are turned to the front, and the diphros is seen in 
three-quarters view : circle as in 3. 

Rev. icmn Type : the satrap Tardamu on the right, with his 
name in front, wearing a long chiton and himation, his 
right hand raised before his face in the attitude of 
adoration. On the left the figure of Ana, his right hand 
pointed towards Tardamu, the left lowered ; the name JON, 
not visible in this specimen, is usually written behind ; 
between them the thymiaterion : the whole enclosed by 
a linear square, bordered with dots on the top and two 
sides, with antefixa along the top. Persian stater. Hill 
I.e. 168, no. 35; PA no. 193. 

The rev. type is variously interpreted. The two figures are evidently 
in a temple ; Babelon takes them to be two deities, Ba'al of Tarsus 
on the right, Ana on the left. But the figure on the right is repre- 
sented in the act of adoration, like Yehaw-milk in 3, and the name 
in front seems to signify that this is the satrap (Hill I.e. Ixxx). 
Nothing is known of the god WK ; it is not probable that he is the 
Assyr. Anu. 

346 Aramaic Coins [149 A 5 

Tarsus. A 5. 

M. Obv. nni>y3 Type : as in i, but here the god holds in his 

right hand an ear of corn and a bunch of grapes, his left 

rests upon alotus-headed sceptre ; "under trie diphros the 

ringed cross. 
Rev. ""ira Mazdai. Type : lion attacking stag ; the whole 

within a sunken square. Persian stater. Hill I.e. 169, 

no. 38; PA no. 201. 

The rev. type is borrowed from Cyprus ; it was the regular emblem 
of Kition (B 2. 3. 5. 6), and was probably adopted by Mazaeus at the 
time of the expedition which aimed at restoring Evagoras ii to the 
throne of Salamis (Diod. xvi 42), and probably used" Kition "as a 
convenient basis of operations (Hill 1. c. Ixxxii). Although Mazaeus 
is not mentioned in connexion with this war, yet he may have directed 
it and supplied the funds, for Cyprus belonged to the same satrapy 
as Phoenicia, where he was engaged in putting down a rebellion. 
It is to be noticed that the sunken square is also characteristic of the 
coinage of Cyprus, cf. B 1-7. Mazaeus was the greatest of the 
western satraps; he governed Cilicia from 361 to 333, and united 
under his rule Cilicia, Syria and Mesopotamia. The disastrous 
battle of Arbela, which gave to Alexander the empire of the Persian 
kings, only brought Mazaeus fresh advancement; he threw himself 
into Babylon with the wreck of his forces, and upon Alexander's 
approach surrendered the city (330); he was rewarded with the 
satrapy of Babylonia, and died in 328; see Bevan I.e. 245. The 
coins of Mazaeus, classified by Six in the Numism. Chron. (1884) 
Le satrape Mazaros, are numerous and varied ; for 30 years he issued 
money in Cilicia, and concurrently in Syria for 15 years under the 
Persian king, and for 3 years in Babylon under Alexander the Great. 

Tarsus. A 6 ' 

M. Obv. nnjn Type: Ba'al of Tarsus as in i, holding a lotus- 
headed sceptre in his right hand ; in the field to left an 
ear of corn andji__bjinrh nf gra^es^ and the letter 3 ; 
under the diphros the letter D : circle of dots. 
Rev. "J^m fcnnmy hy ^ "ntO Mazdai who is over the Country 
beyond the River and Cilicia. Type : two lines of walls, 
each with four towers one above the other ; above a lion 
bringing down a bull : circle of dots. Persian stater. Hill 
I.e. 170, no. 48; PA no. 238. 

149 B 2] Kition 347 

The letter D under the diphros has been explained as the initial of 
"]7 ; perhaps it merely indicates ' a moneyer or other subordinate of 
Mazaeus ' (Hill Ixxxiv). The letter 3 may be a mint-mark. The rev. 
type of the lion and bull is an emblem of Tarsus ; the walls below 
probably represent the fortifications of the city, rather than the 
Cilician Gates (Six, Babelon) ; they suggest an enclosure rather than 
a passage. The form of the relat. *T occurs in the Cilician inscr. 68 ; 
see also p. 185. The 'Country beyond the River' (i. e. Euphrates)j i 
was N. Syria, the term being used from the standpoint not of Cilicia I 
but of Persia, as nrun iny in Neh. 2 7. 9. 3 7. Ezr. 8 36, rnrti "UJ| Ezr. 
4 10. 63 &c. Cf. 7 i n., and for *]!?n see no7Tl 

149 B 1-15. Phoenician Coins, v-ii cent. B. c. Brit. Mus., and 
Bibl. Nat., Paris. Plate IX B 1-15. 

Cyprus, Kition. " * 

M. Rev. "frzbyzb (Com) of Baal-milk. Type : lion seated, with ^ ^ A**4* i i^ 
open jaws ; the whole within a sunken square bordered 
with dots. Persian stater: Brit. Mus. Cf. PA no. 647 
(a tetrobol). 

The reign of Ba'al-milk i is to be placed between the defeat of 
Xerxes in B. c. 479 and the occupation of Kition by the Athenians in 
449. In the disaster of 479 the Persian fleet almost entirely perished, 
and with it the princes of~Cyprus and Phoenicia ; hence Xerxes found 
it necessary to send for the Tyrian Ba^akmilk to become king of 
Kition and found_a neaLdynasty. The Tyrian origin of Ba'al-milk is 
shown by the type which he introduced upon his coinage, the figure 
of the Tyrian Herakles (Melqarth), as on the obv. of this coin; 
cf. B 4-6. 

Kition. B 2 - 

M. Rev. *?y$y? O/'Az-ba'al. Type: lion devouring a stag ; border 

and square as i. Persian stater: Brit. Mus. PA 
no. 670. 

After the brief occupation of Kition by Kimon in 449 B. c., the 
Athenians evacuated the city, and 'Az-ba'al succeeded his father 
Ba'al-milk i as king from 449 to 425. His coins bear the Tyrian 
Herakles on the obv. (see B i ) ; but on the re v. a new type appears, 
the lion devouring the stag, an emblem of the Persian triumph over 
the_Athnians. 'Az-ba'al was the first to style TnmselF' king of Kition 
and Idalion.' 

348 Phoenician Coins [149 B 3 

Kition. B 3- 

JR. Rev. ix&ysb Of Bdal-milk. Type : as B a. Persian stater : 
Brit. Mus. PA no. 679. 

Ba'al-milk ii was the son and successor of 'Az-ba'al ; he reigned 
from B. c. 425 to 400. 

Kition. B 4- 

M. Rev. \3cr\ ita^] Of king Demonicus. Type: the ^bearded 

Herakles, with lion-skin on shoulders, marching to right ; 

his left hand holds in front of him a bow, his right 

brandishies_ai_club ; sunken square. Persian stater: 

Bibl7Nat. PA no. 695. 

Demonicus reigned at Kition from B.C. 388 to 387. He owed his 
position to the protection of Athens; and the fact that the Athenian 
domination in Kition did not last longer than the expedition of 
Chabrias in 388 accounts for the shortness of his reign. Demonicus 
himself was an Athenian, and the influence of Athens appears on his 
coins. They are the work of Greek, not oriental, engravers, hence 
the figure of Herakles differs noticeably from the figure on the coins 
of the native dynasty (cf. B 5. 6) ; the obv. type is a reproduction of 
the statue of Athene Promachos, erected on the Acropolis after 
Marathon to express defiance of the Persians; and on some of his 
coins Demonicus uses the Gk. language, the only king of Kition to 
do so. 1DD1 = A77/Aovi/cos ; the omission of 3 is due either to accident 
or to the difficulty of transcribing a foreign name. 

Kition. B 5- 

R. Obv. Type : the bearded Herakles, wearing a lion-skin on his 

head ; his left hand, covered with another lion-skin, holds 

a bow in front, his right brandishes a club above his head ; 

in the field the ringed cross : circle of dots. 
Rev. JJVata "]ta[V] Of king Milk-yathon. Type: lion devouring 

stag; sunken square with border of dots. Hemi-stater: 

Bibl. Nat. PA no. 699. 

Milk-yathon, king of Kition and Idalion (12-14. 26. 30), was the 
son of Ba'al-ram (23-25), and reigned from B. c. 392 to 361. In the 
series of inscrr. which refer to him a break occurs in the 4th year of 
his reign, i.g._388, the date of the Athenian investment and the 
usurpation of Demonicus. When the Athenians abandoned Kition, 
Milk-yatEoirwas restored by the Persians. He was the first king of 
Kition to mint gold coins. 

149 B 8] Laodicea of Libanus 349 

Kition. B 6 - 

5. Obv. Type : as B 5. 

Rev. [pY>]oB 177 Q^ ^'^ /'J/OT {-[^a/^w]. Type : as B 5 ; in 
the field to right ^/* // (i. e. year 40). Hemi-stater : 
Bibl. Nat. PA no. 722. 

Pumi-yathon, king of Kition, Idalion, and Tamassos (12. 13. 26), 
was the son and successor of Milk-yathon. He reigned from 
B. c. 361-312, for at least 47 years; see p. 56. 

Lapethos. B 7. 

M. Obv. *]7Dp*rei> Of Sidqi-milk. Type : head of Athene to left, 
wearing Corinthian helmet and earrings, her hair 
arranged symmetrically down her neck. 

Rev. pcp'Uff?] Type : head of Athene to front, wearing close- 
fitting helmet ornamented with two bull's ears and two 
cristae ; her hair arranged symmetrically on each side of 
her head ; a necklace round her throat ; the whole within 
a sunken square. Persian stater: Brit. Mus. PA 
no. 783. 

Sidqi-milk (cf. O.T. Wi?*]?, Sab. 7Np Hal. 193 i, Hommel Sud- 
Ar. Chr. 106), king of Lapethos, reigned from about B. c. 449 to 420. 
He began to reign after the departure of the Athenians in 449 (see on 
B i and 2), when the Persians recovered possession of the island. The 
helmet of Athene in rev. recalls Herodotus' description of the armour 
of the Chalybians in the host of Xerxes. rl 8e 7770-1 Ke<j>aXfjo-i xpdvca 
\d\Kea' irpos Se TOUTI KpdVecri, WTO. re /cat /cepea irpfxrrjv ^8oos ^aA/cca* 
einyVav Se_K<u \6(fcoi vii 76. 

Laodicea of Libanus. 

6. Rev. On the right BAZIAEflZ ANTIOXOY, on the left 

fJW31 IJ>N N31N7[7] Of Laodicea which is in Canaan. 
Type : Poseidon facing, half naked, wearing the chlamys, 
his right hand holding a patera, his left leaning on the 
trident ; in the field to left A A, on the right a mint-mark. 
Chalkous (= \ of an obol) : Bibl. Nat. Babelon Rois 
de Syrie no. 660. 

The obv. has the bust of Antinchus crowned with a diadem. 
AaoSt/ceta 17 irpos Ai/3dVa> (Strabo 643 ed. Miill.), so called to distin- 
guislTTt from Aoo<5iKa eirl 777 flaAdWr/, was an important city of 
Code-Syria, founded by SeTeucus^j'Jicator on the plain S. of 

350 Phoenician Coins [149 B 9 

Hemesa in the region of the upper Orontes. The coin bears the 
name of Antiochus iv Epiphanes, B.C. 175-164. For the reading B>K 
instead of DN (Babelon) see p. 46 . 3 ; the title DN metropolis, lit. 
mother, occurs on coins of Sidon, e. g. B 15, and of Tyre D31V DN "i7 
RS p. 86, but probably not on the coins either of Laodicea or of 
Berytus. It is interesting to find the biblical namejyjJ = Phoenicia 
on these coins, cf. Is. 23 n. Zeph. In. Josh. 5 i LXX &c. ; it occurs 
besides only on the coins of Berytus which have the legend N31&6!? 

gna gK (p. 46 n. 3). 

Byblus. B 9- 

M. Rev. ^M ita ^[ta] El-pdal king of Gebal. Type: lion 
devouring bull, the body of the bull incused, the head in 
relief : circle of dots. Graeco-asiatic stater : Bibl. Nat. 
PA no. 1344. 

Of the kings of_Gebal underjhe Persian empiretwo/^ehaw-milk 
ajidJUri-milk^ are mentioned in Jjjbut the exact date of_thejr_rejgns is 
not known. The two later kings of Gebal, El-pa'al (cf. ^3??f>K i Chr. 
8 it ff.) and 'Az-ba'al (B 10), whose coinage is illustrated here, were 
reigning probably in B.C. 360 and 340 respectively, at any rate shortly 
before the Greek conquest, for Alexander would not have allowed 
them to issue money in their own names. The jype of the lion and 
bull is an acknowled^gement_^)f_the Persian supremacy (cf. A 6). 

Byblus. B I0 - 

J3. Rev. feu *]ta ^JJlty 'Az-ba'al king of Gebal. Type: lion 
devouring bull: circle of dots. Graeco-asiatic stater: 
Brit. Mus. PA no. 1357. 
See on B 9 above. 

Byblus. B " 

JE. Rev. BASIAEnS (right) ANTIOXOY (left). Type: the 
Phnpiv_ Krnnn^ (SPP p. 20) with six wings, standing to 
left, holding a sceptre in the right_hajid; on his head- 
dress a four-brancrlie3^ornament (see Philo Bybl. Fr. Hist. 
Gr. iii 569) ; in the field above bib Of Gebal, below 
the holy : circle of dots. Chalkous : Bibl. Nat. RS 

no. 671^ 

The obv. has the bust of Antiochus crowned with a diadem. This 
is a specimen of the bronze coinage of Gebal under the Seleucids. 
The ' king' is Antiochus iv Epiphanes, 175-164 B. c. For the epithet 
in connexion with Gebal see p. 21. 

140 Bis] Sidon 351 

Tyre. B I2 ' 

M. Rev. Type : an owl, holding under its left wing the Egyptian 

crook and flail; in the field to right the number 35 (i. e. 

year) : circle of dots. Attic didrachm : Brit. Mus. 

PA no. 202 2. 

The series of Tynan coins of which this is a specimen reflects the 
disturbances of the period from B.C. 312 to 275. In %i2_ Tyrejwas 
taken from Antigonus by Ptolemy, the ally of Seleucus ; coins were 
struck at once, and continued for 3 years (PA nos. 2007-2013). 
Then there comes a break for 20 years ; in 287 Tyre passed into the. 
hands jxf^ Seleucus ; the period was too disturbed for the minting of 
money. Then the coins begin again in the 23rd year and continue 
till the 37th (PA 2014-2022 ; Cl.-Gan. fit. i 59 f.). This brings 
us to 275, when Tyre was recaptured by Ptolemy ii Philad., and 
started a new era as an autonomous city (9 5 .). Thus the years 
numbered on the coins are in fact the years of Ptolemy, beginning 
with his capture of the city in 312, and closing with(Kl| recapture of 
it in 275. The rev. type is noticeable : the owl is Greek, the crook 
and flail are Egyptian, the symbols of Osiris ; the combination indi- 
cates the range of the mercantile relations of Tyre, and the influence 
of Athens. _and_ ofJEgypt upon the city. The obv. type, Melqarth 
riding on^ sea-horse with a dolphin below, is a natiye_emblem, 
symbolizing the claim of Tyre to the empire of the sea. A special i 
interest attaches to the Tyrian coins of this size and valuej_they; were I 
used by thejews, whojhad_no_comage~of their own, as ' the sacred I 
shekel' for the payment of religious dues (Ex. 30 j 3. Lev. 5 15. ' 
27 3. 25. Num. 7 13. 86 &c. P); it is expressly enjoined in the 
Talm. that these dues are to be paid in Tyrian money^ e.g. B. 
Bekoroth 49 b nitf H3D3 BHpn i>p{j>n D^D. See Kennedy DB iii 422 ; 
cf. also 8 2 n. 

B 13. 
JR Obv. A Phoenician galley at sea, with oarsmen; in the field 

above 1 1 j (i. e. year 3) : circle of dots. 

Rev. Type : the Persian king, Artaxerxes iii Ochus, in his 
chariot, driven by his charioteer, followed on foot by an 
attendant who holds in his right hand a sceptre terminating 
in an animal's head, and in his left an oinochoe'; in the 
field above the lettersjay : circle of. dots. Quadruple 
Phqen. shekel: Brit. Mus. Cf. PA no. 1607 (i2th year). 

352 Jewish Coins [149 B 14 

This coin is assigned by Babelon to Straton ii, king of Sidon from 
B.C. 346 to 332; the letters nyjire the initials^of his name rnnBTDJJ 
(PA clxxxv). The coins of this king closely resemble those of his 
predecessor, Straton^ i 374-362 B. c., which also have the initials 3JJ 
in the field of rev. 

Byblus. B M- 

&. Rev. ntSHp *?l> OfGebal the holy on left ; on right a legend of 
which only the letters tyy . ri . * can be deciphered. Type : 
'Ashtart (cf. 3) to left, her hair falling on her neck, robed 
in a tunic, with a peplos covering the upper part of the 
body and the arms ; the right hand raised and extended, 
the left holding a long sceptre terminating in a ball : circle 
of dots. Hemi-chalkous : Bibl. Nat. PA no. 1373. 
This is a specimen of the autonomous coins of Gebal, belonging 

to a later period than B 1 1, afterjhe reign of Antiochus v. 

Sidon. B I 5- 

&. Rev. 1 | M NBN | 2O3 EN | DJ1^> Of the Sidomans, metropolis of 
Kambe, Hippo, Kition, Tyre. Type: a ^steering oar. 
Hemi-chalkous: Brit. Mus. PA no. 1620. 

This is a specimen of the autonomous coins of Sidon, dating from 
the middle of the ii^cent. B. c. D31S? is a rendering of the Gk. 
SIAniMinN RS nos. 682 ff., cf. -* = TYPIflN ib. nos. 674 ff. 
For DK see B 8 n. The towns mentioned are those which Sidon 
claimed as her_ colonies; 303 1 on some coins written_333 (PA 
no. 1619), was the primitive name of CarthagejJtaN^^ Hippo on the 
N. coast of Africa; see RS ex, PA clxxxvi. Here Sidon calls 
herself the mother-city of Tyre, but on the Tyrian coins of the time 
of Antiochus iv we find the relations reversed, DJItt DN "u6 RS p. 86. 
In earlier days Witf included both cities ; see p. 54;-^; "^ 

149 C. Jewish Coins, ii cent. B. c. to ii cent. A. D. Brit. Mus. 

The native Jewish coins, with Hebr. inscrr., appear at three periods : 
(i) the period of the Hasmonaean princes, from John Hyrcanus to 
Mattathias (Antigonus), i.e. from 135 to 37 B.C.; (2) the First Revolt 
against the Romans, 66-70 A.D. ; (3) the Second Revolt, 132-13^ A.D. 
Their appearance thus marks the efforts that were made to maintain 
or assert the independence of the nation; and in agreement with 
the spirit of these movements the coins are stamped with legends 

149 C] Hasmonaean 353 

in the archaic character which had long ago fallen out of use, and 
given way to the square character developed in Aramaic. The 
writing varies so little during the (j^o years that it affords no in- 

dication of date. The following forms of letters are characteristic 
of the coins: 

NFF*, n^T, ria, 1ft, i* 2 *, *^ pp. 

In antiquity the right of coinage was the exclusive privilege of the 
sovereign power; it was a sure sign of rebellion if any subject state 
took upon itself to issue money.. Under the Seleucid kings certain 
semi-independent towns were allowed to issue bronze pieces bearing 
the head of the king on one side and the name of the city on the 
other, e.g. B 8 and n ; and a privilege of the same kind was bestowed 
upon the Jewish state by Demetrius ii (145-138 B.C.), and afterwards 
confirmed to Simon the Maccabee by Antiochus_vii_Sidetes (138-1 2 9 
B.C.): ' I give thee leave to coin money tor thy country with thine 
own Stamp ' (Troi^crat Kop-p-a iSiov vofi-urfua rf/s xwpa<s (row) I Mace. 156. 
The concession implied that Judaea was recognized as a free state 
under the suzerainty of Syria. To what extent Simon availed himself 
of the privilege is not known, and it was soon withdrawn (i Mace. 
15 27). If he issued money at all it would have been in bronze, not 
in silver ; but, according to the view adopted here, no coins, whether 
bronze or silver, can be assigned to him. His son and successor, 
John Hyrcanus (135-104 B.C.), was the first Jewish prince to issue 
money in his own name. The following is a specimen of his small 
bronze coins : 


Obv. DHin^Jn -oni ^[i]:n jnan pnin 11 A. 

./?>. A double cornucopiae with a poppy head in the centre. 

The A at the beginning of the legend is taken to be the initial of 
Alexander ii Zebina (128-122? B.C.), the nominal over-lord of 
Hyrcanus; it may indicate the alliance between the two in 128, 
'AAe^avSpos . . <iAiav iroietrat Trpos 'Yp/cavov TOV apxiepea Jos. Ant. xiii 
9 3 ;- possibly, however, it denotes the ' year i ' (Madden Coins of the 
Jews Si). The letter is not found on the later coins of Hyrcanus, 

354 Jewish Coins [149 C 

The two cornua-copiae he prob. adopted from Zebina, on whose coins 
they first appear. The official title of Hyrcanus is ' the high priest,' 
though in character he was more of a secular prince than a religious 
pontiff ; the Jewish commonwealth regarded itself not as a kingdom 
but as a church, and the priest at the head of it was not an autocrat, 
but the chief of a community. The earlier coins of Hyrcanus are 
issued jointly by him and the community ; his later coins, however, 
are issued in his name alone D^inTI nan t?JO ^12n pan \ Nestle 
(ZATW 1895, 288-290) has suggested that nan B>tn = eflvapx^, 
used of Simon i Mace. 14 47. 15 i. 2, but without sufficient grounds. 
The precise meaning of D'Wn "ian is disputed. In Hebr. ian = 
company, association, Hos. 6 9 B'Oro "ian. It is natural, therefore, to 
regard ^n 'n as a corporation or college within the Jewish nation, the 
yepowui or senate mentioned in i^ Mace. 12 6. Judith 4 8 &c. ; so 
Madden 77, Wellhausen Isr. u. Jtid. Gesch? 282 . Butjt seems that 
thejycpovo-ta (= the later Sanhedrin) was not of sufficient importance 
atjthis period to be named upon the coins. The Pun. D13n, referred 
to by Renan in this connexion, were not the senate but the colleagues 
of the sufFetes, 42 2. 19. 55 4. The general opinion is that '71 'n = 
the community of the fews t as similar or equivalent terms were in use, 
c. g- "Vy ian a city community Mishnah Berakoth 30 a, TO -n-XfjOos 
TOJV 'lovScuW i Mace. 8 20, TO 20vos TWI/ 'I. ib. 12 3; Reinach 
Monnaies Juives 23, Kennedy, art. Money DB iii, Schurer Gesch? i 269. 
Kennedy makes the attractive suggestion that ian = TO KOLVOV ; the 
LXX renders nan JVa Pr. 21 9 ev oucw KOIVW, cf. 25 24, and elsewhere 
uses Koivtavfw, Koivwvos to render derivatives of nan. The expression 
TO KotvoV has various meanings; thus in Jos. Vita 12. 49 &c. TO KOLVOV 
TWV 'lepoo-oXviMT&v is apparently the executive authority of the S^/AOS,= 
TWV c lep. ot Trpoxroi ib. 7 ; in classical Gk. TO KOLVOV = respublica, and is 
often used of Gk. states or cities, e. g. TO K. TWV KprfraLftav Michel 
439, TO K. TO Tapp.ia.vwv ib. 1188-1190. We do not know enough of 
the constitution of the Jewish state at this time to determine exactly 
the relation between TO KOLVOV and ian. 

The following are specimens of the coins of Alexander Jannaeus 
(103-76 B.C.), whose long reign was marked by much violence and 
bloodshed, and by an increasing cleavage between the adherents of the 
Maccabees and the party, including the Pharisees, which cherished the 
traditional ideals of Judaism. The high-priesthood in the person of 
Alexander becamethoroughly secularized. His Jewish name Jannaeus, 
Talm. K|! i.e. V, is contracted" from \t$\ frutaj. 

148 C] 



Obv. -]!>Dn jnairp Type : a half-opened flower. 
Rev. BAZIAEnS AAEIANAPOY round a circle. Type 
an anchor with two cross-timbers. 

Obv. [D^JTWn Wl nan pan \r\V within a wreath. 
Rev. Double cornucopiae with a poppy head in the centre. 

Jannaeus issued a double series of coins, regal and pontifical. The 
interest of the regal series (b} lies in the appearance of "pon for the 
first time on Jewish coins, and in the use of the Gk. legend on the 
reverse. The adoption of these novelties was probably one of the 
causes which led to a breach with the Pharisees. The anchor on b, 
and the double^ cornucopiae on the pontifical coins c , are borrowed 
from the Seleucid kings, and illustrate the continued influence of their 

The following is a specimen of the coins of Aiitigonus-Mattathias, 
B. c. 40-37, the last prince of the Hasmonaean dynasty : 

Obv. [BASIAJEnS ANT I r[ONOY] round a wreath. 
Rev. iT 12P1 ina fro iTnnD Type: a double cornucopiae, 
with NB> i. z.year i in the centre. 
A a. 2 

356 Jewish Coins [149C 

After having been a prisoner in Rome, Antigonus attempted to 
obtain the kingdom in B. c. 42, but was defeated by Herod. With 
the help of the Parthians, however, he succeeded in taking Jerusalem 
in B. c. 40, and was made king. Not long afterwards Herod, who had 
received the nominal title of king of Judaea through Roman influence, 
laid siege to Jerusalem and, aided by the Roman general Sosius, 
captured it in 37; Antigonus was ignominiously executed with the 
axe. These coins show that he had adopted the name of Mattathias, 
the founder of his dynasty ; they are the first Jewish coins which bear 
a date. 

Coins of the First Revolt, A. D. 66-70. Plate X 1-5. 


JR. Obv. hx.*W> i>ptJ> Type : a broad-lipped chalice, on either 
side a pellet, above the cup the letter N = / 

Rev. ntnp Diw-p Type : a flowering lily. 


M. Obv. i>pB>n ''Vn Type : a chalice with jewelled rim, above 
the cup the letters 25? -=.year 2. 

Rev. HtPnpn D^tJnf Type : a flowering lily. 


M. Obv. i>K-iB b\>& Type : as / above the cup the letters 
IP year 4. 

Rev. WVTpfl D^WV Type: as/ 

M. Obv. jre n Type: as/ 

Rev. jniK r>Jt? Type : a lUlab with an 'ethrog on either 

M. Obv. xw >pB> Type : as / above the cup the letters 
nt? -=.year $. 

Rev. PiBTtpn D^T 1 Type: as/ 

These coins have been usually attributed to Simon Maccabaeus 
(142-135 B.C.), e.g. by Madden 65 ff., and others; but there is now 
a general agreement among experts that they belong rather to the 

149 c] First Revolt 357 

period immediately preceding the fall of Jerusalem in A. D. 70. It will 
be observed that the shekels are dated from the first year to the fifth ; 
if they belong to Simon's reign, which lasted 7 years (i Mace. 13 14 f. 
and 16 14), the two years at the close must be left without coins; no 
reason can be found for the increasing rarity and entire cessation of 
the shekels in the fifth year. Moreover, it is difficult to believe that, 
if Simon had issued silver coins, his successors would not have done 
the same; but the Kfasmonaean princes, in accordance with thein 
constitutional position under the suzerainty of Syria, only minted! 
' Bronze) money ; and their money bears the names of the princes, 1 
while the shekels, in striking contrast, haye^ no name to show who | 
issued them. On technical grounds of style and fabric they are related 
to the tetradrachms of Nero and Vespasian minted at Antioch, and 
not to the Seleucid silver coins of the Maccabaean period. The issue 
of such coins with the legend Jerusalem the holy is in itself an assertion 
ojQndgrjfindence ; it proves that the Jews were in revolt against the 
sovereign power ; and since there was only one other occasion when 
the independence of Jerusalem was not constitutional but usurped, 
viz. in 132-135 A. D., and the coins of the latter age are well known 
in detail, there remains the period of the First Revolt against the 
Romans in 66-70 A.D. The shekels and half-shekels must have 
been coined by the executive authority of Jerusalem which undertook 
the defence of the city and the conduct of the war. The fact that 
they appear in considerable numbers during the first three years, and 
then become rarer, until they cease altogether with the exceedingly 
rare shekel of the fifth year (Apr. to Aug. A.D. 70), agrees exactly with 
the history of the revolt from its successful start to its gradual collapse. 
See Kennedy, art. Money in BD iii, whose arguments are incorporated 
above, and Schiirer Gesch? i 762 ff. Reinach, Mon. Juives 47 f., 
suggesis_.that the coins were especially designed for the payment of 
the temple tax, the shekel for two persons (cf. Mt. 17 24-27), the 
hajf-shekeybr one, and to take the place of the Tyrian tetradrachms 
(or staters) and didrachms which had formerly been used for this 
purpose (cf. on B 1 2). 

e (i) The chalice probably represents the temple vessels. The broad 
rim is characteristic of shekels, of the first year, so also the pellets, 
probably intended for jewels, and the letter N alone without t? = rut?. 
The dating of the coins is perhaps imitated from the Tyrian staters, 
but cf. d. nenp D^T Note the script, defect., and the absence 

of the article. The legend is perhaps copied from that on the Tyrian 
staters, Tvpov U/ws KCU do-vAov ; the minting of these staters at Tyre 

Jewish Coins [149 C 

ceased in A. D. 56, so that probably it would have been necessary in 
A. D. 66 to provide fresh coins of the same value for use in 
Jerusalem (Reinach). 

h (4) This is a specimen of the bronze money of the fourth year ; 
varieties of the legend on the reverse are '"VPJ JD"1N JW and TW 
JP3T JD1N; it is supposed that these coins represent -|, , -| shekels 
respectively, and that they were siege tokens to be redeemed by silver 
money when the relief came. This explanation, however, is uncertain, 
for there are silver shekels (g 3) and half-shekels of the fourth year, 
beside these supposed tokens. The chalice shows that they belong to 
this period. }V T\7K& Belonging to the redemption of Zion, cf. i>:u7 
B ii. 14 &c., and ' nnn!' k; less prob. b = at the time of. The 
Idlab ^^J^falm^rancA was a bundle of myrtle and willow with 
a palm leaf, the 'ethrog, ^^K a citron, carried in each hand at the feast 
of Booths ; Lev. 23 40. 

Coins of the Second Revolt, A. D. 132-135. Plate X 6-9. 


M. Obv. !>JOB* fcWW pyB> in three lines within a laurel wreath. 
Rev. $>*nB n[taa$> nn]K n^r Type: a vase with two 

M. Obv. pyot? within a wreath. 

Rev. i>N"jB nnnb Type : a palm branch. Restruck on 
a denarius-drachm of Trajan. 

j. Obv. pivot? Type : a palm tree. 

Rev. i>tnB* [rn]"ir& 2[l?] Type : a vine leaf. 

m( 9 ) 

JR. Obv. pyDt? Type : a conventional figure of the Beautiful 

Gate of the Temple (?) ; above, a star. 

Rev. D^T nnr6 Type : a lUlab with 'ethrog. Restruck 
tetradrachm of Antioch. 

The evidence for the course of events which led to the Second 
Revolt in the i6th year of Hadrian is conflicting; it seems probable, 
however, that the rebuilding of Jerusalem as a heathen city, with the 

149 C] Second Revolt 359 

name Aelia Capitolina, was begun during Hadrian's visit to Syria in 
130 A. D. He was again in Syria in 131, and his visit was commemo- 
rated by coins which bear the inscr. aduentui Aug(ustt) Judaeae. The 
foundation of a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus on the site of the 
Jewish temple is probably to be connected with this occasion (Schiirer 
Gesch? 680 ff.); hi]t wWh^r th<* jpmplg was founded before or .after 
the revolt, the policy of Hadrian had been sufficiently coercive to 
incite the Jews to revolt. The fuel was ready to be ignited when 
Bar-Kokba applied the spark. The Jewish leader at once signalized 
his rebellion by issuing coins in his own name, * Simon, the prince of 
Israel ' (/), and in the name of"' Eliazar the priest/ who appears on 
the coins of the first year, and seems to have been joint-leader. 
Simon is called by Christian writers Bar-Kokba (Bapx>X*/? a5 ) = 
K333 13 son of the star, alluding to Num.^24 17, but by Rabb. writers 
Myffi) Tg or '3 f3, K6z6ba being the name either of his father or his 
native town, probably the latter ; Choziba was a well-known place on 
the road to Jericho. He claimed to be the Messiah, and he received 
the support even of the great Rabbi Aqiba, who applied to him the 
prophecy of Num. 24 17. e.g. Jer. Tctanith 68 d 3pyD N3M3 *]TT. 
The revolt spread widely throughout Palestine ; it was finally suppressed 
by the Roman general Jul. Severus ; Jerusalem was recaptured, and 
Simon's cause collapsed with the fall of Beth-ther, now Bittir. a hours 
SW_ofJerusalem, where he and his followers made their last stand, 
in the i8th year of Hadrian, 134-5 A. D, 

j (6) The types on these coins represent either objects connected 
with the Temple and its worship, vase or sacrificial flagon, lyre, 
trumpets, or the characteristic products of the country, vine-leaf (/) 
palm (k, /), grapes. This coin and / are dated the ist and 2nd year 
of the revolt. Beside these bronze coins there is a silver issue, dated 
in the same way. 

k (7) The silver coins of this period are all, probably without a single 
exception (Kennedy), imperial denarii, drachms, and tetradrachms, 
restruck with Jewish types and legends. Sometimes, as in m, no trace 
of the original appears, but very often, as in this case, the legend of 
the imperial coin can still be read in part. ^ JTnr6 Of the eman- 
cipation of Israel; cf. h n. Tfl"in is a noun from Tin, in Syr. jl'oi)Jl; 
for the root see 97 i . 

m (9) The signification of the type is not certain. The star 
above the Temple probably alludes to Simon's pretensions. 



Plate XI gives some specimens of Aram., Phoen., and Hebr. seals, 
dating from the 8th cent. B. c. onwards. The seals afford interesting 
illustrations of the archaic character ; they are all chosen from the 
British Museum collection, Semitic Room cabinet. 

Belonging to Milk-ram^ on an ivory brooch found under- 
neath a colossal bull in the palace of Nimroud. The inscr. is Phoen. 
rather than Aram. (Levy Siegel u. Gemmen 5 no. 2); pr. nn. com- 
pounded with I^K) are exceedingly common in Phoen., e. g. frvsta 12 
2 &c. jtairp, lta~lN 3 i &c. ; for the second part of the compound cf. 
the pr. n. ^QD"! CIS i 99 i. The Egypt, style of the cartouche and 
the ornament above it is in favour of Phoen. (cf. p. 27) rather than 
Aram, workmanship. The writing is very early, prob. 8th cent., the 
date of the building of the palace at Nimroud. 

CIS ii 75. A seal in the form of a cylinder. The treatment and 
costume of the figures are Assyrian. In the centre is the eunuch wor- 
shipping the god Hadad, who wears a crown with rays, and holds in 
his right hand what may have been intended for a flower. Behind 
the eunuch is a priest, assisting or initiating him. The inscr., which 
is in Aram., and belongs prob. to the 7th cent., runs as follows : 
Yinb nnpn M NO-ID Ylia na prDt& Belonging to Akdban, son of 
GBRD, the eunuch, who made offering to Hadad. }n3N is 

explained by Levy as derived from I'D = Hebr. 2T3 with N prosth., 
and meaning lit. the false one, callidus. Sachau reads H33N the strong 
one (ZA 1891, 432); but comparing the fifth letter with the 1 in 
mpn it will be seen that the former reading is prob. right. Yn33 

According to Sachau 1. c. Gat>Z>arud=A.ssyr. garparuda or galparuda. 
Another suggestion is made in JA (1892) xix 565 that the name = 
YO 13 client of Barud (a deity). For n see 61 i n. 31pn Afel, as in 
Dan. and 5LzT.=6rz'ng an offering ; for the n retained in Afel, contrary 
to ordinary Aram, usage, cf. 61 29. 62 4. 18. 64 n. 65 3. 97 i, and 
Bibl. Aram. Yin See 61 i n. Macrobius describes the image of 

Hadad as surrounded with rays and holding a flower in his hand, 
Saturn. 1 23. 

150] Seals and Gems 361 


CIS ii 77. A cylinder seal from Assyria. The worshipper, attended 
by winged deities or genii, is offering his devotions to the god llu in 
the form of a disc with wings and a human head (?). Two rays 
descend from under the wings of the disc, one of them touches the 
worshipper. In the centre is a figure which is taken to represent 
the flowing water of a mystic fountain. The inscr. is in Aram., 
and dates from the 8th-7th cent.: *nyin 13 tasT 1 Yirp-el son 
of Hor-adad. The pr. n. taaY may = /KB"}? Josh. 18 27 i.e. 
*?$ KS-1? El will heal, cf. ^NQI i Chr. 26 7. But since NH does 
not occur in Aram., Levy (p. 7) takes 'ST to be the Afel of ""SI, 
and explains El will set free. The engraver has turned N the wrong 
way both times. "njnn The last two letters look alike ; the 1 is 
closed at the top, but in the word 13 it is open, hence njnn Horus 
helps may be right ; nj; = 1TJ7, as 3T3 in J313K no. 2 may = 3T3, 
though 1 = t is remarkable in Aram, of the 8th cent. The reading 
njnn, however, is uncertain; the right-hand stroke of 1 in 12 is 
slanting, but in the last letter of the pr. n. it is perpendicular. How 
is to be explained, if that is the correct reading, is not clear. 


CIS ii 94. An Aram, seal of the 5th cent., Persian period. 
fiata 13 Belonging to Tamak-el, son of Milkom. i>N3)On = El holds, 
sustains, again in Phoen., Cl.-Gan. Sceaux et cachets no. 23 ; the 
verb "pri holdfast is well known in Hebr. and is used in the Targ. 
The explanation suggested in the Corp. /N3 Dfl perfect as El, is most 
improbable. Notice the beginning of a ligature at the foot of 1 
following 3. 


Levy no. 18, p. 31. A Phoen. seal with the inscr. tPN jn^jn^ 
PpinipW' ETC D^>K Belonging to Ba'al-yathon, a man of the gods(l), 
who belongs to Melqarth-resef. D^N t?X Possibly D^N may have 
a sing, meaning, as in the pr. n. D^WnD (?) 33 6 n., but the expression 
man of the gods i.e. divine servant is unusual, and it may be more cor- 
rect to render the nobleman ; for D^N as a title cf. 10 2 n., and for the 
idiom cf. the Hebr. D'jn t^K Prov. 18 24 lit. a man of friends, i.e. 
a friendly man, Dn3T B^K Ex. 4 10. ?]V1 X D A complex divinity; 
see 10 3 n. spl = s)tn 12 3 n. Date, 5th~4th cent" 

362 Seals and Gems [15 o 

Levy no. 7, p. 39. A seal with Hebr. inscr. nj0B> p n 

p nn*ny Belonging to the servant of Eli'ab, son of Shib'ath. 
The servant of Mattath^ son of Sedoqa. Here apparently two persons 
have combined to adopt a common seal. It is probable that SN!?K ny 
are two words, servant of Eli'ab ; and similarly nri~12y servant of 
Mattath. For asi?N cf. the O.T. 3N>JN i S. 16 6. Other seals of 
slaves are Levy no. 8 Vty *l3y VJ3e and no. 9 HJJ "Oy nvh. A slave 
does not give his genealogy; see p. 134. njDt? Cf. the O.T. 

yne> 2 S. 20 i. nnD Prob. abbreviated from rvnriD, cf. 

140 C d. KpT* Cf. the O.T. pftjf, p* i K. 1 26 &c. Date, 

7th-6th cent. 


Levy no. n, p. 42. A scarab of green jasper in Egyptian style, 
with Hebr. inscr. ytyin *ftb For a memorial of Hdshea. The 

form of the T is to be noticed ; it occurs on the coins of Eliazar the 
priest (pp. 359 and 353). The curve in the shaft of 3 is an indication 
of later date. The Hebr. name J?t^n has been found recently at 
Tell ej-Judeideh on a Jewish seal, Lidzb. Eph. i 183. Above the 
inscr. is engraved the figure of a winged sphinx, with the pshent 
head-dress. Date, 8th-4th cent. 


Levy p. 54. A Hebr. seal on both sides of a crystal. On one 
side is engraved in Egypt, style the figure of the god Harpocrates 
sitting on a lotus flower ; on the other is the inscr. : DpT 1 p VB'yS' 
Belonging to 'Astyu, son ofYSqim. The words are separated by small 
strokes. For W .cf. the O.T. njb^ 2 K. 22 12. *?$&% i Chr. 4 35. 
i>Knfe>y s 2 S. 2 1 8 ; the final V is a fragment of mrf, cf. wy above, and 
the form irwy on a Jewish seal, Cl.-Gan. Rec. iii 32. Dpi* Abbrev. 
from D^in) 2 K. 23 34. Date, 5th-4th cent. 



[The fbllowing special abbreviations are used where necessary : d. = deity, 
n. =noun, pr. = pronoun, pre.= preposition. The words and forms are those 
mentioned in the notes.] 

' = n 136. 150 
tf fern. 25 
N'sufF.42.64-94. no. 

133- M6 

3K = 3 84 f. 
3K Ad 228. 253. 273 

3N, '3N 64. 71 

rott 175 


DJ3N 65. 79 
nroy3N 141 

U3N 309 

n3N 5. 8 
H3N.T 189 

J13N pr. n. 200 


J3N43. 139. 143.150 

^D3N 201 

J1D3N 69. 91 

H3N 1 6 8. l84f. 

PH3N 303 

"DJN 190 

p3N 120 

WK 219. 333 f. 338 



285 f. 290 

35- 9 1 - 98. 121 


pN 38. 47. 51. 
78. 8l 

54- 79- 85 f. 

129- 145- Z 5 8 


TIN Adar 276 

T1K 35- 38- 5 1 ' 6o 
91. 100. 106. 129. 

WDT1K 340 

1DTTN 250 

ItyiN 259 

N31N 227 

toi'XBnN 259 

TN pr. 26. 54. 60 
TK 166. 177 


59 f- 
PIN 51. 79. 237. 246 

nnN 225. 232 
triN 5. n. 185. 190 

VHN 232 

mnN 189. 191. 217 

()nnN 51. 119. 191 
priN 209 



& 33. 122 
f. 176. 

146. 155 

^N 117. 119 
D!f3M 1 08 

JBD'N 146 
T-N 78. 229. 250 
>(>) 11.67. 78.209. 

JIN, TVN 22. 82. 122. 

WN 223 



1 66. i68f. 177. 

pi>3N no 
NYIDSN 309 f. 

d. 41. 51. 165 


Index I: North-Semitic 

D.i>N 21. 24. 91. 96. 
99. 101. 121. 154 

>N pr. 26. 39. 79. 128. 

26. 231. 243 

26. 204 

26. 210 

26. 266 


.i99- 205. 239. 

244. 279. 295 
nta 170. 175. 229. 

233. 239. 243. 

245. 254 f. 299 
(p)n!>N 165. 1 80. 
}?N 302 
inta d. 165 

in?N pr. n. 303 

222. 253 
215. 295. 299 f. 


N 225 

Dm3D37K 279. 312. 
33 2 
n. 49. 361 

d. 21. 24. 35 f. 
91. 99 

N 37- 51- 66. 79 
n. 117. 210 
v. 219 
91. 350 

d. 135. 158.222. 
252 f. 275 f. 

Dnn?K i iff. 

ON 46. 350. 352 

DK d. 59. 131 

ON.. ON 24 f. 35. 117 

IVDK 234 
JDS 167. 180 


n. 120. 337 
v. 12. 33. 170. 
180. 206. 305 


|neg. 13 
JN pr.n. 91 f. 
NJN d. 345 
ilJN pr. 182. 190 
UN pr. 243 

1 80. 219. 234. 
236. 311 

6. 19. 27. 62. 93. 
163. 185 
19. 179 

jms 36 


21. 91.99.213 

NIDDN 340 

339 f - 


TDK 21.59. 202.205 
pDK I OOf. 
}DK 204 
33DN 176 

S3DSDK 272 
pBDK 193 
nBDK 101 
1DK 336. 339 



238 f. 254 f. 

35 2 



223. 295 f. 
NVBN 232. 240 

max 231 
nnss 230. 232 

WBK 225. 240 
226. 230 
176 f. 


336. 340 



Dins 236 
24. 190 

264. 332 
pr. n. 64 

199. 255 

JTK 28 
331K 296 f. 
?3"1K 13 

noaoiK 237 

DN3D1N 51. 79 
NyiN 1 66. 260 
pK 41- 166 


"nN 166.183.185. 

Index I: North-Semitic 365 

e)Knp"i8 167 

D33 35. 126. 128 

773 121. 125 

en8 70. 106. 129 

3 double 192 

773 pr. n. 139 

B>8 see B8 

B>8rel. 20. 46.78.108. 

3 for D 33. 87 
8pbD83 275. 277 

!niy73 234 
3py73 284. 305 

129. 1 34. 349 f. 

K*3 191. 206 

7173 29 

niK* 5. 10 

1K > 83iY 1 191 

T)73 21 

Tn371B* 194 

833 309 

HD3 6 

8W8 198 
be* 47 

mj3 229. 250 

13 41. 95. 134 

p 19- 36- 79 

H33 9 f. 

DK>8 168. 185 

813 56. 59 

>33 341 

pB* 36 f. 109 

b'13 266. 332 


riKJDB* 60 f. 

mpbois 44. 95. 1 08 

66. 139. 158. 167. 

ITJtfDB* 33 

0313 35 

215. 257 

D'oyiDK* 1 08 

mnKTn 41. 95. 130 

J33 3 6 

D7B3D&* 130 

p3 122 

73H33 257 

nbwOB* 64. 10 1 

rurm 133 

^7133 63. 89. IOO 

D7E?3DB* 101 

813 128 

7133 pr. n. 202 

D3B* 56. 75 

bl3 d. 267. 274 

8DD3 225 

IB* rel. 5 

8/13 264. 266. 332 

USD 17 

IK* n. 170 f. 179. 
185. 188. 194 

8nbi3 293. 310 
nnjnubu 309 

17JJ3, 7V3 d. 102.218. 

me* 150 

8313 267 f. 307 

TV3'3 1 80 

me* 50 f. 

P3 126 

pH '3 104. 133.145 

nnB* 67 

bt33 335 

DO 1 * '3 69 

718 pr. 28. 188. 191 

}t23 209 

)337 '3 54 

718 pre. 29. 33. 77 

T3 201 

rmo '3 222 

p 718 99 

8T3 271 

IJJD X 3 7. 10. 14 

8718 279 

801^3 284 

lya '3 7 

Iion7i8 191 

P3 234 

}1S 37. 99. 102 

J718 136 

nO) 3 J 3- 3 6 - 9 6 - Ir 5- 

"IX'3 74. 102. 2l8 

D3718 66. 89 

166.184. 2 99-37 

QOK* '3 45 f. 101. 

^33718 276 

(8Vn3 24 2 f. 

108. 282. 295^ 

J1718 358 

D3^8 n3 36. 96 

Tin '3 343 ff. 

D3 H3 13 

7^3 owner 

3 of place 183, refer- 

jnbii m 14 

nim's n8f. 

ence 117.121.224, 

73 d. 101. 248. 269. 

tnn'3 i29f. 

timen5&c.; upon 


PJD3 '3 183 

5. 8, with 7. 13, 

73 Bui 32. 55. 76 

''vaa X 3 177 

from 99, 0/54. 96, 
for 183 

73 neg. 33 
nJ73 179 

33T'3 177 
by3 citizen 50. 142 


inb 235^ 

83n7JD 1 08. 131. 134 


Index I: North-Semitic 

jbobya 347 f. 

^TJIS 292 

*nbNi3 259 

nbxby3 42 

nana 23 

D10D13 264. 282. 332 

oiby3 71. 74 

ma 338 

mpbi3 63 

jbtpbys 107 

pD13 130 

Dbt?by3 8 1. ioi 

nbw 356. 358 

ninK>yi3 84. 130 

nby3 d. 20. 131 

a3 333. 335. 339 

1*13 91 

b33'3 20.218 

baa pr. n. 19 ff. 350. 

{JH3 13 

nnnn '3 131 


DB>3 255 

mpby3 142 

baa 39. 85 

J13 223 

iy3 67 

133 5. 12. 197 

NE>y3 267 

nni3a 171 


1V3 13 

1133 360 

1 = 131 336 

N1*3 239. 285 

13 79. 157. 245. 269. 

m, KI 26. 214 

ypa 5 




K13 126 

ian v. 33. 280 

t?p3 149 

V13 255 

13131* 35 

13 adv. 339 

lbl3 250 f. 

131 n. 17. 104 

13 n. 163 &c. 

nyi3 79 

NO31 332 

nn n3, 13 134. 

13 96. 98 

Nil 301 

249 f. 298. 338 

JO K13 242. 339 

N3,n 336 

M133 246. 306 

NTI13 237. 242 

mn ii 

33 271 .282. 293 f. 

bl3 105 

Naipn 288 

303. 306 

KTO13 237. 310 f. 

Niem 21. 218 

DPP33 256 

n&w 237 

n 266. 282. 333 

bri3 139 

^ 33 

pn 6. 13 

*p3 pr. n. 146. 156 

3b3 67. 79 

nbn 256 

]13 v. 43. 47. 200. 

b3b3 178. 183 

pi 204 


snb3 340 

131 258 

Tia 258. 297. 300 

inb3 228 

pai 234. 243. 260 

'ana 266 f. 

Nbb3 334 

bi 117. 121. 128. 

803313 359 

?lb3 205 


Jin3D13 294 

D3 8. 166. 176. 179 

(nn)bi 46 f. 67. 87 

nyi3 250 

bJ 335 

nbi 169 

N213 298 

103 171 

*O1 225 

1*13 175 

333 170 

pen 262 

p13 299 f. 

8wa 242 f. 

iaoi 348 

33113 165. 175. 179. 

SJ3 213 

PEW 179 


13 12. 63. 67 f. 305 

btfai 301 

D13 220 

N313 274 

mi 26 

(n)n33 178. 229 

D313 178 f. 

P131274. 337. 339 H 

KC^BO 336 

1| by3bND13 260 

oyi 44. 94. ioi 

Index I: North-Semitic 367 

n?xojn 94 

ixjn 240. 249 

N^3T 273. 279. 303 

P"ijn 155 

nain 142 f. 

133n3T 295 

ppn 198 

wn 1 88. 191 

mnT 256 

D'neoTi 96 

Np'BBn 264. 287 

PQT v. 107. 121. 146. 

Dja-n 96 f. 

1&" 337 


nm 153 

jvnoan 226 

H3T n. ii9ff. 124 

*1DtJ^ 4*5 


xpan 284. 289 

DBWQt 59 

N3ian 231. 240 

^JT 273. 291 

n art. 6. 21 f. 

iT3*ian 260 f. 

K1(')3T266. 271. 291. 

iY suff. 8. 79. 185 

in 129 


n' fern. 25 

Twin 361 

pT v. 203. 209. 219. 

n for N 188. 219 

nn 5. 171. 175 f. 185 

2 33- 334- 33 6 f - 

Nn 5- 24- 7 8 - l68 - 339 

o-in 13 

pT n. 280. 332. 335 

in 224. 336 

p^n 8 

niT 17. 

on 12. 243 

awnn 183 f. 

xnpiT 292 

WK 243 

-m 274 

icn 209. 243 

1 conv. 5. 17. 39. 

pnr 283 

non 36. 39. 85 

Il8 f. 122. 124 

n 164. 185. 192. 194. 

NT xn 198 

1 with impf. 217 f. 

346 f. 360 

i^an 223. 257 

l' suff. 8. 1 6 

Op^T 73- 107 

c:n 194 

ntai, itai 1 06 f. 221. 

VT 78 

Tin 164. 1 68. 360 


T3T v. 1 68 

wmn 263. 335 

pNI 230 

-DTn. I7of. 1 80. 185. 

Nin v. 

{j^yNI 5 


rim 175 

25TN1 II f. 

naT 171 

mn 176 

m 169. 185 

niT 177 

tin 333 

vpNam 224. 240 

(p)3DT 248. 257. 

join 340 

iam 232. 303 

njT, JT 26. 185. 187. 

P'l 335 

n!?3ni 222. 291 f. 


W 337 

PIDI 336. 338 

iyr 213 

Din 191 

uyi 8 

PPI 33 6 

yenn 362 

nm 284. 287 

IT 1 20. 170 

Niioyn 279 

JD111 146 

y-|T 25. 29. 168 

Tn, ivn 17 

B>jicn 194 

mT 166 

Kfc()n 282. 334 

^nii'i 229 

iSn 203 

ni 170. 185 

'n=ns 53. 1 10. 131 

pn 12. 17. 209 

s-ini 245 

nn 225 

DiY suff. 39. 184 f. 

la^an 225. 240 

209. 221. 253 

IT, T 26. 165 

ion v. 197 

1Y suff. 191. 203 

HT, HNT, KT 6. 26. 

ijan 311 

jn 170. 234 

143. 168. 209 

13H v. 310 

3 68 

Index I: North-Semitic 

nan n. 116. 145 f. 

npvn 220. 225 

onno 198.220. 230 


l^n 344- 346 f. 

NniDino 256 f. 

jD^Dnan 204 

o^n 203 

Din n. 225. 243. 268 

wan 276. 303 

s)!?n 8. 99. 209. 236 

Dinpr.n. 53 

nan 129 

ni>NE&n 115 

icnn pr. n. 221 

&oan 236 

nvi?n 260 

pn 22 f. 76. 96. 98. 

nn 170. 176. 183 

iapn 230 


rrnn 126. 131 

nabon 158 

t?in 67. 72f. 130. 139 

vnn v. 74. 105. 130. 

ntan 131 

KBnn 284 


nbn 228. 231 

nnnn 215 &c. 2501". 

BHn n. 66. 84. 86 

Don 203 

nnin 223 

Kin 142 

jon 50 f. 104 

a^n 149. 339 

iinn 24 

won 104. 299 

ptpn 338. 340 

"ns 255 

Don 169 

j^iN^n 20 1 

(i)nin 200. 232. 236 

nn 213. 305 

^tj>n 293 

jamn 14 

xnon 336 

Tin 303 

nenn 225 

in 24. 87. 91 

onn ioo 

mn 135 

san v. 168. 178 

*ann 202 

inin 240 

xan pr. n. 94. 107 

nmi9o. 203.210. 333 

DtDian 108 


inn 341 

la^an 226. 245 

trcntcB 158 

oaym 71 

)an 36 

yat3 44 

nm 120 

nan 153. 337 

nata 221 

nasn 231 
nan 166. 176. 338 

oaon no. 157 
won 206 

n3 242 f. 
tuo 115. 142. 147- 

iB^tsn 245 

pn 274. 280 

150. 158 

itan 165 

ntonon 201 

sa^ia 158 

13D1Dn 154. 156 

*sn 202 

M30 58 f. 64. 79. 

lotam 259 

7jnxan 92 

84. 98 

0^62.64. 79. 81.86. 

avn 17 

iivta Q i (< f. 


m*n 153 

| l > LJ OoO M 

Nioyta 250 

245 f. 256. 295 

xijpn 198 

NnoyB 339 

"Vn 78. 129 

ppn 171. 185 

pm 266. 285 

ann 176. 261 

Krrvn 304 

ann 243 

" Ifil 58 

nm 85 

nnn 358 f. 

^impf. i68f. 

aim 117. 121 

nn 128. 155 

^ sufF. 4 if. 58. 64. 79. 

roafen 165. 168 

n^Din 128 

104. 119 

rf?n 256 

Nnn 288 

JO 126 

la^pn 230. 234. 276. 

N^nn 243 

HN> 163 f. 175. 177 f. 

302 f. 

Din v. 5. 12 

*?W 1 06 

Index I : North-Semitic 


NJK* 225 

ni* 85. 129 

nn*a 213 

f>3* n. ii9f. 180 

(N)hani* 267. 280 f. 

no*a 275. 302 

i*3* v. 176. 1 80 

295 f. 299. 303 

N*a 184 f. 

(N)t?3* 300. 340 

*ni* 280. 282. 302 


KT 278. 289 

$>NB1* 361 

n?a . . n^a 229 

n 273 

en* 5. 8 

no b 184 f. 335 

i>ay*T 299. 303 

ni* 230 

*N$>3 13 

an* 213. 225. 235 

35?* 9. 91. 176. 179. 

inasb 86 

D*n*.n* 353 ff. 


N3i>3 237 f. 

prnn* 353 ff. 

itih _. C 

yjjn g ji. 

Dab 67 ff. 

pn* 12 

^N1{?* 356 

*b 12 

i>yain* 19 

(?)ie 36. 171 

n3*i>a 221 

*yai* 149 

n* 170. 279 

saiva 226 

noi* 342 

nan* 169 

"fra 343 f. 

Dp*.* 362 

ion* 1 66 

ijpa n7f. 124 

sn* 276 

jn* 38 

icta 184 

"poin* 19 

nn*8 5 

D3 X suff. 170 

i>ya3n* 130 

}na 122 

l?NO3 24. 51. I28f. 

3B* 183 

^ajn* ioi 

aoa 352 

1^>* 217 

in* 167 

nhoa 246 

?^* 146 

nin* 176 

oaoa 221 

D* 86. 125 

103 126. 146. 187. 

no* 9 

a = *a 136. 146 

199. 252 

DO* 55- 58 f. 74- 

(*,)iaa 167. 177 f. 

K1O3 pr. n. 293 f. 303 



t?oa 7 

NO* 300 

nnaa 48 f. 

UB^a 6 

K*n3D* 337 

*na 202 

p^oa 6 

ID* 136 

v*na 217. 306 

ma 98 

P|D* 13 f. 24. 39 

ji?na 230 

pja 32. 294. 306. 310 

iry 107 

jna 27. 85. ioi. 129. 

wua 277 

*i>y* 262 

150- 353 ff- 

joitta 145 

noy* 247 f. 

70 338 

jyND:a 145 

jynaoy* 142. 156 

}oia 204 

fyja 349 f - 

.jynxvy* 142 


D1S33 78 f. 

py 13 

118. 124 

tW3 V. 209 

KB* 38 

VffQ 225 

5W3 I45f. 

OK** 77 

n*,a 280 

DND3 86 

rbv n8 

*T3 194. 210. 276. 

h!*D3 288 

1' 37- 139 

282. 338 

p3 43. 88. 118. 124. 

TV 155 

!>D3 189 

136. 302 

D/t^ll* 356 ff. 

*a*a 209 

iaya 218 



Index I : North-Semitic 

JV3 203 

Mnin? 236 

ypao 12 

VS3 22g 

inmij 248 

Tl 268. 283 

^S3 i66f. 177 

onb 126 

mao pr. n. 299 

JOB3 219. 224 

wrb 2 10 

n:o 225 

KnS3 296 

D1o!> no 

po 275 


i^'s^i^- 169. 185 

po pr. n. 92 

TI3 272 

*yW 145 

'IB 332. 334- 338 f. 

K313 242. 272. 274 

B^f> 184 f. 

fc^TD 338. 340 

D'D*13 6l. 74. 183 

N3^> 279 

Nrvno 266. 281 f. 291 

^"13 206 

13^ 69 

NnnD 237 

vis 77. 146 

p^ 99 

(n)no 38 f. 86. 122. 

KTP3 340 

th^nfh 39- X 34 


an3 v. 98. 122. 148. 

Nci? 311 

p . , no 234 

154- 230. 334 

'ao^ 62. 79. 119. 129 

sanno 8 

3D3 n. 217. 220. 224 

nne& 97 

"ino 307 

()na 56. 66. 78. 352 

*xk 335 

^vanno io8f. 

B>n3 171 
i> pre. 32. 122. 347. 

}yob 191 
naof? 42 
*y*? 171 

N11D 300 f. 
H11D 169 
D1B 337 

358. 360 

jy^> v. 218. 221 

nsio 177 

!?= 149 

jyi> ^^/or 24. 91 

NV1 17. 49. 178 

c 35. 119 

vsb 85 

NplD 178. 185 

cnl? 184 

^ 122 

ni 189. 236 

!>=^ 259 

vsb 5- " 

novD 169 

b=$b 190 

/ 7 impf. 169. 171. 185 

*b 203 

''DB^' III 

npi> 126. 206 
nnpi? 17 

nnnoo 191 
amo 199. 221 f. 243. 

(x)3*iK^ 46. 349 

wcvb 275 

nattD 56.81. 

ho 275 

}B>^ 1 66 

nro 42. 346 f. 

iBs6 33 

i>T 82. 

'a!' 121 

D=no 165. 168. 190 

|f3T 149 

NII!> 145 
pa!> 128. 132 

D' sufF. 39 
KKK10 149 

mTD 121. 145 f. 153. 

njab 126 

D3TD 128 

no 126 

*yp& 285 

D1DD3ND 312 

nn 97 

'r=6 147. 158 

|XD 191. 213 
DJD 29. 34. 128 

nrno 153 

THD 201 


mB 109 

njno 178 

., 177 

BN 158 

none 119 

aW 358 

(f)nND 13. 129. 229 

axrio 107 

nn!> 189 

ruao 96 

mn 12 

Index I : North-Semitic 



280. 333 


DDVD 122 

D 13. 206. 311. 

Dp^D 149 


67. 76. 89 

126. 332 f. 337 
JTS30 145. 149 



)^ 24. 67. 128 

pr. n. 278 


fa d. 49. 154 
(K)3ijD n. 1 1 6. 149. 

DIN 137 f. 
D3^O ^D 38. 201. 

205. 290 
fa v. 176 

32 f. 40. 76 f. 
268 ff. 297. 
299. 302 f. 

JD n. 179. 185 

pr. n. 239 f. 253 
f. 257 

- 74- 76- in. 


49. 104 


' d. 135 
n. 246 
pta 6 1. 74 
mpta 74. 84. 102. 
109 ^yvuzzz? 

*pnmpi>D 361 

nnf>DD no 

nai>D 21. 34 ff. 149 

}D pr. 167 f. 188. 191 
JD pre. 167 f. 230. 
256. S3 2 f- 

n ID 294 
Djn(a)D 205 f. 243. 

282. 333 f. 

mo 192 

ny(i)JD 227. 234. 255 

inuD 219 

DD3D 7*' 89 

nroD 42. 87 f. 117. 

121. 124. 155 

poo 47. 250 
y3D 169 
nvp3D 92 

N1JDD 238. 248. 255 

-DDD 42. 154 

36. 155 


- 145 

myo 131. 242. 308. 

yBD 40. 85 

B b a 

MVD 60. 62. 98. 139. 


170. 177. 183 
91. 209 
(xn)n3pD 242. 244. 


enpD 105. 115. 130. 

214. 266 

DpD 167 


no d. 65. 109 

KID 178. 209. 225. 

243. 255. 287 f. 
295 f. 
mo 287. 293 

NlJiOD 311 

nriD 95. 121 f. 303 
65- 79 


256. 278 


1 80 

210. 336 
225. 230 

29. 34. 62. 72. 


JB5PD 85 

372 Index 1 : North-bemitic 

i>pB>D 88. no. n 8 f. 

ba 1 88 

-UD 35. 39 

NJT"H?D 248. 282. 304 

D3 r sufF. 39 

N^pID 264. 266. 312. 

mt^o 97 

ND1D3 332. 340 


nans 176 

^nj?D3 206 

n^iD 126 

* _ p- -> * * O 

f|nn&/D 33^ 

noa 189. 197 

N^DID 262 

no 167. 176. 185 

nnD3 235 

NniD 197 

Nno 155 

D2D3 139 

nno n 

NDD pr.n. 266 

DV3 82. 84. 147. 149 

nno 25 

i>uno 294 


JVD 289 

(K)3no 46. 303 

pB3 199. 210. 335 f. 

pD d. ioo. 130 

(!T)nnB 355. 362 

338 f. 

pD n. 53 

paaiT 1 199 

1DD n. 47. 84. 147 

a demonstr. 29. 34 f. 

nnpa3 212 

nao v. 88 

39 f - 209 

tt'23 69.199. 214. 247. 

&tni>D 156 

f du. pi. 5. 10. 39 

naoxa 95 


na3 126 

DIplpD 283 

nobo 75 

nnsa 240 
ma 7. 12 

3V3 n. 103 f. 1 08. 164. 
175. 180 

pyjjD 223. 225 
p^D 272. 275. 333 f. 

-ana 288 

3V3 v. in. 166. 253 

moo 87 

nrna 296. 303 

n 76 

Nn^DD 302 

liana 2i5f. 225 

"IV3 189 

K3OD 242 

nraa 21 5 f. 

nnp3 17 

(n)^DD 58. 74. 76. 

t?a3 1 68. 179 

rppa 250 


mna 171 

rfpa 213 

sp^pao 264. 266. 

H3 79. 157. 245 
hma 301 

2*ti 187 

i>n3 101 

285. 312 

pt3"1l3DD 338 

sn^na 285. 287. 292 

1313 85 

ODD 62 

ma 100 

0^13 298 

ODD 8 1 

Naia 337 

N^3 n. 96. 98. 358 

nyo 1 68 

b-iia 307 

Nt2>3 v. 13. 99 

*P 43 f- 

n 33 

KB>3 pr.n. 293. 299. 

xao 281 

cru 204 


J1BD 338 

iona 79 

a^tio 234 

DVDBfiD 285. 287 f<. 

?w 36 

^3 1 88 

29of. 293 

NBTia 256 

n^33BO 229 

pao 149 

rwn 22. 54. 87 

^3 169 

nao 67 

nna n. 62. 72 

jna 38. 1 66 f. 169. 

P321D 333 

nna v. 210. 271 f. 

2IO. 217 

pno 340 

$>N-|B3 254 

HD 205 

p^a 218 

D=T 156 

XD"ID 360 

)ODy>a 146 1 aao 145 

D1D1D 70 f. 

Index I : North-Semitic 


N^nno 193 

toy 347- 350- 

snpy 299. 304 

1PT 283. 295 f. 

ny 154.215. 245. 253. 

y' fern. 25 

"frory 44 


nay v. 166. 221. 287 

nry pr. n. 71. 77 

$> 'y 105. 107 

nay n. 49 f. 53. 183. 

^yannry 74 

p^ 'y 95 


anny 213 

nv 'y 47 

na nay 58 

nnoy 63 

nannnnp 'y 134 

noaxnay 69 

nay 96. 154 

By kinsman 245. 253 

otanay 46 

nnay 10 

Dy pre. 223. 253. 282 

noxnay 59. 62. 64. 

NTy 333 . 

nO)oy 23. 275 

79. 91. 103 

wy 217. 240 

njoy 223 

enxnay 129 

ry !3 

DDy 34. 121. 124 

^anay 274 

n^y v. 230 

Py 155 

nnnnnay 226 

Ty 223. 234 

noy n. 280. 338 

'N^nay 129 

naay 130 

poy pr. n. 199 

T,tanay 62 

hy over 96. 98. 115. 

nnoy 136 

la^onay 250 

1 30. 1 46, upon 2 2 6. 

ny 154 

DDDnay 62. 79 

237. 311, beyond 

m jy 98 

nnaynay 224 

122, for 79. 213. 

wy 304 

(n)nntrynay 72. 352 

295, because of 2 50 

my v. 209. 300 

"DDnay 75 

ja ^y 22. 118. 122. 

it^jy 246 

nnay pr. n. 239. 244 


MMy 237. 304 

in^ay 230. 304 

N^y adv. 219 f. 230. 

coy 122 

nTay 242. 248. 332 


njy 80 f. 

way 142 f. 

ni>y v. 146 

noy 32. 225 

nay 42 

m[N]i>y 14 

bay 13 

xnmnay 346 f. 

(^y pr. n. 256. 332 

nnay 136 

winay 248 

N3^y pr. n. 277 

novy 39 

nay 356 

!>i?y v. 309. 335 f. 338. 

apy 69 

toy 283 


any 98 f. 

fay 303 

D^y youth 164. 336. 

N^any 261 

hai>jy 301 ff. 


nny v. 39 

n^jy 72 f. 302 

vfvby 335 

nn-ony 242 f. 

nny 255 

no^y 70 

nany 106 

my 201 

xno^y 340 

nyny 13 

nny 272 

D^y n. 128 

|any 339 

iiy v. 305 

NO^y eternity 295 ff. 

nany 23. 48. 98 

niy pr. n. 303 

300. 307 

pny 89 

jny 141. 150 

Nx5>y 136 

Nuny 199. 296 

my 309 

rhy upon 24. 28. 35. 

nny 22 f. 119. 155 

ry 81. 336 

39-97- "6 

fcoa&^y 340 


Index I : North-Semitic 

VtJ^V "3O2 

o?a 175 

nns n. 22 f. 

wniw 264. 333 

p^a 141 


Njmnpy 309 

D^B 130 

nnpy pr. n. 271 

DB 170. 184 

13V 262. 272. 294.333 

POD nn&j>y 7. 12. 49 

toa 165. 190 

n3v v. 309 

nnnpy 27 f. 50. 91. 

*DB 75 

nav n. 203 

99. 127 

jn^DB 55. 58. 349 

TV d. 91 

S>y3 DP 'y 37 
ny 106. 115. 

pa 201 
i>y2 IB 37. 106. 132 f. 

"IV n. 117. 1 20 
NTV 194 

nny, sny 79. 269 f. 

1D3B 163. 176 

W1V 91 

P'ny 274 

naa 124 

^y3D1V 105 f. 

^niany 303 

DB 122 

JTV9I. 95. 134-213 

jmny 306 

K7DB 226 

oanv 46. 54. 95. 

nnyiny 28. 269 f. 
nnny 28. 269 

^ya 23. 43 
jni>ya 20. 
Dya ^>ya 24. 51 

350- 352 
nnv 10 1 
pnv v. 197 

B=^J 165. 185. 223. 


ni?ya 69. 74 

plV n. 25. 86. 1 80. 

183. 190 

B=IK 153 

oya d. 55 

xnpnv 197 f. 

N3=a 168. 171 

Dya n. 47. 119. 130 

NpTV pr. n. 362 

BMB 212 

$>NB 246. 309 

H^opnv 349 

ptaa 55 

vva 259 

rwm 133 

P-I'3 339 

j6na 141 f. 

fxa 243 

npa 74 f. 

sninv 242. 245 
onnv 12 

eoiB 209 
pia 28 

pipe 243 
npB 88 

nyiv 117 f. 124 
xnv 204. 213 

nna 299 

IB 36. 126 

NT'V pr. n. 299 

TIB 178 

jna 231 

1TV 256. 299 

B-inannca 204 

Dana 67 

P* 356. 358 

pooa 245 

'tuna 282 

jyvv 147 

nniBB 205 

wane 343 f. 

*Tfnv 2 sa 
in/* ^5^ 

noes 197. 204 

^na 298 

D!>V 106. 196 f. 199 

N^ataa 337 

D313 282. 294 

Nnohf 278. 292 

IBB 9 if. 

ona 176 

3TPD^V 197 

B 177 

DIB 71 

nov 86 

wua 213 

yia 338 

nyv 245 

3^53 46. 210 

P"3 304 

myv 213 

*pi/>3 79 

pP3 339 

nyv I29.J5IO 

Nnmn^a 264. 332 

{TP3 177 

hw 49 

B 167 

xnins 226 

nav i 20 

w6a 286 

nna v. 28. 35. 311 

N13V pr. n. 277 

Index I : North-Semitic 375 

f 117. 120 

N^p 279 

taai 239. 250 f. 255 

"IV d. 175 

D^p 249. 338 

N*VDKai 334 

"IV n. 170 

DSJp 148 

naan pr. n. 303 

nx Tyre 43 f. 46. 51. 

'IMP 33 f - 

rum 273 

54- 74- 35 2 

DJp 223. 235 

ya*i 190 

{''N a*!V 117. 1 20 

jriJDp 234 

n^B> 'i 237 

Nirnx 237. 242 

N2p 66 

p-ixnyan 178. 183 

^3Xp 339 

pnai 183. 185 

^ap 193- 39 f - 

VXp 252 flf. 

n31 pr. n. 312 

nap v. 142 f. 217 

r^P 39 

rn 28. 169 

nap n. 341 

nivp n8. 124 

win 250 

Dip adv., pre. 86. 190. 

np 67 

^1 335 f. 338 


Nip 21. 24.155. 167. 

}m 219 

(n)cnpi2o. 126. 177. 


inn 253. 304 

257. 332 

N^priD 256. 283. 

son 235. 237 

mp 215 


lan 225 

CTp v. 8 1 

aip 295. 268. 360 

pi l8 3 

tjnp 120. 126. 154. 

Nnanp 201 f. 

pun 280 

350- 352- 356 

p^anp 340 

onn d. 276 

Dip 170 

srnp 7 

Dm 245. 266. 288. 

D'p 217. 236. 300 

Nt3DOnp 291. 293 

300 f. 305 

Dpn 164. 179. 271. 

Knp 339 

ray 'n 215. 245. 

281. 291. 339 

nnp n 


IDpD 276 

}jvnp 10 

worn 295. 300 

imp 295 

i?np 163. 167. 176 

nom 5. 12 

pep 203 

Tip 119 

nn 5. n 

nop 312 

Dip 335 

nan 177 

mop 126 

ntjnnrnp 53- 69. 134 

$>Naai 165. 183. 302 

!"iDVp 289 

OK'p v. 311 

yn 17 

KD'p 209 

NBPp 312 

'yn 285 

13'p 229. 231 

JIDt^p 338 

Dy"i 69 

jorp 289 

i>np 177 

nyi 97 f. 150 

lD(^)p 249. 252. 262. 

NS1 no 


i=an 106. 115 

DNS"! 29 f. 35 

TP 5- " 14. 166 

ntn 5- 8 

w 177 

enn -vp 7 

n^sn 54 

in 233. 296 

Kep 219. 235 

an 42. 70 f. 84. 101. 

Nivn 232 f. 

(N)^p 94. 104. 1 10.133 

ppn 361 

^p 212 

nai 21. 36. 58 f. 

pn 167 f. 185 

D^p 252. 268 

91. 99. 127. 131 f. 

BH n. 13. 264. 285 

wp 213 

135. 158. 213 

BH pr. n. in. 147 


Index I : North-Semitic 

v. 170. 234. 236 
56 f. 67. 165 

i 56 f. 

'n 76. 79. 89 

6 1. 74 

t? io8.nof. 129. 139. 
147. 187. 190 



n8f. 203 

B3P 225. 302 f. 



runt? 362 

rD&pr.n. 268 

203. 280.332 


37 f- 85 


vw 187 f. 
art? 197. 255 

nrw 170. 175 

47. 228. 240. 

243- 334 


104. 170. 1 80. 
191. 197 


TK> 255. 304 

271 f. 



295. 304 
v. 210 


232. 240 


cbv v. 81. 99. in 

n. 67. 117 f. 124. 
203. 258 ff. 
pr. n. 79. 84 

220. 225. 234 

d. 42 

pr. n. 299 

D0> : n. 47. 190. 197 f. 
297. 300 

ha at? 37. 1 06. 


182 f. 

B' 71 
1 66 

45- 157 
D11KBBP 36 
ptt> num. 77 
DB>n. I2of. 



278. 358 f. 
not? 72. 107. 148 

d. 75. 101. 104. 
165. 188. 222. 
267. 269. 276. 
297 f. 299 
v. 279. 283 
n. 29 

298. 311 
num. 103 
v. 243 

fc6aa 198 
rut? n. 169 


175. 267 

W 5 f. 40 47.51. 
78. 95. 106. no. 
115 f. 130. 148. 

rw pi. 32. 40 f. 

55- 85. 141 
r6tnyp 361 
rbnyv 304 
234. 246 
234. 260. 288 

1 66. 176 
13. 138 

tJSt^ 44. 63. 100. 106. 
no. ii5f. 129 f. 
146. 157. 

tr n8. 176. 356 

pr. n. 147 


6 1 

194. 212 f. 

Index I : North-Semitic 


la'ne' 277 f. 312 

Ninn 335. 339 

sraon 205 

xnnc' 275. 295 

"ann 205 

N>Jn num. 337 

PB> 12. 41 

nnn 29. 35 

u'Dn 5^ 

"n 332. 334 

&6^on 276 

wn 243 f. 

cnt? 36 

onTn 272 

pn, nan 194. 279 

NnB> 1 68. 305 

NDTI 197 

njn 37. 127 f. 132 f. 

Kins? 184 

N^o^n 225. 229 

njn 259 

vfoflD'Tl 228. 262. 

Ninon 209 

n = n*t 147. 149 f - 


yn 27 


ic^n 237. 303 

nayn 29 

n' fern. 5. 25 

wi 269 ' 

nyn 153 

iNn 3 8 

nioyD^n 303 

Nn'avn 277. 282. 

Nan 205 

NVD^n 307 


njnn 27. 33 

wno^n 233. 273. 303 

bpn 209 

man 124 

pn 126 

jpn 291 

lo^anbn 178. 183. 

N-vn 301 

fjpn 217. 231 


n^jn 47. 66 

lonnn 344 f. 

Ncan 287. 

r6n 210 

rann 344 

Nun 271. 287. 333 

nnbn 262 

pin 237 

-iin 263. 335 

pn?n 237 

pniin 266 

N'nonn 268. 284 

on 95 

(N)^nin 247. 282 

inn 209 

non 206 

K^JDC^^ Q ^ *7 

sun 238 

^N3Dn 361 

nan 252. 283 



1 conj. iv 58 

p/. 294 

jjflb 122 

J\ 50 

i/>. "5 

J-> 39 

e,Ufl 56 

.xd) 21 

^ 44 

jj>1 ii 

u^-* ^ 


jU 242 


.*jj 263. 284 

Ii 168 

j^-,1 57 


^^,1 1 66 

iXJ 136 

^ 237 

y u. 56 

4)1 *J 228. 237. 269 

ji 45. 218 

.11 . _ _o 

(jJ\ o 2Io 

ts.l ii 


-^ * 


ji^i'-Ll .^ 260 

SXj ; l 255 

*U. 242 

v-1 1 68 

}*? 63. 305 

u}> 285 

J^ 243 

A2. 223 

. uO.liut *!_] 296 

Jxdl conj. viii n 

(jlcjA. 79 


jil 223 

(V s !- 2 59 

j4; 2 7 6 

JloSl conj. viii 13 

^* 225 

*Vy 280 

r-c I55 

JOsk. I2O 

*U, 167. 233. 273 

Jl 245 

a. 243 

^ 97- 167 

js& 214. 236 

u^* 2 43 


JJ 214 

*y 12. 22O 

cfe 97 

1&J1 219 

eyiUl 222 

. 2OO 


^ 120. 337 


j^ 271 

i* 135 

Ji;7 x 

Jl, *lil 225 


(V; 33 

Ijl 22 

J0^k. 128 

^^ l6 3 

M U. 309 


Ja- 238 

jbb 212 

c_al 8. 230. 234 

(^^Sf II 

(^^> 191 

*** 33 

'TO f 

p'. XI 5 

dJJL 220 


\r>. I2 4 

> 153 


Index II : Arabic 


J.^- 252 

u_ 165. 217 

i*js? 198 

dOL 8. 107 

Ji* 299 

A>.o 87 

Sj+~> 129 


4lll ^^t* 199 

,L 271 


^sC 142 

e*l 177 

C*s^ 278 

*ki 184 

U U 165 

u yi ^ 230 

jb. 223 

J'lu 82 

^ I8 ? 

v_JlS 212 

itlu 219 

AifiJl 3L**+J 3O4. 

JjLS 177 

ils 213 

5jU 12 

iS^ 197 

U-s 3 2I 9 

v^ 171 

Jjto 245 

c^ 229 

*^ 235 

Sj^s 242 


u^<fl> 103 


^/ 4 8 


elsr* 184 

S^! 63 



ij~> 126 

^*a 124 



J-A 223. 257 

840 242 

^ ^'iq 

r^ J 97 

idi 179 

JA 164 

^U, 242 


IJA 198 

Jt 106. 196 

e)^-p 213 

t^jjl 1 IA 78 

L?j* 176 


J 47- 169 

^A 2O I 

t/- l8 9 

Jjlj 1 06 

u ^Uc 187 

^ 218. 223 

-^j 243 

j'.^lc 28 

l_/*?r I "4 

Sj 169 

(jolff 136 

JJ 169 



^ 199 

L 184 

J-j n8 

a *..l234 

Uj 1 66 


u^U 13 

u.*Aj 224 


UV 275 

jA 223. 230. 234 

j^- 268 

CBl- 13 

r 309 


o/ 227 
;/ 209 



Jjjso^ 120. 337 
*W 12 


237- 336 

JjUJLX ddoj/ 296 
W 332 









Ei v>nr>-> 4*1^242 

3 2 




*oo 191 
IGLOO! 283 
\Jot 198 

jtdiLdot 231 

1 20 



Jiou. 153. 337 


t~ 284 



^wcu' sufF. 209. 311 






loa 170 



' 277 



334- 339 




Index III : Syriac 






wo 3" 




j 213 




i 88 

jllaao 197 
)t>.> 198 














.o 312 










*CLL 243 




ILUl 282 




'A/38jXip,of 46 

*A7Ttf 2 O2 

BeX/ia'pt 65 

'ApSfoovvos 104 

'AjrdXXwi/ 'Ayvtfus 57 

BfeX(ra/ii}p 37. 46 

'A/SSi/uTucBV 62 

,, *AXao-ta>ri;s 89 

BijX^f 21 

'A8oua<mof 69 

'A/uiKXdf 76 

Br)TOfiap<rta 122 

ayaX/ia iirl\pv<rov 76 

dpyairfTTjs 289 

Bocrdp 13 

'AyXicoXos 301 

' Aperar 2 1 5 f. 

BoufiaorpaTo? 41 

ayopai, eV r?t 96 

"Ap;r 129. 296 

jSovXfvr^f 284 

' O 

ayopavou.'ho'CiVTCi 2oO 

"ApKTj 89 

/SovXi; 264. 294. 332 

'Aypevs 91 

'Apa-ivoT] 51. 79 

Bu/3Xos 19 

aofXd>df 246 

*Apre/it8es 133 

Bufainoi' Ifi8 

A&coSo? 164 

'ApTf/w'Scopos 133 

"ASams 6 1 

dpx>jyfTT)s I O2 f. 

TaCSof 105 

*Aibs 296 

apxwpevr IOI 

yepovna 1 1 6. 354 

'AQdpa 269 f. 

apxiTrpaypzrevrijs 71 

yd/wr 335 f. 

'Adfjvr) 8 1. 222 

apxovTfs 279. 332 

VpflLt LtCtTft'i 1 2 O 2 

'Adrjvoftupos 222. 291 

'AoTcXjjTrids 36 f. 

Twy 1 6 

-ai 266 

datrdpiov 336 

a ta> i/toy 307 

'Aorapreioj/, TO 27 

Aat/3a>v 6 

*A/ma Aouaapta 219 

'Aardprri 21. 27 f- 36 

dat'/iwi; Kapx?8oi/ia)v 

aXa/3aoTpoi/ 336 

' ATapyaTif 28. 49. 269 f. 

107. 132 

'AXe'av8pos 353. 355 

OTfXlJS 134 

dapeucot 97 

aX 110. 338 

drofJirfrog 119 

AaTa/xi;; 344 

'AXievs 91 

'ArrtKat 283 

dera7rpo)TO( 334 

'AXiXar 222 

avTOKpdVop 290 

AfpKCTco 269 f. 

'Appds 131 

dfpcibfw 274. 280 

dep/jLdTa 1 1 8 

*A/i/iovws 104 

'A(ppo8to-/ou 27 

8e<rirotva 287 

dvaypd^at 98 f. 

'AcppoSin; 27. 270 

8f(Trr6rr)s 287 

dvadepara 22O 

Bv^Xti; 21 

AijurjTTjp 131 

'At/airtr 133 

' A^fd(ro>fios 62 

&r)pavutos 348 

avaicres 74 

"A^TJTOS 91 

sr^os 264. 294 

tLvacrcrat 74 

8r}fj.otria>VTis 333 

dvbpiavres 34^ 

BaXo-iXX^ IOI. IO7 

8;i/apta 274. 336 

'AvvilSas 1 08 

Bapaa^jSas 268 

8iKaio<rvvr) 197 

'An-i'yovoj 230. 355 

^ao-tXeis 115 

Aiovvo-tor 59- I 3 

'Avrioxos 230. 349 ^* 

pa<ri.\(vs 290 f. 

Atdiaiaos 2 1 8 f. 222 

1 Airrirrarpos 93 

/Sao-tXto-tra 29of. 


'ATretXcow 'EXeirat 89 

QcKTLS 2 2 ") 

Atoireidijs 96 

Index IV: Greek 


A to; 294 

Zfuf Stvios 46 

KXl'vty l87 

Soy/id 332 

'OXv/iTTtOS 46 

KOIVOV, TO 96. 354 

Ao/idfu 94* IOI 

opetos 54 

Korrpia 319 

Ao/xcroXur 94. IOI 

,, (TOXTTyp IOO 


Aovadprjs 2 1 8 f. 

fyurros 291. 

KotryTjpo* 234. 305 

dpaxpr; 96 f. 

297 f. 

Koo-vaTai/or 234 

Zrjvo^ia 291 f. 

wJoros 338 

"E0aor 270 

KpOTiOTOf 34O 

f?3coAov 29 

ijytiu&v 279 

Kprfvos 20 f. 350 

Ei&D/SaXos 27 


wcVrijs 291 

-eir, -, -eu> 266 

'HXiov TrdXtr 91 

Kv^peia 27 

(l(TKOfii^eiv 335 

'Hpa/cX^r 74. IO2. 107 

jcwtr 68 

eVc TOJV tSi'coi' 256 

->7* ->7> -^ 267. 275 

Kvirpis 27 

eWo/j/3a<i/ 59 

Kwrpos 63 

fKT]f3o\OS 57 
fKKOfJLt&lV 335 

QaflfWfi 27 
Qaftdfiopa 263 

Kvpios /SacrtXccui/ 38 

f\fT)fj.ocrvvr) 197 

dearpov 225 

XaKKos IO 

'EXXom'a 158 

^eot d8eX(pot 51* 79 

Xa^tTrpdraTOf 2 8 5' 287 

fvvnviov 203 

deoTTotovcri 244 

AaoStKeuj 46. 349 f. 

ecdpa 309 

5eos tty-iarof 298 

Adrnj^os 57. 85 

tirapxia 231. 261 

Qfjptav 91 

Adpra^ 85 

cirapxos 231. 281 

dtua-os 121 

Aedorapros 275 

fnipf\r)TT]s 72. 107. 280 

'lepajSaXof 280. 312 

Ae/3/3aios 145 

fTTlTpOTTOS 245 f. 288 

'lepaKoap wjcros 108 

Xftroupyt'a 99 

epyaarrjpiov 136. 337 

lepodimjs 107 

Xeoj/ra?, 8wo 56 

pp.r)V(vrf)S 6 1 

(VariOTrcoXat 337 

AeuKoy 128 

'Eo'/xoOvor 37 

'idXao? 1 06 f. 

Atfrmns 27 

'EoTtyiO'eXi^ioi; IOI 

iTnrucdr 284 

\ifiavos 126 

enupat 337. 340 

Xtp.eVo 335 

ev(pyTT) S 51 

Kdfieipoi 37 

Xirpa IIO 

(vpfvtjs 149 

Kattrap 252 

ASos 273 

fvYaptoTwr 3OO 

KavT]<p6pos 78 f. 

fU^VYfl 2O6 

Kapvdiv 269 

Maiou/Lta? 122 

*E<picas mjy^s 72. 280 

Kapi >iKO 335 

Mdap 1 08 

Acara8w I35f. 

MaXax/SJJXof 104. 268. 

Z^eSalos 271 

*car* ai-Spa 213 


Zvt B^Xos 288. 303 

KetpaSa? 7 

MaXt^ar 239 

V Kv;rp6) 89 

XwX 213 

/xajTtdp^f 72 

GaAucrcrtor 37 

"W* 01 339 

Mdp^a 278 

, . fUdOfjclxOS 222 

Kinov 158 

Mdpvas 65. 109 

ptyuTTOS 295 f. 

KXeivoTnyyds 72 

p,yaXd8o|os 51 

Index IV : Greek 

ptyapov 131 

Hfparrjs, 6 71 

truyxX^TtKOf 285 

MfXed 275 

n/rpa 215 

(TVyicXlJTOS I 1 6 

MeXftddpo? 74 

TroXtri;<rd/i'oj/ 280 

2uXXator 232. 245 

MepfiaXos log 


<rvp.iro(Tiapxos 288. 303 

unXwrns 3 3 3 

il I OOO 

Hpai8r]fj.os 8 1. 84 

(rvfj.(fra>voi 338 

WPP?) log 

npd|t7r7rof 84 


Mr]Ti)p t fj 131 

irp6f8pos 332 

(ruvobia 271 

fi.i<rda>rr)s 333 

irponvXov 98 

crvvodidpxijs 2*Jl 

IJLVO. 96 

Trpoordnjf 289 

avvotlos 95- IO2 

Mvcurcas 89 

irp6<rT(oiov 98 

crucrorri'a 122 

u.6&iov 33" 

Hvy^aXtw./ 56 

2a>TTjp 255 igg 

Hv/idroy 56 

2a>x a P ( ^ 42 

irupafiides 214 

Na/3aralot 2l6 

ray pa 287 

N^pa/3o$ 187 

'PajSao-ftp?/ 198. 334 

Taivrl8a 132 

NtVi/Sts 1 104 

reXwvnr QQ'l 
* t^ ti t> 


2ayvouwd5(ov I OO 

TfflfVOS 5O 269 


2aXau,3a> 106 

Ttwrjs 27 

Nov/wjwo? 63 

2aXu/uot 2 2O 

Tea>p 204 

SafitlfiytpafWf 298 

Ttraw'Ses 133 

Sai/StKoy 289 
fvoc 282 

Sapcnriav 103 


&fpr)S 2OI 

2e^atrTi7 291 
2f3atrros 29! 

TO7TOS l67 

Tvi^r 128. 132 

O)3oons 244 

'Sf\afjMVT)g 43 

fvpl<av 352 

o/3oXo'j 121 

StXtjvair) 28 

ri^x 1 ? 82. 84- 219* 245> 

oyBoos 37 

(Tf\T)Vr) 28 


oivo? 213. 305 

267TT(/i(O( 285. 291 

V06>p 2O6 

opia 335 

2co>taor 62. 8 1 

vrraTiKdf 287. 290 

'OpordX 222. 239 

<rr]p.(lov 302 

'Yircppfperdios 252.283 

*0o-ipis 6 1. 206 

2t8a>viW 352 

OvapaXXados 2gi 

2tXas 283 

$tXo7raTpts 215 

Ovpavia 27 f. 222 

2icrivr)s 62 

STracriVou Xapci| 272 

XaajSov 2l8 

IlaX/xupa 263.294. 312 

oraTTjp 223 

Xaipe 203 

Havafivfis 163 

OTffpavSxrai 96 

xdpirar d^t'as 99 

TravroTTwXeloi' 337 

OT}X7 98. 102. 334 

XtXiapxos 226 

irapdariTOS 63 

orod 23 

Xp^paTa ToO Geou 99 

TrdpoiKos 63 

arparrjyoi 248. 279. 


TrdratKot 23 



llaaxpi 212 

orptmeorjjr 285 

XO>PUI 339 

TTfp.(huflS 49 

arpo'/3iXot 339 

/ o , 

Y G)pQpY71S O 4 



=LXX, @ = Syriac, =Targum, Psj.=Targum Pseudo- Jonathan. 


28 12 


29 f. 


20 3 


1 10 




48 7 




3 1 97- 


32 3 

1 68" 

50 7-13 




2 5 126. 



J 33 





4 18 


34 12 




21 22 




35 16 








$ Psj. 


10 9 


36 ii. 15. 

3 15 


23 13 



8 9 



4 10 




11 i 


15 ff- 


6 14 







2 3 8 

7 20 


20 ff. 






9 23 


20. 23 






10 2 


25 ii ff. 






11 7$ 

I 99 



15 9 



12 7. 22 f. 




Sam. X 






26 31 ff. 




38 25% 






192 3 


39 6 $ 


13 19 


27 8 






14 14. 25 

28 n 




40 9-1 1 


a PSJ. 


29 2 


20 16 




15 10 




22 18 


42 4$ 




30 8 


23 9. 20 






13 121 


19 f. 




16 5 




24 12 


43 9 


J 5 









9 6 

33 10 


25 13 


44 13 




14 f. 






17 10 200. 





45 4 




34 i 


26 10 


46 21 


18 23 


5f- 37- 










27 19.31 


47 13 


19 13 29. 




3 1 






36 3 


C C 


Index V: Biblical References 

38 23 


6 7 





388 96 

22 ii 

6 9 

25 1-3 7. 




17 23 

23 40 126. 




19 4 


393 75 

25 13 




20 20 


37 23.242 

26 i 


27 12 


22 19 


27 2ff. 


31 8 


23 14 





28 33. 


18. 19 


1 120 

28 f. 


32 14 


25 7 


1-2 117 



18 Z 


1 14 120 



28 4ff. 


2 4 121 

1 10 


33 46 




4-6 121 

3 24 






I2f. 120 







14 ff. 121 

3sff. 121 

13 ff. 




32 4 


1 66 

5 7. ii 117 



2 ii 




15 351 

9 20 


3 2 




6 i5f. 117 







19 117 




33 10 


7 8 119. 124 

$ Psj. 


3 6 




8. 15-19. 

13 10 


IO 12. 




31-34 117 

16 143! 



I8 7 

IO 121 






15-19 118 





1 4-15 


31 f. 118 

18 12 




5 i 


8 15 



5 25 



1 20 

$Psj. 280 



6 ii 17. 




17 119 

20 19 


7 13 27. 


8 i 


10 i 126 

21 2f. 






11 16 108 

19 f. 





9 6 

29 256 



13 12 


12 5 


126.8 117.120 


7 f - 





13 2. 18. 



14 9.10$ 

1 20 

13 9 


24 % 219 

22 2 




9. i6f. 


14 4 120 



15 2 


15-28 5.10 

21 117 







16 3 7 

23 5. 12. 



15 19 


12 126 



17 I 




196 118 

24 17 






27 f. 67 







20 5 24 



18 3 . 4 


17 ii 


Index V: Biblical References 


18 27 3<5i 



18 18 


6 97 

19 28 50 





9 108 

38 80 

8 ii 


20 i 


24 68 

46 38 



19 X 


26 177 

21 18 80 

9 8 


21 9 


15 13 51 

32 10 



23 3 


16 18 13 

23 4 49 

10 20 f. 

6 9 



21 27 

24 ii 50 





23. 29 4 

18 13 



24 24 


24 41 

32 179 



3 1 27. 54 

16 6 



33 25 




1 2. 4 


34 53 

3 3 37- 54 

19 10 




18 35 176 

233; 309 





19 13 49 

4 6ff. 299 

20 5 f. 


3 14 


20 i 164 

10 179 





I. 12. l6. 

ii 229 

21 10 




33 i?8 

15 f- 178 



5 15 


35 no 

53 154 





22 4 

6 80.179 

24 20 




34 178 

22 168 

25 24 


6 29 


52 9 

26 169 





30 12 

28 15 


7 4 f- 



79 12 

31 10 




1 i 4. 9 

8 21. 26 187 



8 119 

92 50 


28 f. 


3 5 

5 176 

1 6 119. 




1 9 

9.13 180 





4 4-6.14 

46.49 237 

2 18 91. 




5 4-9 

10 i ii 

5 ii 54.67 

8 2 


24-27 5.9 

15 i8(5 76 

8 2 




25 7-13 

16 16 136 

3 ff - 




4 22 170 

175 36 

11 i 




23 66 

18 10 119 

12 18 




5 24 13 

20 17 ii 


J 7 



6 13 10 

132 3 




7 i 176 


32 ff. 




8 13 68 

2 isf. 121 

14 26 43. 




18 9 

18 99 

15 3 2 


5- 33 


9 7 ff. 9 

36 121 

16 ii 




37 17 

4 21 29 

17 13 


14 4 


106ff. 169 

c c a 


Index V: Biblical References 





43 9 


252 3 




10 4 


44 19 


30 20 





9 8 

45 4 


31 27 


11 2 




46 1.3 


33 i 



11 i 


47 n 




12 10 




48 4 




15 29 


14 9 






16 7 178. 




49 a $ 


36 10 




15 1.4 










52 8 


37 16 153. 





14. 248 

53 2 


38 14 


17 12 




54 8 

1 2O 

42 18 




7.11.12 7 



46 15 






57 2 


47 3 




17 10 


58 8 


48 i if. 5.10.12 











20 4 


61 7 



20 20 


21 ii 


(5 Hex. 




21 7 51. 




63 9 132. 




22 i 


22 9. ii 16 

65 10 








66 23 






23 ii 






24 23 





5 82. 


26 7 


1 12 




ii 165. 




5 22 







19 29 

6 21 








7 3 




24 12 


28 15. 

18 120 

8 i 


51 3 9 


25 8 










29 I 




52 19 


30 i 


ii 26. 







1 13 




13 19 


1 I 


3 18 


32 14 


14 3 




5 2. 17 


33 7 


16 5 121. 


5 i 




36 2 


18 20 






37 3 i 


21 10 






38 10 


22 14 23. 


10 3 








12 20 




40 19 














Index V : Biblical References 


13 49 

9 36 


50 13 168 

20 40 H5 

3 15 184 

8 23 178 

2 3 35 

23 14 I7 1 

5 26 196 

123 34 

51 19 59 

24 6 2io 

66 4 

ii 164 

21 117 

254 36 

7 121 

52 7 189 

9 5-1 

8 4 261 


55 3 191 

27 9 19 

5 66 

3 24 189 

59 ii 8 

13 6 9 

14 ii 

61 8 189 

28 17 ii 


64 8 189 

30 13 92 


2 2 154 

66 15 126 

i7 9i 

13 38 

7 176 

68 14 23 

32 25 29 

7- 12 266 

7 18 36 

21 6 

33 22 190 

3 5 i 2 9 

86 96 

26 70 

30 170 

8 117 

69 4 97 

34 8 294 


93 36 

72 19 297 

36 ii 177 

3 12 13 

11 3 67 

73 12 85 

35 176 

6 7 168 

12 8 26 

28 201 

40 2 96 

16 9 

15 i 63 

74 17 166 

16 191 

74 33 

3 166 

757 49.178 

18 154 

17 176 


764 57 

26 128 

49 175 

8 36 

43 15. 16 ii 


4 3 6 

78 12.43 2I 3 

21 74 

2. .. 

ii 165 

48 57 

44 20 67 

4 9 
36 ii 

33 60 

50 13 

30 203 

46 176 

81 4 66. 86 

45 12 192 


19 7 104. 178 

855 85 

17 198 

12 69 

88 ii 30 

48 21 105 

2 13 29 

21 5 24 

89 2. 3. 38 8 

32 I IO 

ii 25 

934 38 


5 57 

22 3 203 

96 8 99 

2 13 66 

10 9 

25 2 136 

101 5 166 

69 354 

ii 71 

14 77 

103 4 96 

9 13 121 


27 i 81 

104 1.2 63 

12 2 97 

28 8 81 

107 30 3! 97 

1 ii 35 

33 i 126 

113 2 297 


29 13 

373 97 

116 1.13.17 22 

4 14 98 

41 3 25 

13 7 


44 21 170 

118 7 8 


1 4 23 

45 10 194 

119 65 24 

2* 34 

8 168 

46 I 70 

122 99 

2 5.II 

9 78 

47 10 36 

131 184 


Index V: Biblical References 

123 29. 139 

18 13 95 

5 10. 12 183 

9 340 

128 3 85 

16 36 

7 14 259 

13 219 

136 18 35 

19 23 218 

i? 33 

15 339 

26 45 

2083! 203 

8 17 266 

16. 21 178 

1399S 120 

23 209 

10 17 249 

24 197 

140 12 166 

22 2 100 

12 5 307 

27 180 

141 3 47 

16 33 

33 334 

30 29 


5 i 225 


23 8 12 

1 I 201 

2 I9I.2I8 

2 22 189 

24 23 9 


7 336 

3 4 24 

265 30 

12 <& 277 

10 166.176 

13 28 

27 6 177 

15 221 

22 45 

32 29 

30 5 96 

3 7 218 

25 176 

6 i 99 

32 20 109 

9 29 217 

29 218 

8 35 28 

33 23 61 

6 3 219.247 

11 20 29 

34 9 100 


4 76 

13 21 99 

38 32 82 

1 10 39 

9.18 243 

14 4 117 

39 26 108 

21 225 

ii 126.248 

15 14 97 

2 5.8.20 209 

18 266 

25 166 


6 170 

25 206 

18 24 361 

1 1 39 

6.9 197 

7 12 189 

21 9 354 

10 128 

8 22 

17 78.204 

24 19 

2 ii 184 

II 209.219 

24 189 

22 4 69 

3 4 177 

12 203 

8 5 120 

24 13 126 

7 7 206 

20 171.297 

9 25 128 

25 24 354 

12 167 

23 184 

10 9 104 

27 22 171 

86 57 

28 248.332 

12 ii 46 

31 i 275 

30 335 

12 55 


35 12 


2 16 203 

37 205 


1 9 275 

4 5.10 198 

43 210 

1 2 45-74 

3 23 33 

44 204 

2 48 250 

6 19 197 


3 i 225 

53 234 

7 14 35 

3 18 77 

6 242 

69 96 

87.11 85 

45 25 

8 206 

3 7 170 

9 4 106 

5 21 86 

10 33 8 

4 5 295 

32 203 

12 I7O.2IO 

10 12 

15 2 209 


23 191 

10.23 209 

3 ioo 

1 14 98 

28 219 

12 166 

16 15 340 

17 180 

44 340 

13 170.189 

22 12. IIO 

26 13 

5 35 

18 335 

Index V: Biblical References 391 

21 2IO 

6 2 167 

24 15 341 

14 129 

22 39 

10.15 215 

22 274 

34 4 299 

24 248 

7 50 250 

23 267 

21 169 

5 3 170 

70-72 96 

26 7 361 

3-9 4i 

10 21 341 

27 i 226 


4 184 

11 7 248 

25 167 

2 12 < 289 

5 2 9 

8 201 

29 38 

8 193-334 

12 7 201 

28 13 67 


10 209 

22 7I 

18 22 

48 17 16. 17 

17 97. 206 

47 216 

29 7 96 

50 3 10 

6 i 206 

13 15 34-120 

ii 77 

4 212.334 

16 337 

29 225 


9 45 

25 25 

48 354 

ii 189.243 


7 16 339 


35ff- 155 


17 209 

1 15 89 

7 22 

1 ii 47 

18 97 

30 197 

4 20 67 

5 25 216 

23 39 

2 40 62.81 

69 22 

26 ff. 13 

8 27 96 

3 22 245 

8 4 263 

43 269 

35 I2 

4 35 S 62 

9 18 96 

8 20 354 

36 347 

5 16 12 

13 ii 67 

9 35 216 

10 4. 12 97 

24 19 

158 74 

10 29 338 

27 283 

69 20 

16 51 

11 35 338 

28 291 

72 92 

16 14 34 

123-6 354 

6 299 

17 16 108 

13i4f- 357 


8 II 202 

20 10 169 

28 214 

2 i 218 

II ff. 91.350 

24 128 

14 47 354 

7- 9 347 

26 147 

21 ii 7 

15 1.2 354 

14 16 

9 13 67 

24 4. 12 74 

6-27 353 

3 4 197 

27 97 

6.9 115 

16 14 357 

7 347 

40 215 

ii 39 

10 245 

11 31 248 

12 67 


15. 16 16 

15 13 62 

26 10 17 

5 8 216 

17 f. 46 

20 70 

27 3 13 

62 46 

20 291 

16 29 99 

28 7 $ 289 

12 26 269 

27 13 

18 3 166 

29 14 19 

13 ii 109 

3i 75 

20 8 26 

35 7 

4 ii 34 

21 25 118 

30 3 62 


15 12 

31 180 

32 2ff. 16 

6 i 197 

54 39 

22 13 118.124 

30 16.17 

9 9 333 

15 118 

14 67 

337.15 58 

10 3 M5 


Index V : Biblical References 



7 46 @ 336 

14 2 <S 227 

13 43.50 298 

20 3 @ 


12 6 336 

18 10 239 

15 22 283 

24 3 @ 


1428 212 

19 41 242 

28 11-13 257 

26 7 @ 

33 6 

19 8 333 
22 30 168 

21 12. 

156 194 



11 32 215 

2 44 





3 if. 


2i5@ 339 

1 23 268 

12 5 222 

12 f. 


54 335 

27 29 

156 76 



97 15 

10 2. 22 298 

22 15 68 

Abias 253 

Abydos (Asia M.) 193 

(Egypt) 90 
Accounts, daily 212 
Accus. sign 22. 170. 


Aelia Capitolana 359 
Aesculapius 36. 38 
Afel forms 189. 199 
Agbar 190 
'Agli-bol 269. 301 f. 
Ahab 4. 9 
Ahaziah 9 
Alexander the Gt. 47. 

346. 35 
Jannaeus 354 
Severus 279 
Zebina 353 
Allat 158. 222. 253 
Al-'Uzza 222 
Alphabet, old Gk. 52. 

Altiburus 145 



Amathous 61 
Amma 131 
Ana 345 
'Anath 80 f. 
Anatum 80. 133 
Antigonus (the Ma- 
ced.) 250 

(Mattathias) 355 f. 
Antioch 292 
Antiochus iv 350 

xii 250 
Antony 254 
Aphrodite 21. 27. 270 
Apis 202 
Apollo 57. 76. 89 
Apposition 22. 118. 

124- 337 

'Aqiba, Rabbi 359 
Ar ii 

A'ra 238 f. 253. 255 
Arabia 197. 2i5f. 261 
Arabic 5. 185. 215. 

Aramaic, Bibl. 12. 26. 
166. 175. 184. 
218 ff. 264. 334 

of Egypt 185. 200 
N.Arabia I96ff. 
Nabataea 215 
Nerab & Bab. 

Old 5. 26 &c. 
of Palmyra 264^ 
in Pers. Emp. 193. 

200. 343. 347 
of Zenjirli 184^ 
Archers, Palm. 312 
Ares 7. 296. 344 
Aretas, see Harethath 
Arethusa 343 
Ariel n 
Arnon 4 f. 
'Aro'er 13 
Arsinoe 51. 79 
Artaxerxes iii 351 

Index VI : General 

As 336 

Asherah 50 f. 
Ashqelon 27. 269^ 
'Ashtart 21. 27 f. 37 f. 

128. 131 f. 270 
Asia Min., Gk. in- 

scrr. 223 
Assarius 336 
Assyrian : 

abkallu 296 

Agbaru 190 

andku 6 

alirtu 50 f. 

Alratum 51 

alru 50 

asumitu 197 

Atar-samaim 270 

Azrijdu 164 

Bilit la Gubla 20 

Budu-ilu 41 

Dad-idri 164 

dannitu 244 

Dtidu ii 

Duru 38 

eresu 70 

dra 175 

garparuda 360 

harimtu 68 

hazdnu 71 

ffirummu 54 

lau'bi'di 164 

igaru 129 

7/w 361 

Ilu-bfdi 164 

ittanabrik 184 
Jaudi 164 

kabdru 48 

kakkubu Salmu 106 

kaldmu 184 

kalbu-larri 68 

kamdru 187 

Kemol-nadab 7 

kibratu 49. 178 

kimahhu 237 

Kummuh 179 

kadtStu 68 

Karti-hadast 53 

Kaul-malaka 219. 

Kidraai 215 

wawa ja larri\<)2 

mannu 168 

manzaltu 82 


Nabaaiti 215 

Nabu^ar-iddin 288 

Nabu-lizibanni 197 

wAa 235 

pahdti 178 

pulug(g}u 46 

ra^z'<5 narkabti ^165 

remenu taidru 301 

^a 187 

sakdnu 100 

salamanu 299 

Salm-mulizib 197 

Jfar kilsati 296 

sattuku 198 

^ 176 

^f//w 198 

sinibu 176 

Sin-zir~ban 187 

Sulmanu 43 

lunuti 36 

supur 193 

zabdlu 71 

m^mi 53 

'Athar-'atheh 269^ 
Athene 81. 222. 348 f. 


Athenians in Cyprus, 

347 f- 
Athirat 51 
'Attarfis 10 
Augustus 262. 290 f. 
Aurelian 291 ff. 
Aurelius 279 
Auspices 1 20 
"Az-ba'al 347. 350 
Azizus 296 

Ba ' al - hamman 50. 

104. i32f. 154 
shamem 45f. 295 
of Harran 182 

Lebanon 53 f. 

Sidon 37. 99 

Tarsus 343 ff. 

Tyre 21 

Ba'alath of Gebal 20 f. 
Ba'al-milk i & ii 34 7 f. 
Ba'al-ram 74 
Ban, the 12 
Barbarus 339 
Barbers, temple- 67 
Bar-rekub 182 
Bast 69. 91 
Beasts, taxed 337 f. 
Bel 101. 248. 269. 


Berber 139. 145 
Berytus, coins of, 46. 


Bilit 20 
Bittir 359 
Bod-'ashtart 41 
Boethos, family of 341 
B61 274. 280. 301 f. 
Bosporus, Gk. inscrr. 

Bostra 239 


Index VI : General 

Bostra, era of 261 f. 

coins of 219 
Bowls, bronze 52 
Breeders, sheep- 14 
Brokers 61 

Caesars, the three 262 
Camels 335. 338 
Canaan 349 f. 
Caracalla 262 
Caravan 258. 263. 
271 ff. 

god of 304 
Carthage 115. 131- 
136. 140. 352 

constitution of 44. 
115 f. 129 

in Cyprus 53 

people of 134 
Cave 131. 308 
Ceres 128 
Chabrias 348 
Chalkous 349 f. 352 
Charax 271 f. 
Chariot 73. 165. 178 
Chief-priest 101. 129 
Cilicia 194 

coins of 343-347 
Cippus, see Pillar 
Cirta 137 f. 149 
Claudius 252 
Cleopatra 86 f. 
Client 41. 134 
Coelestis 27. 133. 157 
Coinage, copper 339 

right of 343. 353 
Coins, re-struck 359 

see Berytus, Bostra, 

Cilicia, &c. 
Colleagues 116. 145 
Colonia 263. 279 

Colonnades at Pal- 
myra 275 

Consular 264. 287. 

Coptos,Tariffof 332 f. 

Corrector 291 

Cos, Gk. inscrr. 41. 

Cross 300 

Crown, golden 98 

Cuniculus 1 6 

Curses 135 f. 223 

Customs 264. 332 f. 

Cyprus 53-57. 59. 
61. 78 f. 81. 85 if. 

89- 347-349 
Cyrenaic, Legion iii 

Cyrene 148 

Damascus 2i5f. 251. 


coins of 2 1 5 
Darics 96. 155 
Datames 344 f. 
Date, threefold 84. 
Decemvirs 130 
Deification of kings 

78. 81. 85 f. 224. 

Deity, complex 49. 

60 f. 104. 154 
unnamed 21. 49. 

218. 239. 297 
Demeter 59. 128. 131 
Demonicus 349 
Demonstr. pron. 26 
Denarius 283. 336 
Derceto 270 

Deus aeternus 296 
Didrachms 357 
Dionysos 218 f. 305 
Division of words 5 
Dogs 67 f. 
D'om 44. 94 
Dor 38 
Dots 5. 62 
Doves 1 20 
Drachmae 96. 283 
Dreams 203 
Dual ending 10. 12 f. 
Dume'r 249 
Dushara 21. 218 f. 
239. 245. 305 

Edessa 107. 199. 296. 

Egypt, Phoenicians in 

27. 90 f. 
Aramaeans in 200 f. 

under Palmyrenes 

290 f. 
Persian expedition 

against 343 f. 
Egyptian Aram., see 

funeral scenes 200. 


measures 2 1 2 f. 
names i. 197. 

symbols 351. 362 

wine 213 
El 165. 361 
Elath 135. 
El-Hejaz 214. 219 
El-Hejra 214. 222. 

236. 258 
El-Mer 244 

Index VI : General 


El-'Ola 8. 214. 258 
El-pa'al 350 
El-Qanawat 245 
Elul 215 
Eparchy 261 
Erotimus 216 
Eshmun 36 f. 
Eshmun-'azar 27. 32!". 


Eshmun Merre 109 
Ethanim 66. 89 
Ethiopia 13. 29. 36. 

109. 117 f. 243 
Et-Tayyibe, inscr. of 

187. 296. 312 
Exedra 309 f. 

Female descent 299 
Fern, ending =emph. 

st. 235 

Fem . sing in Phoen. 2 5 
Figs 126 

Fine 198. 223. 229 
Fir-cones 340 
Fowl, domestic 120 
Freed-man, -woman 

134. 249 f. 298. 


and husband 250 
Funeral rites 93. 201. 

Gad-Tyche 245. 269 
Gallienus 286 ff. 290 
Garden-tombs 242 f. 
Gaulus 105. 107 
Gebal 19. 350. 352 

coins of 21 

dialect of 25 
Gerjin 163. 183 
Germanicus 339 

Geta 262 

Gihon 1 6 

Grave 34. 149. 198. 
221. 307, see 
Tomb, Pillar 

Greek inscrr. imitated 

Gold-plating 76 

Guest 63. 68. 305 


Hadad 164. 360 
Hadrian 263. 279. 

358 f. 

Hafel, see Afel 
Hair-offering 53 f. 
Hairan, Sept. 264. 


Hamman 50. 104 
Hammon 48. 50 
Harethath iii 216. 


iv 215. 246 &c. 
Harpocrates 204. 362 
Harran 187 f. 
Hasmonaean coins 

44- 35 2 ff- 
Hathor 21. 28. 154 
Hauran 222. 252 f. 
Hauronan 14 
Hawwath 135 
Hebrew 5. 16. 185. 

341 f. 352 f. 
Heliopolis 91 
Herakles 74. 102. 

347 f- 

Hermes 100 
Herod the Gt. 245. 

254- 356 

Antipas 215. 246 f. 
Agrippa 252 

Herodes 286 
Hezekiah 16 
Hezir 341 
Hierapolis 270 
Hifil in Phoen. 58 
High-priest 354 
Himilco 131 
Hiram 53 f. 
Hiyyar 78. 129 
Holocaust 117 
Horns 281. 292 
Honorary inscrr. 

(Palm.) 266 
H6she'a 362 
Huldu 246. 256 
Hyrcanus i 353 f. 
ii 254 

Idalion 56. 349 
Ilu 361 

Impf. with waw conv. 
5-39- "9 

with h 169. 171 
Imprecations 24. 33. 

135. 169. 191 
Imtan 255 
Incense 126 
Infin. absol. 5. 29. 191 

with _^ 121. 126. 


Interpreter 61 
Ishtar 12. 27 f. 
Isis 21. 28. 68 
Isle of Hawks 108 

Jeroboam i 4 

Jerusalem, water-sup- 
ply of 1 6 
siege of 357. 358 f. 

Jewish and Phoen. 
sacrifices 117 


Jewish colony at Pal- 
myra 278. 298. 300 

inscrr. 341 f. 

coins 352 ff. 
Jol 149 
Joppa 38 
Judge 44. 100 
Judices 116 
Jugurtha 149 
Julian calendar 250 
Julius Philip 281 
Jupiter Dolichenus 

Capitolanus 359 

Kan at ha 245 
Kanephoros 78 f. 85 
Karhu 7 
Kefr Bir'im 342 
Kemosh 6 f. 
Kemosh-nadab 7 
Kerak 7. 14 
Kilix 338 
Kimon 344. 347 
King of kings 201. 

205. 290. 264 
Kinsman, legal 226 
Kition 56. 347 f. 352 

era of 78 
Koihak 213 

Lambaesis, Lat. inscr. 

of 16 
Laodicea 46 

of Libanus 349 f. 
Larnax Lapethos 80. 

85. 349 

Latin inscrr. with Pun. 
109, NPun. 141. 
158, Palm. 250. 
268. 312 

Index VI : General 

pr. nn. 145. 155 f. 

285. 291 (Palm.) 

words in Palm. 265 
Lead 135^ 
Lebanon 53 f. 

(Garth.) 128 
Letters, forms of 

Moabite 5 

Hebrew 16 

Jewish 341 f. 
coins 353 

Phoen. 102 f. 105. 
in. 360 

Punic 137 

Neo-Punic 1 40. 145 

Old Aram. 163. 

Arabian Aram. 196. 

Egypt. Aram. 205 f. 

Aram, coins 344 

Sinaitic 258 
Libyan dialect 219. 


Limassol 53 
Lion- weights 192 
Local ending 10 
Luhith 248 
Luli 54 

Lycia, Gk. inscrr. 223 
Lycurgos 305 

Maccabees 216. 353. 

Macedonian calendar 

250. 267 
Macherus 248 
Majuma 122 
Maktar 142. 145. 

152 f. 

Malak-bel 268 f. 301 
Male descent 299 
Maliku i 254. 257 
ii 239. 246. 253 
Malta 102 f. 107 
Mandt 219 
Mancipia veterana 


Manna 311 
Mar 65 
Marseilles 115 
Marzeah 94. 12 if. 


Massebah 60. 62. 64 
Massinissa 138. 149 
Massylii 138 
Ma'sub 48 
Mazaios 42. 346 f. 
Medeba 8f. 247 f. 
Mehir 201 
Melqarth 74. 84. 102. 

347 f- 3 6 i 
Member 41. 259, see 


Mesgida 238 
Mesha' 4. 6. 9 f. 
Metropolis 350 
Micipsa 140. 149 
Milk d. 49 
Milk-offering 121 
Milkath 135 
Milk-yathon 59. 74. 


Mina 192 

Minaean 8. 45. 223 
Miskar 42. 154 
Mizrah 121. 145 f. 

153- 155 

Moab, Moabite 4 ff. 
Monotheism 45. 

296 ff. 

Moon-god 182 (Ba'al 
Harran). 187 
(Sin). 301 ('Agli- 
b61), see Sahar, 

goddess 28 ('Ash- 
tart). 222 (AMt?) 
Mosaic of Medeba 122 
Mound (Ophel), the 

Nabataean 215 f. 258. 

kings 2i5f. 251 

coins 2 1 5 f. 221. 
223. 246 

trade 257. 258 
Name of Ba'al 37 f. 
Nazirite vow 305 
Nebo 4. 12. 288 
Negative in Phoen. 33 
Neith 146 
Neo-Punic 140 
NSrab 1851! 
Nergal 101 
New-moon 63. 66 
Nikal 1 88 
Nimroud, bowls 52 

seals 360 
Ningal 188 
Numerals 43 f. 55. 

1 10-119- 175 f- 

Numidia I38f. 140. 
149- 155 

Nusku 1 88 

'Obedath 239. 244 f. 
Octo-drachm 351 
Odainath 263 f. 285 f. 

Index VI : General 

Offerings, list of 125 
Oil 121. 336 
'Omri 4. 9 
Ormuzd 345 
Osiris 90. 92. 103. 

200. 203 
Ostraka 203 f. 

Pa'aloth 69 
Palm-trees 198 
Palma, Corn. 216 
Palmyra 263 f. 289. 

294- 33 2 - 337 
Palmyrene 264 f. 306 f. 
Panammu 163. 183 
Paopi 210 

Papyrus 203.209.213 
Parthians 263. 285 
Passive in Aram. 334 
Patronus 289 
Payments to priests 

Perf. with waw conv. 


in imprecations 218 
Persephone 128. 131 
Persian 193. 200. 209. 

coinage 343 
Petra 215. 218. 242. 

244. 250 

Pharnabazus 343 f. 
Phoenicia, language 

19.21.23-25. 39f. 

79. 97. 108. 117. 

126. 141 &c. 
religion 2 of. 27 f. 

36 f. 41.45 f. 49 f. 

56 f. 59. 63. 67 f. 

74. 76. 80. 89. 99. 

104. 109. 117 f. 


127. 131 ff. 135. 

154, see Ashtart 

government 27. 38. 

42. 44. 47 
colonies 95. 100 f. 

103. 107 f. 
and Cyprus, see 

and Carthage, see 

Carthage, Punic 
commerce 7 of. 95. 


money-standard 44 
coins 347-352 
seals 361 
andPersiai9- 347 f. 

349- 350- 35i 
and Egypt 21. 23. 

27. 42. 64. 90 f. 

154- 351 
and Ptolemies 38. 

56. 78 f. 81. 85 ff. 


and Seleucids 27. 

47- 81. 349- 35o- 

Pillar 60. 62. 98. 103 f. 

1 08. 299, seeM.a.s- 

Piraeus 95 
Plur. in i 165 f., in 

166. 185. 189.203 
Pompey 216 
Poor, the 117. 121 
Portae 138 
Portico 23. 48. 98. 243 
Poseidon 84 
Praxippos 81. 84 
Procurator 72. 288 f. 


Pron. 3 sing. 24 

demonstr. 26 

after relat. 78 
Ptah 23 
Ptolemy i 81 

u 38. 47. 78. 351 

vii (vi) 86 f. 

ix (vii) 86 f. 
Publicani 333 
Pulvinar 199 
Pumi-yathon 55 f. 349 
Punic, see Carthage, 

colonies in N.Africa 
137 ff. 140. 145. 

Puteoli 257 
Pygmalion 55 f. 

Qaishah 219 
QaryatSn 307 f. 
Qeriyyoth n 
Qir-hareseth 7 
Qiryathan 10 
Qn'm 148 
Qos 234 

QRL 163 

QurSn 39. 72 f. 219. 


Rab 42. 129. 273 
Rabel239. 246. 250 f. 


Raham 276 
Rammanu 145. 164 
Ras 264. 285 
Refl. stems in Aram. 


Rekub-el 165 
Relat.inPhoen. 20.108 
Aram. 164 

Index VI : General 

Reshef 56 f. 361 
Revolt, First 356 ff. 

Second 358 ff. 
Rhea 131 
Rock, the 175 
Rom. i (Palm, inscr.) 

301 f. 

2 (Palm, inscr.) 268 
Romans 216. 242 f. 

250. 263 f. 
Rome and Carthage 

115 f. 128. 131. 

133. 138. 140. 

145. 149. 153. 

Palmyra 290^29 2 f. 

332. 338 f. 341 
Rosetta Stone 23 
Ruda 233. 273 

Sabaean 21. 23. 28. 
33.45. 102 f. 107. 
126. 164. 168. 

2l8. 22O. 222 f. 

Sacrificer 107. 146 
Sacrifices 117. 125 
for the dead 168 


Sahar 187 
Sahwet el-Hidr 242 
Sakun 100 
Salambo 106 
Salhad 253 
Salm 106. 196. 199 
Salt-tax 338 
Sam'al 179. 182. 185 
Sardinia no 
Sasom 62 
Seals 360 ff. 

Sed-tanith 132 

Sela* 223 

Seleucid era 47. 250. 

Seleucus Nicator 47. 

349 f - 

Senator 264. 285 
Septimius 285. 288. 

Hairan 264 

Severus 262 
Serapis 103. 202 
Shalamians 220 
Shalman 43 
Shamash 104. 165. 

187. 269. 299 
Shara 218 
Sharon 12. 41 
She'a-alqum 255. 

304 f. 
Sheh Barak&t inscrr. 

Shekel, sacred 351 

First Revolt 357 
Shuqailat 246 
Sicily, temple of 

Demeter 131 
Sidon 27. 33. 54/91. 

era of 95 
Sidonians 54 

colony of 95 

coins of 350. 352 
Sidqi-milk 349 
Siloam 15. 17 
Simon Mace. 353 

Bar-kokba 359 
Sin 182. i87f. 
Sinaitic 258 

pr. nn. 259 

Index VI : General 


Skin of sacrifices 124 
merchandise 336. 


Slaves 134. 335 f. 362 
South Shields inscr. 

249 f. 

Spasinou Charax 272 
Square character 205. 

34i- 353 
Stater 343 ff. 
Statilius 339 
Strategos 247 f. 288. 

33 2 

Straton 41. 352 
Subjunctive with v_J 

Suffete 44. no. 115 f. 

1295. 145 
Suffix 3 sing. m. 

(Phoen.) 8. 41 f. 

64. 94. no. 133. 


f. 58. 79. 146 
3 sing. m. (Aram.) 

185. 209 
3 plur. (Aram.) 

184 f. 203. 209. 

221. 253 
Sulci 158 
Sun-god 91 (Ra). 106 

(Salm). 199 (Mo- 

nimos). 219. 222 

(Dushara?). 280. 

299 (Yarhi-bol). 

268. 297. 299 

(Malak-bel). 269. 


goddess 222 (Al- 

Symposia 12 if. 288. 

Underworld, gods of 



Uraeus 23 

Tabellae devotionis 


Velarii 67 

Tabnith 27 

Venus 21. 27 

Talent 88. 193 
Tamassos 56. 58. 89. 

Virgin's Spring 150. 
Vologesias 271 


Votive tablets, Carth. 

Tardamu 344 f. 

Tariff, Sacrificial 115. 

Wahab-allath 287. 

123 f. 

290 f. 292 

Coptos 332 f. 337 

Water-offering 206 

Palm. 306 

Waw conv. in Phoen. 

Zarai 332. 337 


Tarsus 343 flf. 

Weights 192 f. 

Taxes 333 

Wells 72. 242 f. 337 

Tebeth 221 

Wild animals sacri- 

T6ma 197 

ficed 117. 119 

Tetradrachm 357 

Wine 213 

Thank-offering 1 1 8. 

prohibited 305 

Thiasus, see Marzeah 

Women 2 2 1. 2 29. 237. 

Throne 221 f. 

335- 337 

Thuggai 3 8f. 

Wool 336. 338 

Tiglath-pileser 54. 

Worod, Sept. 286 ff. 

178 f. 


Tomb (Phoen.) 27f. 

Xerxes 200 f. 

34- 60 

(Nab.) 221. 223. 

Ya'di 163 f. 183. 185 

237. 241 ff. 

Ya'el 1 06 f. 

(Palm.) 306 

Yahas 12 

of St. James 341 f. 

Yahweh 4. 6 f. 

Trachonitis 245. 252 

Yarhi-bol 280 

Tunis 132. 140 

Zabbai 291 f. 

Tyre 44. 54. 74 

Zabda 291 

era of 47 
coins of 44. 35 if. 

Zarai, tariff of 3 3 2.33 7 
Zenjirli 52 f. 163. 

357 f - 

175 f. 182. 184 f. 

Umm-el-'Awam!d 45 

Zenobia 263. 286 f. 

Umm-er-Rea 247 



The Phoenician Inscriptions of Bostan esh-Sheh, Sidon. 

THESE inscriptions, which repeat the same text six or seven times 
with slight variations, were found in 1900 and 1901 at a short 
distance to the N. of Saida, near the Nahr el-Auwali. They are 
written upon the inner faces of blocks of stone which formed part 
of the inclosure or foundation of the temple of Eshmun ; being built 
into the masonry, like the inscribed bricks in Assyrian buildings, they 
were not intended to be exposed to view. The most complete text, 
repeated with slight changes on the same block, is that published 
by Macridy-Bey and Pere Lagrange in RS (1902) 498-526, with 
a facsimile. A text practically identical and almost as complete has 
been published, with two plates, by Berger, Me'm. sur Us inscrr. de 
fondation du temple d*Esmoun h Sidon, 1901, from one of the stones 
now in the Louvre, which also possesses the fragment of another 
of the series (Rfy. nos. 287. 288). The inscriptions are discussed 
at length by Clermont-Ganneau in Rec. v 41, who has done much 
to clear up the difficulties which they present. The following text 
is based upon that of Berger: 

p p era *]a mwjni 
ja D:TO *|Sa "iTjn&B>N 

DSBn pK Dan DaP D p 3 

me IB> pjn PPK tea j 4 
ip TP p? ^ p T nan 5 

& 6 

King Bod-'ashtart, king of the Sidonians, grandson 2 of 
king Eshmun-'azar, king of the Sidonians, (reigning) in Sidon 
by the sea, Shamim Ramim, the land of Reshafim, Sidon of 
Mashal, 'SEN, and Sidon on the plain the whole (?) 6 of this 
temple built to his god, Eshmun, prince of Qadesh. 


4O2 Appendix 

This text must be carefully compared with 4 and 5; the writing 
is of the same general character and period. 

L. i. mntpyia ita See 6 ; Bod-'ashtart was the successor of 
Eshmun-'azar ii (6). p )l The father is not mentioned because 
he never was king; contrast 6 13 f. 

L. 2. nryJDt?K i. e. Eshmun-'azar i. Both Bod-'ashtart and 
Eshmun-'azar ii were grandsons of this king, the former being 
the son of a younger brother or sister of Tabnith (4). The 
genealogy will thus be as follows : 

Eshmun-'azar i 

Tabnith = Am-'ashtart X = Y 

Eshmun-'azar ii Bod-'ashtart 

The prep, denotes that Bod-'ashtart claimed sovereignty in 

or over (cf. 1 W 5 9) Sidon ; so Torrey Journ. Amer. Oriental 6oc. 
xxiii 156-173 (with facsimile). The interpretation of the following 
words is difficult; but Torrey and Cl.-Gan. are prob. right in 
regarding them as the names of various places round about Sidon. 
The places are enumerated dcrw8cTa)s (cf. 149 B 15), with 1 before 
the last in the list, as sometimes (though not usually) in Hebrew, 
e.g. Gen. 5 32. 13 2. 14 i &c.; Gesenius, p. 509 n. 

L. 3. Q* pS Sidon of the sea, the maritime Sidon, as distinguished 
from It? pX 1. 4. DDT BDt? Lit. high heavens. The words 

suggest the Sa/xo^poS/xos or "Yi^ou/xxvios of the cosmogony of San- 
chuniathon (Philo Bybl. Fr. Hist. Gr. iii 566); so Lagrange. The 
expression recalls the DT1N DDt? in 5 16 f. ; and although 'High- 
heavens/ 'Glorious-heavens/ do not seem very obvious names for 
terrestrial localities, yet such they probably were (Cl.-Gan.). In 
both cases this explanation suits the context. Cl.-Gan. suggests that 
DT1K 0105? was the name of the place where the tomb of Eshmun- 
'azar ii was found, S. of the Nahr el-Kamle, at a distance from the 
ancestral burying-place ; this may have been the special domain 
of Am-'ashtart, the queen-mother and priestess of 'Ashtart 
(5 i4f.). DQ&n pK For the god Reshef see 12 3.; like by2 
he was the tutelary of several cities, and thus the plural of his name 
would come into use. In Phoen. the plur. of $>JD is found in DD 11 7JO 
20 B 4 ., but not in the manner common in the O.T. The only 
other divine names found in the plur. in Phoen. are wf'N (p. 24, cf. 
61 12 &c.) and D^N (p. 99). 

Appendix 403 

L. 4. i?5J>lD pV Sidon-Mashal or 6". ^/" Mashal. One of the texts 

(Lagrange A) reads j>3. Cf. the O.T. place-names /Kio i Chr. 
6 59. 'XK'O Josh. 19 26. 21 30, and the modern Arab, names 
derived from Ji. pt?X might be divided and translated who 

built', but the context requires another place here. In the genealogies 
Gen. 36 26. i Chr. 1 41 J^X is the name of an Edomite 
chief. 1K> p1 The waw is read by Lagrange; Berger gives D, 
but Cl.-Gan., after an examination of the original, decides in favour 
of \. The word It? (Lagrange, Berger with ? "it?) is prob. to be 
taken as = me> field (5 19. 29 9), here in the sense of country 
or plain, the inland as distinguished from the maritime Sidon, 1. 2 f. ; 
the term is used by Ezekiel in connexion with Tyre, iTTBa ^K>N iTTVUa 
26 6. At the end of the line Cl.-Gan. proposes i>3 instead of i>t? 
(Berger) ; this improves the sentence. 

L. 5. p T nan Cf. 5 15 ff. ; but this temple is not to be identified 
with the one founded by Eshmun-'azar ii, which perhaps was at DDB> 
D11N ; at any rate, the temple built by Bod-'ashtart stood outside 
the present Sidon, near the Nahr el-Auwali. }BB>&6 'bvb Cf. ^N^ 

mnt?yi5 6 5 in the inscr. of Bod-'ashtart; also 24 i f. BHp 1E> 
Either holy prince or prince of Qadesh (Cl.-Gan.); hence we must 
certainly restore BHp "IP }U>K!> in 5 17 (see p. 37). In the latter 
case, enp is further defined by nm b*?V jy i. e. ' Qadesh of the well 
of Yidlal in the mountain,' prob. Lebanon. Cl.-Gan. suggests with 
much probability that both Eshmun-'azar ii and Bod-'ashtart brought 
the worship of Eshmun from an ancient, venerated shrine, Qadesh, 
into their new temples at Sidon. 

The date of this Sidonian dynasty has been much disputed. 
Lagrange would assign it to the Persian period and the time of 
Xerxes; but against this is the title D37D pJN 5 18, which belongs 
to the Ptolemaic, not the Persian, kings; see p. 38. Cl.-Gan. 
suggests ingeniously that Eshmun-'azar i is none other than the 
Abdalonymus of the classical historians, who was placed on the 
throne of his ancestors, under romantic circumstances, by Alexander 
the Great after the occupation of Sidon in 332 B.C. The 
story is told by Diod. Sic. xvii 47, but wrongly referred to Tyre. 
With the change of his fortunes the king may have changed his name, 
as was frequently done. It is probable, in any case, that the date 
proposed on p. 27 is substantially correct; and the epigraphical 
evidence agrees with this. On the other hand, this inscr. shows that 
Bod-'ashtart is not to be identified with Straton i 374-362 B.C., 
as is suggested, with hesitation, on p. 41. 

D d 2 

404 Appendix 


Aramaic Papyrus from Elephantina. MS. Aram. c. i (P) 
in the Bodleian Library. 

By the courtesy of the Secretary of the Society of Biblical Archaeo- 
logy, I am allowed to reprint the text of this papyrus which has been 
published with a translation, notes, and facsimile by Mr. A. E. Cowley, 
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, in the May number of the 
Society's Proceedings (vol. xxv Parts 4 and 5, pp. 202 flf., 1903). The 
papyrus was purchased by Prof. Sayce at Elephantina, and brought 
by him to the Bodleian Library in 1901. It arrived in three small 
rolls; these have been ingeniously pieced together, and now form 
a leaf 13^ x 9f inches, which contains the longest and most continuous 
text of the kind hitherto published. The following is Mr. Cowley's 
text and translation : 


spa 'h row . . . h KWV 

ninm [^ ToabffK n DV iy xmb w spaS 3 

. . m pbn ^SDD 4 

p 6 

s|pjr IM w . . njty ninn PIT ny nn^nai ^fioa 8 
mh nn* *by nan mni *Sy n^n^ 1 n nn^anw 9 

n DV n 10 

* na nvp 13 
ia n^Dna 14 
nnar na naS 15 
vnw ia nnaa KISD ana 16 

Appendix 405 

[This is the agreement between X and Y] bar Yathma. 

You have given me the sum of 2 PTH the sum 

of z for himself (?), for which interest shall be due from me 
at the rate of 2 HLR 3 per sz per month, till the day on which 
I repay it to you. The interest of your loan (to me) shall 
be ... HLR per month. Any month in which I fail to give 
you 5 interest, it is to be (added to the) principal, and to 
bear interest. I agree to pay it to you month by month 
6 out of my pay which they give me from the treasury, and 
you shall give me a written receipt (?) for all 7 money and 
interest which I pay to you. If I fail to repay to you the 
whole of 8 the principal, with the interest thereon, by 
the month of Thoth in the year [? i]6, I am to be held 
liable for double (?) the principal 9 and interest outstanding, 
and to continue to pay interest (on it) month by month 10 till 
the day when I repay it to you. u Witnesses : 12 'Uqban 
b. Shemesh-nuri. 13 Qosri b. Yah-hadari. 14 Mahaseiah 
b. Yadoniah. 15 Malkiah b. Zekariah. 16 The document 
was written by Gemariah b. Ahio in the presence of the 
witnesses who(se names) are appended hereunto. 

The language and writing exhibit the usual characteristics of 
Egyptian Aramaic (pp. 185. 200). The interest of the text lies in 
the fact that it is a Jewish document of early date ; the witnesses and 
the writer bear Jewish names. These Jews were evidently engaged 
in business as bankers or money-lenders. They write in Aramaic, 
probably because it was the official language of the Persian empire. 
The date of the document may be placed in the Persian period, 
certainly not later than 300 B.C., and probably 150 years earlier 
(cf. 72. 76), as Mr. Cowley is inclined to believe. The legal form 
resembles that of the agreements written in cuneiform with Aram, 
seals attached, CIS ii 64-66, belonging to the 6th-5th cents. B.C.; 
no. 66 is dated 450 B. c. We have, then, a very early piece of evidence 
for a settlement of Jews in Upper Egypt ; indeed, after the allusion of 
Jeremiah to the Jews ' dwelling in the land of Pathros,' i. e. Upper 
Egypt (44 i. 15; Schiirer Gesch? iii ipff.), this is the earliest con- 
temporary reference. And this document does not stand alone. 
Mr. Cowley is publishing in the next number of the PSBA 6 ostraka, 

406 Appendix 

5 of which come from Elephantina and belong to the same period, 
and refer to the same names, probably also to the same persons, as 
the papyrus. 

L. i. . . . b Mr. Cowley conjectures lON^ as on Ostrakon i. 

L. 2. ^3 . . B Perhaps "OS . . . 3. W 1. 3, reading certain ; 

probably the name for a sum of money. Mr. Cowley compares the 
Babyl. soss=6o shekels =i maneh; Prof. Sayce thinks it is a Persian 
word. }17P1 or p^n Perhaps= Babyl. halluru, a coin used in 

reckoning the amount of interest in cuneiform contracts (see Sayce 
ap. Cowley). 

L. 3. TVa-lD infer est; cf. Lev. 25 37 ; rTOnn Lev. 25 36. Eze. 188. 
For ancient ideas and legislation on the subject of interest see Driver, 
Deut. 266 f. 

L. 4. The numeral may have been 6 or 8. After mh the stroke 
somewhat like a T is prob. a mark of punctuation. 

L. 5. t?NT principal-, cf. the usage in Lev. 5 24 IPtf-D 1HX D^cn, 
and Talm. B. Sanhedr. 3 b t^n3 D^WD UW flDD ' money which 
is not paid as capital.' n*V3 ITV Cf. the idiom DV3 DV in 

B Aram. Ezr. 6 9 and late Hebr. Ezr. 3 4. i Chr. 12 23 &c. 

L. 6. ^D"1B In the Mishnah D1S is frequent in the sense of salary, 
income. N*l1K JD The debtor was apparently in a government 

office. T3J after iron must mean a document, Mr. Cowley 

suggests ' receipt ' and a Persian derivation. 

L. 7. '31D here without the final n (11. 3. 5), from a ^ verb, is 
strictly the fern, of naTD Barth Nominate. 248. 

L. 8. mnn The first Egyptian month, Aug. 29-Sept. 27; Copt. 
Thoouth, Gk. w0. In the space after T\W must have stood the 
symbol for 10 or 20; analogy suggests that the reference is to the 
years of a king's reign. pjpjr The root <*J&=.bend, curve, so 

with "9JJ 1. 9 shall return upon me, i.e. shall be required of me. 
Mr. Cowley suggests shall be doubled against me-, 'if the debt was 
not paid, or if any interest was outstanding, the debtor was to pu; 
interest on double the accumulated sum at the rate previously settled ' 

(1. 2). 

L. 12. ppy Cf. the O. T. lpy\ nu&PDP Not a Jewish name ; 

cf. the Palm. D-iB>Dt? (p. 298), nwf (p. 303), blU (p. 307). 

L. 13. nin.T i. e. Yah is my glory ; if the reading is right the form 
is unusual ; cf. TW^N El is my strength i Chr. 12 5 and l??^ in PC 
(Gray Hebr. Pr. ^.'156). 

Appendix 407 

L. 14. nDTO Cf. n$np Jer. 32 12. 51 59. TOT Cf. O.T. 

L. 15. mat . . rrro Both common in O.T. 

L. 16. For iT"MM cf. 2 Sam. 6 3. 4, Gray I.e. 36, Driver 6az. 204. 


Page 36, line 14 below, add see Appendix I. 
Page 123, line 3 above, add Plate IIL 
Page 147, line i above, add Plate IV. 
Page 1 86, line i above, add Plate V. 
Page 189, line 6 below, add Plate VI. 
Page 344, line 9 above, "[bn Cf. the Assyr. Ifilakku = Cilicia. 
In Eze. 27 1 1 Halevy proposes to read l*>n Cilicia 





, c, 9~Ki -\*?f>1 ^"-iZfW'} 

J f A J 4 

-) * y i ^ ?y "'irj Vr^fj, 5 
! //'^ -*x">-w "< Y-'*r ^ 7^^ 4 -j 


. r^ x. 

- r /p.- 



-^ ;,, 4 

Eshmun-'azar. No. 5 





Carthage. No. 43 



Nerab. No. 64 






149 A, B 



149 C 



No. 150 



sa 0< 









*. r 



3t -sr 

i,X *"F 







S V 


* ^ 







A 9 










6 f 







A (i 


D s J7 j f r "i 

. rr 







J 1 









\ J) -- X / A 


X X. 





^ /^<^ xv 


















^ Af-/y\ 









7 r 








4 * 









</ v/ 






































r v 







r r 









^ } 




t , 



^ A 







**$* "'" 





+ rt 

f ^^ 




3 J7 






^ A 




1 1 




1 A 



< feo't 

X Z 


^ ^ v 







6, & 4'. 







f 1 





L ( 





Vi ^ 

11- II 

T! yi 




) ; 

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6. di] 


T ^ 

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O V 





7 3 





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1 1 


X X 



/ n 

L < 

v v 




Cut pint P 
7 r 


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> A 


o u 




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